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1.
Inj Prev ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries, which are responsible for premature deaths and functional losses, are the leading causes of unintentional injuries in Ethiopia. As most studies on road traffic injuries, so far, have been either local or regional, it is believed that combining the regional or local data to get nationally representative information could help programme implementers in setting priorities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to estimate the proportion of road traffic injuries, mortality and risk factors for the problem among all age groups in Ethiopia. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of articles using MEDLINE/PubMed SCOPUS Web of Science and science direct was conducted. Additional studies were identified via manual search. STUDY SELECTION: Only studies that reported road traffic injuries and/or mortalities for all age groups were included in this review. DATA SYNTHESIS: All pooled analyses were based on random-effect models. Twenty-six studies for the prevalence of RTIs (n=37 424), 24 studies for road traffic injuries (RTI) mortality, (n=38 888), 9 studies for prevalence of fracture among RTIs (n=2817) and 5 studies for the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (n=1733) met our inclusion criteria. Driving in the dark increased severity of injury by 1.77, 95% CI 1.60 to 1.95). The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADEpro Guideline Development Tool. CONCLUSION: In this review, the burden of road traffic injuries and mortalities remains high in Ethiopia. Human factors are the most common causes of the problem in Ethiopia. The existing safety regulations should be re-evaluated and supported by continuous behavioural interventions. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019124406.

2.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 1, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adapting and translating already developed tools to different cultures is a complex process, but once done, it increases the validity of the construct to be measured. This study aimed to assess the 12 items WHODAS-2 and test its psychometric properties among road traffic injury victims in Ethiopia. This study aimed to translate the 12 items WHODAS- 2 interview-based tools into Amharic and examine the psychometric properties of the new version among road traffic injury victims. METHODS: The 12 items WHODAS 2 was first translated into Amharic by two experts. Back translation was done by two English experts. A group of experts reviewed the forward and backward translation. A total of 240 patients with road traffic injury completed the questionnaires at three selected Hospitals in Amhara Regional State. Internal consistency was; assessed using Chronbach's alpha, convergent, and divergent validity, which were; tested via factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); was computed, and the model fit; was examined. RESULTS: The translated Amharic version 12 -items WHODAS-2 showed that good cross-cultural adaptation and internal consistency (Chronbach's α =0.88). The six factor structure best fits data (model fitness indices; CFI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.042, RMR = 0.072, GFI = 0.961, chi-square value/degree of freedom = 1.42, TLI = 0.935 and PCLOSE = 0.68). Our analysis showed that from the six domains, mobility is the dominant factor explaining 95% of variability in disability. CONCLUSION: The 12 items interview-based Amharic version WHODAS-2; showed good cultural adaptation at three different settings of Amhara Regional State and can be used to measure dis-ability following a road traffic injury.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Etiópia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Traduções , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
4.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 15(1): 29, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy represents a significant public health concern. It has several adverse health effects for both the mother and the developing fetus. This study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence and the effect size of associated factors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa countries. METHODS: The results of the review were reported based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement (PRISMA) guideline and, it was registered in the Prospero database, number CRD42019127103. The available primary studies were collated from different databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, African Journals Online and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Library. The main search terms were [((alcohol consumption) OR (alcohol drinking) OR (alcohol use) OR (ethanol use) OR (alcohol exposure)) AND ((pregnant women) OR (pregnant mother) OR (during pregnancy)) AND (Sub-Saharan Africa)]. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) for critical appraisal of studies. The random-effects model was computed to estimate the pooled prevalence. Heterogeneity between studies was checked using the I2 statistic and the Cochrane Q test. RESULTS: The review resulted in 963 original studies after searching various databases, and finally 37 studies in qualitative synthesis and 30 articles in the systematic review and meta-analysis were included. The overall summary estimate of the prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy was found to be 20.83% (95% CI: 18.21, 23.46). The pooled estimate of meta-analysis showed that depression (OR: 1.572; 95% CI: 1.34, 1.845), partners' alcohol use (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.57), knowledge on harmful effect of alcohol consumption (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.45) and, unplanned pregnancy (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.63) were statistically significant factors with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The result showed that there was high alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Sub- Saharan Africa. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was associated with depression, partners' alcohol use, unplanned pregnancy and knowledge of the harmful effects of alcohol consumption. Therefore, this will be a basis for public policy and resource allocation for prevention initiatives.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 168, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various forms of life stressors have been implicated as causes of antenatal depression. However, there is a lack of understanding of which forms of stress lead to antenatal depression and through what mechanisms. Modeling stress processes within a theoretical model framework can enhance an understanding of the mechanisms underlying relationships between stressors and stress outcomes. This study used the stress process model framework to explore the causal mechanisms underlying antenatal depression in Gondar, Ethiopia. METHODS: Questionnaires, using an Online Data collection Kit (ODK) tool were administered face-to-face in 916 pregnant women in their second and third trimesters. Pregnant women were included from six randomly selected urban districts in Gondar, Ethiopia during June and August 2018. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for antenatal depression. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) was employed to explore the direct, indirect, and total effect of stressors and mediators of antenatal depression. RESULT: Sixty-three participants (6.9%) reported symptoms of depression. Of these, 16 (4.7%) and 47 (8.1%) were in their second and third trimesters, respectively. The SEM demonstrated several direct effects on antenatal depression scores including unplanned pregnancy (standardized ß = 0.15), having a history of common mental health disorder (standardized ß = 0.18) and fear of giving birth to the current pregnancy (standardized ß = 0.29), all of which were associated with a higher depression score. Adequate food access for the last 3 months (standardized ß = - 0.11) was associated with decreased depression score. Social support (ß = - 0.21), marital agreement (ß = - 0.28), and partner support (ß = -.18) appeared to partially mediate the link between the identified stressors and the risk of antenatal depression. CONCLUSION: Both direct and indirect effects contributed to higher antenatal depression score in Ethiopian women. The three psychosocial resources namely marital agreement, social and partner support, mediated reduced antenatal depression scores. Early screening of antenatal depression and enhancing the three psychosocial resources would help to improve maternal resilience.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 173, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women of childbearing age are at high risk of developing depression and antenatal depression is one of the most common mood disorders. Antenatal depression is also associated with a number of poor maternal and infant outcomes, however, there remains a lack of focus on mental issues in antenatal care, particularly in lower income countries. This systematic review of reviews provides useful evidence regarding the burden of antenatal depression which may provide guidance for health policy development and planning. METHODS: We searched CINAHL(EBSCO), MEDLINE (via Ovid), PsycINFO, Emcare, PubMed, Psychiatry Online, and Scopus databases for systematic reviews that based on observational studies that were published in between January 1st, 2007 and August 31st, 2018. We used the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist scores to assess the quality of the included reviews. We applied vote counting and narrative review to summarize the prevalence of antenatal depression and its associated factors, while statistical pooling was conducted for estimating the association of antenatal depression with low birth weight and preterm birth. This systematic review of reviews was registered on PROSPERO with protocol number CRD42018116267. RESULTS: We have included ten reviews (306 studies with 877,246 participants) on antenatal depression prevalence and six reviews (39 studies with 75,451 participants) conducted to identify the effect of antenatal depression on preterm and low birth weight. Globally, we found that antenatal depression prevalence ranged from 15 to 65%. We identified the following prominent risk factors based on their degree of influence: Current or previous exposure to different forms of abuse and violence (six reviews and 73 studies); lack of social and/or partner support (four reviews and 47 studies); personal or family history of any common mental disorder (three reviews and 34 studies). The risk of low birth weight and preterm birth was 1.49 (95%CI: 1.32, 1.68; I2 = 0.0%) and 1.40 (95%CI: 1.16, 1.69; I2 = 35.2%) times higher among infants born from depressed mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Globally, antenatal depression prevalence was high and could be considered a common mental disorder during pregnancy. Though the association between antenatal depression and adverse birth outcomes appeared to be modest, its absolute impact would be significant in lower-income countries with a high prevalence of antenatal depression and poor access to quality mental health services.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 591, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes, a rising global health problem, requires continuous self-care practice. There are limited studies about self-care practice, and most of the studies conducted in Ethiopia focused on some parts of the recommended self-care practices. Therefore, this study aimed to assess diabetes self-care practice and associated factors among diabetic patients attending at University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. RESULTS: The study revealed that 51.86% (95% CI 46.95-56.72%) of the patients have poor self-care practice. Unable to read and write (AOR = 3.36; 95% CI 1.42-7.90), primary level of education (AOR = 2.62; 95% CI 1.20-5.70), living in rural area (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI 1.61-6.88), having strong social support (AOR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.15-0.62), having diabetes related complication (AOR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.12-4.30), and poor socio-economic status (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI 1.17-3.98) were factors significantly associated with poor self-care practice of patients with diabetes. The study indicates that the prevalence of poor self-care practice was high. Education, residence, socio-economic status, complication and social support were significantly associated with poor self-care practice. Therefore, strategies should be developed to support patients with information, glucometer, and enhance patient's social support.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado/métodos , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 17(1): 31, 2017 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health is the greatest challenges for the current and future generations. Worldwide, out of the 66 million people suffering from depression; majority (85%) were from low and middle income countries. The prevalence was more common among the prisons population than the community. However, a worldwide consideration given to the problems is very low, particularly for prisoners. METHODS: To assess level of depression and associated factors among prisoners in prisons of Northwest Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, Institutional based cross sectional study was employed on 727 prisoners selected by multistage random sampling from three prisons of northwest Amhara. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess an individuals' depression level. The reliability of the tool was checked by Cronbach's Alpha (yielding value of 0.841). Multivariable logistic regression was done to identify factors associated with depression after Hosmer and lemeshow goodness of fit test was used for model fitness. RESULTS: Of the total prisoners participated (649), 284 (43.8%; 95% CI: 39.90, 47.67%) had symptoms of depression. Detainees' satisfaction level about life before imprisonment, belief about their life after imprisonment, plan to commit suicide, social support and types of prisons were significantly associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Depression level among detainees was found to be high. Thus, providing training to scale up satisfaction of prisoners, on how to cope up with environment just before imprisonment and release, and treating prisoners will improve the problem.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0161108, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression during pregnancy is a major health problem because it is prevalent and chronic, and its impact on birth outcome and child health is serious. Several psychosocial and obstetric factors have been identified as predictors. Evidence on the prevalence and predictors of antenatal depression is very limited in Ethiopia. This study aims to determine prevalence and associated factors with antenatal depression. METHODS: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 527 pregnant women recruited in a cluster sampling method. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews on socio-demographic, obstetric, and psychosocial characteristics. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The List of Threatening Experiences questionnaire (LTE-Q) and the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSS-3) were used to assess stressful events and social support, respectively. Data were entered into Epi-info and analyzed using SPSS-20. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out. RESULTS: The prevalence of antenatal depression was found to be 11.8%. Having debt (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.85), unplanned pregnancy (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = (1.20, 4.76), history of stillbirth (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = (1.67,9.41), history of abortion (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.005, 6.61), being in the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.07,2.72), presence of a complication in the current pregnancy (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.66,6.53), and previous history of depression (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.71,7.06) were factors significantly associated with antenatal depression. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of antenatal depression was high, especially in the third trimester. Poverty, unmet reproductive health needs, and obstetric complications are the main determinants of antenatal depression. For early detection and appropriate intervention, screening for depression during the routine antenatal care should be promoted.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Depressão/complicações , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, mental health is an important public health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Studies have shown that, mental illnesses are more common among the prison population than the general population. However, still there is no accurate count of persons with mental disorder who are incarcerated in Ethiopia and information about prisoners' health conditions is scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among prisoner inmates found in prisons of Northwest, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 649 prisoners from January to February 2015. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected by using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC curve) analysis was done by STATA version 12 software in order to determine a cutoff point with high sensitivity and specificity. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors. Adjusted odds ratio with its 95 % Confidence interval was used to declare the statistical significance between psychological distress and associated factors. RESULTS: Prevalence of psychological distress among prisoners was found to be 83.4 % (95 % CI 80.6, 86.0 %). Long duration of stay in the prison (AOR = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.89-0.97), low to no satisfaction with prison services (AOR = 3.01; 95 % CI 1.38-6.51), and place of prison were factors significantly associated with psychological distress among prisoners. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological distress among prisoners was found to be very high. Due attention needs to be given in addressing the mental health needs of the prisoners.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 1186, 2014 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25410657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is a major public health concern in global settings, and is very common during adolescence period leading to physical and/or mental health complications. This study assessed the prevalence of substance use and associated factors among high school adolescents in Woreta Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2012. METHODS: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 7 to April 15, 2012 amongst 684 9th to 12th grade high school students in the town of Woreta. Participants were selected by stratified sampling, and data were collected using an anonymous questionnaire adapted from the 2008 Community That Care Youth Survey. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with substance use. RESULTS: A total of 651 students participated in the study with a response rate of 95.2%. The current prevalence of substance use among Woreta high school students was 47.9% and life-time prevalence was 65.4%. The current and lifetime prevalence of alcohol use was 40.9% and 59% respectively. Siblings' use of substances (AOR [95% CI]: 2.72 [1.79, 4.14]), family history of alcohol and substance use (AOR [95% CI] 2.24 [1.39-3.59]) and friends' use of substances (AOR [95% CI] 2.14 [1.44-3.18]) were factors positively associated with substance use. On the other hand, religiosity and social skill were found to be 54% (AOR [95% CI] 0.46, [0.31-0.68]) and 39% (AOR [95% CI] 0.6 [0.40-0.91]) negatively associated with substance use. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of substance use amongst adolescents was high for the three substances namely alcohol, cigarette and khat with alcohol being the most common. Community norms favorable to substance use, family history of alcohol and substance use, siblings' substance use, poor academic performance, low perceived risk of substances and friends' use of substances had positive association with adolescent substance use while religiosity and social skills were found to have negative association with adolescent substance use. Initiate public awareness campaigns to inform adolescents and adults, particularly parents, of the risk of substance use. Developing culture friendly, gender based adolescent and family based programs and initiating public awareness are recommended to decrease substance use by adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Catha , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 13: 236, 2013 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24070342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is not well studied among women with pelvic floor disorders. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among women with pelvic floor disorders. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 306 women with one or more of the advanced pelvic floor disorders who attended at the gynaecologic outpatient clinic of Gondar university referral hospital in the six months data collection period. Women who complained of urinary or faecal incontinence or protruding mass per vagina were assessed and staged accordingly. Eligible women i.e. those with advanced pelvic organ prolapse or obstetric fistula were included consecutively. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data and medical histories for all consenting women. Interviews were done by a female midwife nurse. Depression measures were obtained using the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) tool administered by the midwife nurse after intensive training. Data were entered into a computer using Epi Info version 3. 5.3, and then exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multiple logistic regressions were fitted and Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to identify associated factors. RESULTS: Of the 306 women interviewed, 269 had advanced pelvic organ prolapse (stages 3 and 4), 37 had obstetric fistula. All four women (100%) with both faecal and urinary incontinence, 97.0% those with urinary incontinence due to obstetric fistula and 67.7% of those with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (stages 3 and 4) had symptoms of depression. Depression was significantly associated with age 50 years or older (P < 0.01), marital status (P < 0.05), history of divorce (p < 0.01), self perception of severe problem (P < 0.05), and having stage 3 pelvic organ prolapse (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse, and obstetric fistula had high prevalence of depressive symptoms. A holistic management approach, including mental health care is recommended for women having such severe forms of pelvic floor disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Fístula Vaginal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/complicações , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Incontinência Urinária/complicações , Fístula Vaginal/complicações
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