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1.
Phys Ther ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Girls and women with Rett Syndrome (RTT) have low levels of daily physical activity and high levels of sedentary time. Reducing sedentary time and enhancing "uptime" activities such as standing and walking could be an important focus for interventions to address long-term health and quality of life in RTT. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and health-related effects of an individualized 12-week uptime participation (U-PART) intervention in girls and women with RTT. DESIGN: The study used a single-group pretest-posttest design with 4 assessments (2 baseline, postintervention, and follow-up). METHODS: A participation-based intervention using a whole-day approach was used. During a 12-week intervention period, individualized programs focused on participation in enjoyable uptime activities in home, school/day center, and community settings. Feasibility was assessed with a study-specific questionnaire. Primary outcome measures were sedentary time and daily step count. Secondary outcomes were gross motor skills, walking capacity, quality of life, and goal attainment scaling. RESULTS: Fourteen girls and women who were 5 to 48 years old and had RTT participated. The U-PART intervention was perceived as feasible by caregivers. Similar scores were observed at baseline assessments in all outcomes. Positive effects with small to medium effect sizes (0.27-0.54) were seen in sedentary time (-4%), daily step count (+689 steps per day), walking capacity (+18.8 m), quality of life (+2.75 points), and goal attainment scaling after the intervention. Positive effects were maintained in sedentary time (-3.2%) and walking capacity (+12.1 m) at short-term follow-up. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by the lack of control group. However, participants acted as their own control, and the stable baseline period partially mitigated this issue. CONCLUSIONS: The U-PART intervention was found to be feasible and effective in the short term in girls and women with RTT.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 181-192, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent reports have described single individuals with neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) harboring heterozygous KCNQ3 de novo variants (DNVs). We sought to assess whether pathogenic variants in KCNQ3 cause NDD and to elucidate the associated phenotype and molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Patients with NDD and KCNQ3 DNVs were identified through an international collaboration. Phenotypes were characterized by clinical assessment, review of charts, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and parental interview. Functional consequences of variants were analyzed in vitro by patch-clamp recording. RESULTS: Eleven patients were assessed. They had recurrent heterozygous DNVs in KCNQ3 affecting residues R230 (R230C, R230H, R230S) and R227 (R227Q). All patients exhibited global developmental delay within the first 2 years of life. Most (8/11, 73%) were nonverbal or had a few words only. All patients had autistic features, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was diagnosed in 5 of 11 (45%). EEGs performed before 10 years of age revealed frequent sleep-activated multifocal epileptiform discharges in 8 of 11 (73%). For 6 of 9 (67%) recorded between 1.5 and 6 years of age, spikes became near-continuous during sleep. Interestingly, most patients (9/11, 82%) did not have seizures, and no patient had seizures in the neonatal period. Voltage-clamp recordings of the mutant KCNQ3 channels revealed gain-of-function (GoF) effects. INTERPRETATION: Specific GoF variants in KCNQ3 cause NDD, ASD, and abundant sleep-activated spikes. This new phenotype contrasts both with self-limited neonatal epilepsy due to KCNQ3 partial loss of function, and with the neonatal or infantile onset epileptic encephalopathies due to KCNQ2 GoF. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:181-192.

3.
Clin Genet ; 2018 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417326

RESUMO

Rett syndrome is rarely suspected in males because of the X-linked dominant inheritance. In the literature, only six male patients have been reported with methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) mosaicism. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods have enabled better detection of somatic mosaicism compared to conventional Sanger sequencing; however, mosaics can still be difficult to detect. We present clinical and molecular findings in two males mosaic for a pathogenic MECP2 variant. Both have been reexamined using deep sequencing of DNA isolated from four different cell tissues (blood, muscle, fibroblasts and oral mucosa). Deep sequencing of the different tissues revealed that the variants were present in all tissues. In one patient, the molecular diagnosis could only be established by reexamination after a normal whole exome sequencing, and the other case is an example of reverse genetic diagnostics. Rett syndrome should be considered in males with neurodevelopmental delay and stereotypical hand movements. Subsequent to clinical diagnosis males should be investigated with NGS-based technologies of MECP2 with high read depth and a low threshold for variant calls. If the initial analysis on full blood derived DNA fails to confirm the suspicion, we recommend repeating the analysis on another tissue, preferentially fibroblasts to increase the diagnostic yield.

4.
Qual Health Res ; : 1049732318803358, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304998

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder usually affecting females. It is associated with intellectual and multiple disabilities leading to a high level of dependency in all aspects of daily living including participation in physical activities. This study explored facilitators and barriers to "uptime" (non-sedentary) activities in Danish girls and women with RTT as perceived by parents and professionals using focus groups. Through thematic analysis, one central theme emerged: a constant balance to do the best thing for the girl or woman. Within the central theme, five subthemes of facilitators and barriers were identified relating to the individual and the physical, organizational, social, and attitudinal environments. Environmental barriers can be reduced through policy and management-level changes in health promotion and strong advocacy of physical activity by health professionals. Targeting both facilitators and barriers of "uptime" activities enables the planning and implementing of health-promoting interventions in individuals with RTT.

5.
Nat Rev Genet ; 19(10): 649-666, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995837

RESUMO

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is an archetypical genetic syndrome that is characterized by intellectual disability, well-defined facial features, upper limb anomalies and atypical growth, among numerous other signs and symptoms. It is caused by variants in any one of seven genes, all of which have a structural or regulatory function in the cohesin complex. Although recent advances in next-generation sequencing have improved molecular diagnostics, marked heterogeneity exists in clinical and molecular diagnostic approaches and care practices worldwide. Here, we outline a series of recommendations that document the consensus of a group of international experts on clinical diagnostic criteria, both for classic CdLS and non-classic CdLS phenotypes, molecular investigations, long-term management and care planning.

6.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-9, 2017 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder leading to multiple disabilities and high dependency on caregivers. This study aimed to: (1) describe the patterns of sedentary time and daily steps and (2) identify the association of individual and environmental characteristics with sedentary time. METHODS: All Danish females with RTT older than 5 years of age and with a MECP2 mutation were invited to participate. The activPAL and StepWatch Activity Monitor (SAM) were worn by participants for at least four days. Sedentary time and step counts were plotted by time to examine daily activity patterns. Associations between sedentary time and individual and environmental covariates were assessed with linear regression models. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) age of participants was 22.0 (14.3-36.5) years. On average 83.3% (standard deviation 13.9%) of waking hours were spent in sedentary behaviours (n = 48) and the median (interquartile range) daily step count was 5128 (2829-7704) (n = 28). Females older than 33.5 years, and those unable to walk independently were more sedentary. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated high levels of sedentary time and low daily step counts in a Danish population of females with RTT. Advancing age and lower walking skills were associated with higher levels of sedentary time. Implications for Rehabilitation Sedentary lifestyles in individuals with disabilities have a negative impact on health and quality of life. High levels of sedentary time and low daily step counts were demonstrated in a Danish population of females with Rett syndrome. Advancing age and inability to walk independently were strongly associated with higher levels of sedentary time in females with Rett syndrome. Understanding patterns of sedentary behaviour and physical activity can aid health care professionals in developing health-promoting physical activity interventions.

7.
J Child Neurol ; 32(12): 1009-1013, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911278

RESUMO

This study aimed to validate measures of sedentary time in individuals with Rett syndrome. Twenty-six individuals (median [IQR] age 16.0 (9.4-20.6) years) wore an activPAL accelerometer during video-taped activities and agreement was determined between sedentary time determined by the activPAL and observation. For 11 individuals (median [IQR] age 14.5 (11.5-25.6) years), linear regression was used to determine the relationship between sedentary time recorded on the modified Bouchard activity record diary card and measured using the activPAL. In comparison to observation, the activPAL accurately measured duration of sedentary time with a mean difference (limit of agreement) of -1.0 (6.3) minutes. The duration of Bouchard activity record downtime accounted for 73% of the variance of sedentary time measured by the activPAL (coefficient 0.762, 95% CI 0.413 to 1.111). These data provide clinicians and caregivers with capacity to investigate strategies that would aim to increase activity in the nonexercise component of the activity continuum.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Rett/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Caminhada/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Mutação/genética , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(8): 2108-2125, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548707

RESUMO

SMC1A encodes one of the proteins of the cohesin complex. SMC1A variants are known to cause a phenotype resembling Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Exome sequencing has allowed recognizing SMC1A variants in individuals with encephalopathy with epilepsy who do not resemble CdLS. We performed an international, interdisciplinary study on 51 individuals with SMC1A variants for physical and behavioral characteristics, and compare results to those in 67 individuals with NIPBL variants. For the Netherlands all known individuals with SMC1A variants were studied, both with and without CdLS phenotype. Individuals with SMC1A variants can resemble CdLS, but manifestations are less marked compared to individuals with NIPBL variants: growth is less disturbed, facial signs are less marked (except for periocular signs and thin upper vermillion), there are no major limb anomalies, and they have a higher level of cognitive and adaptive functioning. Self-injurious behavior is more frequent and more severe in the NIPBL group. In the Dutch group 5 of 13 individuals (all females) had a phenotype that shows a remarkable resemblance to Rett syndrome: epileptic encephalopathy, severe or profound intellectual disability, stereotypic movements, and (in some) regression. Their missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations are evenly spread over the gene. We conclude that SMC1A variants can result in a phenotype resembling CdLS and a phenotype resembling Rett syndrome. Resemblances between the SMC1A group and the NIPBL group suggest that a disturbed cohesin function contributes to the phenotype, but differences between these groups may also be explained by other underlying mechanisms such as moonlighting of the cohesin genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Síndrome de Lange/genética , Proteínas/genética , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de Lange/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lange/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Espasmos Infantis/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Disabil Rehabil ; 39(9): 911-918, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27206693

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which mainly affects females and results in multiple disabilities. Many clinical descriptions of the symptoms and functional abilities have been made medically, though mainly in children with RTT. Previous reports have established that even though the syndrome causes severe psychomotor disability, women with RTT can live long into adulthood. PURPOSE: We aim to describe what to expect from aging women with RTT regarding some of the basic functional abilities that are used in daily activities and that could have an impact on quality of life in these women. METHODS: A team of two medical doctors, a physiotherapist and an educational psychological adviser, performed clinical evaluations of 27 women with RTT in Denmark above 30 years of age and confirmed MECP2 mutation. RESULTS: We found that 63% of the women were able to walk outside their homes and only 11% were not able to walk at all. However, 67% could not transfer from sitting to standing position without support. There was profound difficulties communicating, but 85.1% of the women could either consistently point with their hand or eyes to things of their interest. CONCLUSIONS: Women with RTT are very dependent on caregivers who maintain and rehabilitate their functional abilities. They can often walk short distances unassisted, but do have trouble transferring and thus getting up from a chair on their own. They have severe problems communicating and they often perform subtle signs that can be difficult to recognize. Implications for rehabilitation 3/4 of aging RTT women are household ambulators - daily training of motor functions and focus on assisting the initiation of movements are needed lifelong to maintain walking ability and participation in daily activities More than half of aging women with RTT can grab on to things - persons with hand function should be motivated to use this ability in the context of eating Communication is a difficult task especially for the aging RTT women - Communicative signs, their meaning and how to react to them should be written down for every woman in an easy accessible way to all caregivers The majority of aging RTT women can point out things of interest - they should be given the opportunity to participate in choice making.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Disabil Rehabil ; 39(19): 1926-1931, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The repertoire of measures of walking in Rett syndrome is limited. This study aimed to determine measurement properties of a modified two-minute walk test (2MWT) and a modified Rett syndrome-specific functional mobility scale (FMS-RS) in Rett syndrome. METHODS: Forty-two girls and women with Rett syndrome (median 18.4 years, range 2.4-60.9 years) were assessed for clinical severity, gross motor skills, and mobility. To measure walking capacity, 27 of this group completed a 2MWT twice on two different assessment days. To assess walking performance, the FMS-RS was administered to the total sample of parents (n = 42) on two occasions approximately one week apart. RESULTS: There were negative correlations between clinical severity and 2MWT (r = -0.48) and FMS-RS (r = -0.60-0.66). There were positive correlations between gross motor skills and mobility and 2MWT (r = 0.51, 0.43) and FMS-RS (r = 0.71-0.93, 0.74-0.94), respectively. Test-retest reliability for the 2MWT was good with high intraday and interday correlations (ICC = 0.86-0.98). For the 2MWT, the standard error of measurement was 13.8 m and we would be 95% confident that changes greater than 38 m would be greater than within subject error. There was good test-retest reliability for all three distances on the FMS-RS (ICC = 0.94-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Walking capacity as measured by the 2MWT showed expected but limited relationships with measures of different constructs, providing some support for concurrent validity. Walking performance as measured with the FMS-RS was more strongly consistent with other clinical measures supporting its concurrent validity. Test-retest reliability was good for both the FMS-RS and the 2MWT. Therefore, these measures have the potential to be used in clinical practice and research. Implications for Rehabilitation Walking is one of the commonest daily physical activities in ambulant girls and women with RTT. Comprehensive knowledge about the walking abilities in this population is limited. Evidence of validity and test-retest reliability have been demonstrated for the modified two-minute walk test (2MWT) and the Rett syndrome-specific functional mobility scale (FMS-RS). The 2MWT and FMS-RS offer detailed information of the capacity and performance of walking, respectively, in girls and women with RTT.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Rett/reabilitação , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Caminhada , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0146824, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26849438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We developed clinical guidelines for the management of bone health in Rett syndrome through evidence review and the consensus of an expert panel of clinicians. METHODS: An initial guidelines draft was created which included statements based upon literature review and 11 open-ended questions where literature was lacking. The international expert panel reviewed the draft online using a 2-stage Delphi process to reach consensus agreement. Items describe the clinical assessment of bone health, bone mineral density assessment and technique, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. RESULTS: Agreement was reached on 39 statements which were formulated from 41 statements and 11 questions. When assessing bone health in Rett syndrome a comprehensive assessment of fracture history, mutation type, prescribed medication, pubertal development, mobility level, dietary intake and biochemical bone markers is recommended. A baseline densitometry assessment should be performed with accommodations made for size, with the frequency of surveillance determined according to individual risk. Lateral spine x-rays are also suggested. Increasing physical activity and initiating calcium and vitamin D supplementation when low are the first approaches to optimizing bone health in Rett syndrome. If individuals with Rett syndrome meet the ISCD criterion for osteoporosis in children, the use of bisphosphonates is recommended. CONCLUSION: A clinically significant history of fracture in combination with low bone densitometry findings is necessary for a diagnosis of osteoporosis. These evidence and consensus-based guidelines have the potential to improve bone health in those with Rett syndrome, reduce the frequency of fractures, and stimulate further research that aims to ameliorate the impacts of this serious comorbidity.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Síndrome de Rett/complicações , Absorciometria de Fóton , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Osteoporose/etiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0147555, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26800272

RESUMO

Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Movimento/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 177(27)2015 06 29.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26239739

RESUMO

The neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome was first described in 1966 by Andreas Rett, who described girls with loss of speech and hand use displaying characteristic hand stereotypies. Since then, the disease has been linked to mutations in the gene MECP2. However, the basis of the diagnosis is still clinical as defined by the latest clinical criteria as proposed by Neul and colleagues in 2010. This article presents a short clinical and molecular overview of the latest in Rett syndrome with emphasis on the Danish patients, headlines for making the diagnosis, differential diagnoses and molecular diagnostic possibilities.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Dinamarca , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Síndrome de Rett/patologia
14.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 19(6): 679-87, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26228846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects mainly females; it results in multiple disabilities and carries a risk of medical comorbidities. Early diagnosis is important to help establish the best treatment opportunities and preventive care in order to slow down the progression of symptoms. We wanted to test our hypothesis that it is possible to diagnose RTT before the classical symptoms become obvious. METHODS: We analysed development and symptoms before and at the time of the RTT diagnosis, as well as the symptoms that triggered MECP2 mutation analysis, in a cohort of girls with RTT born in Denmark between 2003 and 2012. RESULTS: Twenty-four girls were included, and 87.5% of these girls were diagnosed when the classical RTT symptoms were recognized. However, parents were concerned about their daughters between 3 and 58 months prior to the RTT diagnosis, and they felt that the professionals did not share their concern in the beginning. When reviewing medical files and questionnaires, we noted that the majority of girls did have combinations of concerning symptoms such as developmental delay and a collection of subtle signs such as autistic traits, placidity, floppiness with suspicion of muscular or mitochondrial diseases, hair pulling, teeth grinding, development of incontinence and problems with initiating movements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that many individuals with MECP2 mutation exhibit characteristics that should raise suspicion for RTT, prior to evolution of the core clinical criteria. As RTT is a rare disease, it is of importance to constantly educate clinicians for heightened awareness of RTT.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rett/complicações , Síndrome de Rett/genética
15.
Gene ; 572(1): 130-134, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26164757

RESUMO

Deletions within 11q12.3-11q13.1 are very rare and to date only two cases have been described in the literature. In this study we describe a 23-year-old male patient with intellectual disability, behavioral problems, dysmorphic features, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux and skeletal abnormalities. Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS, OMIM #122470; #300590; #610759; #300882; #614701) was suggested as a differential diagnosis in childhood although he lacked some of the features typical for this disorder. He does not have a mutation in any of the five known CdLS genes (NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8, RAD21), but a 1.6Mb deletion at chromosome region 11q12.3-11q13.1 was detected by chromosome microarray. The deletion contains several genes including PPP2R5B, which has been associated with intellectual disability and overgrowth; NRXN2, which has been associated with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder; and CDCA5, which is part of the cohesin pathway, as are all the five known CdLS genes. It is therefore possible that deletion of CDCA5 may account for some of the CdLS like features of the present case.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Síndrome de Lange/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Síndrome de Lange/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Epilepsia ; 56(4): 569-76, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25789914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rett syndrome is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene, and characterized by cognitive and communicative regression, loss of hand use, and midline hand stereotypies. Epilepsy is a core symptom, but literature is controversial regarding genotype-phenotype correlation. Analysis of data from a large cohort should overcome this shortcoming. METHODS: Data from the Rett Syndrome Networked Database on 1,248 female patients were included. Data on phenotypic and genotypic parameters, age of onset, severity of epilepsy, and type of seizures were collected. Statistical analysis was done using the IBM SPSS Version 21 software, logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Epilepsy was present in 68.1% of the patients, with uncontrolled seizures in 32.6% of the patients with epilepsy. Mean age of onset of epilepsy was 4.68 ± (standard deviation) 3.5 years. Younger age of onset was correlated to severity of epilepsy (Spearman correlation r = 0.668, p < 0.01). Patients with late truncating deletions had lower prevalence of epilepsy. Compared to them, the p.R133C mutation, associated with a milder Rett phenotype, increased the risk for epilepsy (odds ratio [OR] 2.46, confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.3-4.66), but not for severe epilepsy. The p.R255X mutation conferred an increased risk for epilepsy (OR 2.07, CI 95% 1.2-3.59) as well as for severe epilepsy (OR 3.4, CI 95% 1.6-7.3). The p.T158M and p.C306C mutations relatively increased the risk for severe epilepsy (OR 3.09 and 2.69, CI 95% 1.48-6.4 and 1.19-6.05, respectively), but not for epilepsy occurrence. SIGNIFICANCE: Various mutations in the MECP2 gene have a different influence on epilepsy, unrelated to the severity of the general Rett phenotype. This might suggest a site-specific effect of MeCp2 on epileptic pathways. Further investigation of these mechanisms should promote better understanding of epileptogenesis in Rett syndrome.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Med Genet ; 57(6): 284-7, 2014 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24727054

RESUMO

A common in frame duplication in ARX (c.431_454dup24) was found in a five year-old boy who presented with mild Partington syndrome. The duplication was detected by PCR amplification followed by fragment length analysis and was located in exon 2 spanning the two polyalanine tracts commonly seen to expand. Detection of the duplication by DNA sequencing was difficult due to preferential sequencing of the normal allele, demonstrating the superiority of fragment length analysis in mosaic cases. The clinical symptoms were mild to moderate developmental delay with only the hand dystonia to suggest Partington syndrome. This patient is the first male reported to be mosaic for the duplication, and his clinical features are subtle. This study shows that in males with a phenotype of mild Partington syndrome and in heterozygous females fragment length analysis should be preferred over DNA sequencing.


Assuntos
Ataxia/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mosaicismo , Convulsões/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ataxia/patologia , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Fenótipo , Convulsões/patologia
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(6): 1447-52, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23633410

RESUMO

In this report, we describe a female child with dysmorphic features and developmental delay. Chromosome microarray analysis followed by conventional karyotyping revealed a ring chromosome 9 with a 12 Mb deletion at 9pter-p23 and a 540 kb deletion at 9q34.3-qter. Four percent of the analyzed cells had monosomy 9. The patient has the features of both the Kleefstra syndrome and the chromosome 9p-syndrome, including trigonocephaly, long philtrum, hypertelorism, and retro-/micronagthia. The deletion of the patient overlaps with several of the proposed critical regions for the 9p deletion syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Hipertelorismo/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/diagnóstico , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Cariotipagem , Cromossomos em Anel
19.
Hum Mutat ; 33(7): 1031-6, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22415763

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with one principal phenotype and several distinct, atypical variants (Zappella, early seizure onset and congenital variants). Mutations in MECP2 are found in most cases of classic RTT but at least two additional genes, CDKL5 and FOXG1, can underlie some (usually variant) cases. There is only limited correlation between genotype and phenotype. The Rett Networked Database (http://www.rettdatabasenetwork.org/) has been established to share clinical and genetic information. Through an "adaptor" process of data harmonization, a set of 293 clinical items and 16 genetic items was generated; 62 clinical and 7 genetic items constitute the core dataset; 23 clinical items contain longitudinal information. The database contains information on 1838 patients from 11 countries (December 2011), with or without mutations in known genes. These numbers can expand indefinitely. Data are entered by a clinician in each center who supervises accuracy. This network was constructed to make available pooled international data for the study of RTT natural history and genotype-phenotype correlation and to indicate the proportion of patients with specific clinical features and mutations. We expect that the network will serve for the recruitment of patients into clinical trials and for developing quality measures to drive up standards of medical management.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Rett/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Mutação
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 18(3): 291-5, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19844253

RESUMO

Interstitial deletions of chromosome band 10q22 are rare. We report on the characterization of three overlapping de novo 10q22 deletions by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization in three unrelated patients. Patient 1 had a 7.9 Mb deletion in 10q21.3-q22.2 and suffered from severe feeding problems, facial dysmorphisms and profound mental retardation. Patients 2 and 3 had nearly identical deletions of 3.2 and 3.6 Mb, the proximal breakpoints of which were located at an identical low-copy repeat. Both patients were mentally retarded; patient 3 also suffered from growth retardation and hypotonia. We also report on the results of breakpoint analysis by array painting in a mentally retarded patient with a balanced chromosome translocation 46,XY,t(10;13)(q22;p13)dn. The breakpoint in 10q22 was found to disrupt C10orf11, a brain-expressed gene in the common deleted interval of patients 1-3. This finding suggests that haploinsufficiency of C10orf11 contributes to the cognitive defects in 10q22 deletion patients.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Translocação Genética , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Facies , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Internet , Masculino , Gravidez
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