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1.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(4): 4507-4516, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270756

RESUMO

Inherited white matter disorders of the central nervous system frequently are degenerative and progressive clinical entities. They are classified into myelin disorders, including hypomyelination, dysmyelination, demyelination, and myelin vacuolization, but also astrocytopathies, leuko-axonopathies, microgliopathies, and leuko-vasculopathies. Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy is the main feature of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease (PMLD1). PMD- and PMLD1-affected patients display comparable neurological symptoms, including psychomotor developmental delay, spasticity, nystagmus, impairment of cognitive skills, sensorineural hearing loss, and different ophthalmological disabilities. While clinical features overlap, PMD and PMLD1 can be distinguished on the molecular genetic level. PMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1), whereas PMLD1 is associated with mutations in the gene encoding for the gap junction protein gamma 2 (GJC2). Here we present novel compound-heterozygous mutations in the GJC2 gene identified in two, unrelated infantile patients affected with PMLD1. The heterozygous frameshift mutations c.392dupC, p.H132Afs*6 and c.989delC, p.P330Rfs*141 were found in the first patient. The heterozygous nonsense variant c.291C>G, p.Y97*, as well as the heterozygous missense variant c.716T>C, p.V239A were detected in the second patient. All four variants were predicted to be damaging for structure and/or function of the GJC2 protein. Combinations of these genetic variants likely are pathogenic and resulted in the PMLD1-phenotype in the investigated children. In conclusion, our clinical and molecular findings confirmed the genotype-phenotype relationship between mutations in the GJC2 and PMLD1. The novel mutations of GJC2 described herein will help to further understand the pathogenic mechanism underlying PMLD1.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 180, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastasized or unresectable melanoma has been the first malignant tumor to be successfully treated with checkpoint inhibitors. Nevertheless, about 40-50% of the patients do not respond to these treatments and severe side effects are observed in up to 60%. Therefore, there is a high need to identify reliable biomarkers predicting response. Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) is a debated predictor for response to checkpoint inhibitors and early measurement of ctDNA can help to detect treatment failure to immunotherapy in selected melanoma patients. However, it has not yet been clarified how TMB and ctDNA can be used to estimate response to combined CTLA-4 and PD-1 antibody therapy in metastatic melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective biomarker study, we included 35 melanoma patients with ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) and nivolumab (anti-PD-1) therapy. In all patients, a tumor panel of 710 tumor-associated genes was applied (tumor vs. reference tissue comparison), followed by repetitive liquid biopsies. Cell-free DNA was extracted and at least one driver mutation was monitored. Treatment response was evaluated after about three months of therapy. RESULTS: TMB was significantly higher in responders than in nonresponders and TMB > 23.1 Mut/Mb (TMB-high) was associated with a survival benefit compared to TMB ≤ 23.1 Mut/Mb (TMB-low or TMB-intermediate). Furthermore, a > 50% decrease of cell-free DNA concentration or undetectable circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), measured by tumor-specific variant copies/ml of plasma at first follow-up three weeks after treatment initiation were significantly associated with response to combined immunotherapy and improved overall survival, respectively. It is noticeable that no patient with TMB ≤ 23.1 Mut/Mb and detectable or increasing ctDNA at first follow-up responded to immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: High TMB, > 50% decrease of cell-free DNA concentration, and undetectable ctDNA at first follow-up seem to be associated with response and overall survival under combined immunotherapy. The evaluation of ctDNA and cell-free DNA three weeks after treatment initiation may be suitable for early assessment of efficacy of immunotherapy.

3.
Brain ; 142(8): 2230-2237, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332433

RESUMO

Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is the principal cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase in humans and plays a major role in redox potential regulation. It catalyses the transformation of the superoxide anion (O2•-) into hydrogen peroxide. Heterozygous variants in SOD1 are a common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study we describe the homozygous truncating variant c.335dupG (p.C112Wfs*11) in SOD1 that leads to total absence of enzyme activity. The resulting phenotype is severe and marked by progressive loss of motor abilities, tetraspasticity with predominance in the lower extremities, mild cerebellar atrophy, and hyperekplexia-like symptoms. Heterozygous carriers have a markedly reduced enzyme activity when compared to wild-type controls but show no overt neurologic phenotype. These results are in contrast with the previously proposed theory that a loss of function is the underlying mechanism in SOD1-related motor neuron disease and should be considered before application of previously proposed SOD1 silencing as a treatment option for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Phenotype information is crucial for the interpretation of genomic variants. So far it has only been accessible for bioinformatics workflows after encoding into clinical terms by expert dysmorphologists. METHODS: Here, we introduce an approach driven by artificial intelligence that uses portrait photographs for the interpretation of clinical exome data. We measured the value added by computer-assisted image analysis to the diagnostic yield on a cohort consisting of 679 individuals with 105 different monogenic disorders. For each case in the cohort we compiled frontal photos, clinical features, and the disease-causing variants, and simulated multiple exomes of different ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: The additional use of similarity scores from computer-assisted analysis of frontal photos improved the top 1 accuracy rate by more than 20-89% and the top 10 accuracy rate by more than 5-99% for the disease-causing gene. CONCLUSION: Image analysis by deep-learning algorithms can be used to quantify the phenotypic similarity (PP4 criterion of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines) and to advance the performance of bioinformatics pipelines for exome analysis.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to gain insight into frequencies of genetic variants in genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy (NDD+E) by investigating large cohorts of patients in a diagnostic setting. METHODS: We analyzed variants in NDD+E using epilepsy gene panel sequencing performed between 2013 and 2017 by two large diagnostic companies. We compared variant frequencies in 6994 panels with another 8588 recently published panels as well as exome-wide de novo variants in 1942 individuals with NDD+E and 10,937 controls. RESULTS: Genes with highest frequencies of ultrarare variants in NDD+E comprised SCN1A, KCNQ2, SCN2A, CDKL5, SCN8A, and STXBP1, concordant with the two other epilepsy cohorts we investigated. In only 46% of the analyzed 262 dominant and X-linked panel genes ultrarare variants in patients were reported. Among genes with contradictory evidence of association with epilepsy, CACNB4, CLCN2, EFHC1, GABRD, MAGI2, and SRPX2 showed equal frequencies in cases and controls. CONCLUSION: We show that improvement of panel design increased diagnostic yield over time, but panels still display genes with low or no diagnostic yield. With our data, we hope to improve current diagnostic NDD+E panel design and provide a resource of ultrarare variants in individuals with NDD+E to the community.

6.
Neuromolecular Med ; 21(2): 182-191, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955194

RESUMO

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited, slowly progressive and length-dependent axonal peripheral neuropathy. HSAN1 is associated with several mutations in serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first enzyme in the de novo sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. HSAN1 mutations alter the substrate specificity of SPT, which leads to the formation of 1-deoxysphingolipids, an atypical and neurotoxic subclass of sphingolipids. This study describes the clinical and neurophysiological phenotype of a German family with a novel SPTCL2 mutation (c.529A > G; N177D) associated with HSAN1 and the biochemical characterization of this mutation.) The mutaion was identified in five family members that segregated with the diesease. Patients were characterized genetically and clinically for neurophysiological function. Their plasma sphingolipid profiles were analyzed by LC-MS. The biochemical properties of the mutation were characterized in a cell-based activity assay. Affected family members showed elevated 1-deoxysphingolipid plasma levels. HEK293 cells expressing the N177D SPTLC2 mutant showed increased de novo 1-deoxysphingolipid formation, but also displayed elevated canonical SPT activity and increased C20 sphingoid base production. This study identifies the SPTLC2 N177D variant as a novel disease-causing mutation with increased 1-deoxySL formation and its association with a typical HSAN1 phenotype.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4515, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872638

RESUMO

Mutations within Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are associated with late-onset Parkinson's disease. The physiological function of LRRK2 and molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenic role of LRRK2 mutations remain uncertain. Here, we investigated the role of LRRK2 in intracellular signal transduction. We find that deficiency of Lrrk2 in rodents affects insulin-dependent translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4). This deficit is restored during aging by prolonged insulin-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) and Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), and is compensated by elevated basal expression of GLUT4 on the cell surface. Furthermore, we find a crucial role of Rab10 phosphorylation by LRRK2 for efficient insulin signal transduction. Translating our findings into human cell lines, we find comparable molecular alterations in fibroblasts from Parkinson's patients with the known pathogenic G2019S LRRK2 mutation. Our results highlight the role of LRRK2 in insulin-dependent signalling with potential therapeutic implications.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 192, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system lymphomas (CNSL) is a devastating disease. Currently, a confirmatory biopsy is required prior to treatment. OBJECTIVE: Our investigation aims to prove the feasibility of a minimally-invasive diagnostic approach for the molecular characterization of CNSL. METHODS: Tissue biopsies from 6 patients with suspected CNSL were analyzed using a 649gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) tumor panel (tumor vs. reference tissue (EDTA-blood)). The individual somatic mutation pattern was used as a basis for the digital PCR analyzing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, identifying one selected tumor mutation during this first step of the feasibility investigation. RESULTS: NGS-analysis of biopsy tissue revealed a specific somatic mutation pattern in all confirmed lymphoma samples (n = 5, NGS-sensitivity 100%) and none in the sample identified as normal brain tissue (NGS-specificity 100%). cfDNA-extraction was dependent on the extraction-kit used and feasible in 3 samples, in all of which somatic mutations were detectable (100%). Analysis of CSF-derived cfDNA was superior to plasma-derived cfDNA and routine microscopic analysis (lymphoma cells: n = 2, 40%). One patient showed a divergent molecular pattern, typical of Burkitt-Lymphoma (HIV+, serologic evidence of EBV-infection). Lumbar puncture was tolerated without complications, whereas biopsy caused 3 hemorrhages. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation provides evidence that analysis of cfDNA in central nervous system tumors is feasible using the described protocol. Molecular characterization of CNSL could be achieved by analysis of CSF-derived cfDNA. Knowledge of a tumor's specific mutation pattern may allow initiation of targeted therapies, treatment surveillance and could lead to minimally-invasive diagnostics in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , DNA Tumoral Circulante/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(3): 629-638, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656474

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Posterior column ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (PCARP) is a rare form of syndromic RP associated with mutations in the FLVCR1 gene. Recent evidence has suggested a spectrum in the phenotype depending on the genotype. METHODS: Six individuals with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) carrying mutations in the FLVCR1 gene underwent detailed ophthalmological examinations at the Center for Ophthalmology and two of these also an extensive neurological examination at the Department of Neurology in Tuebingen, Germany. RESULTS: The mutation spectrum in our cohort comprised one nonsense mutation, one 1-bp deletion, two missense variants, and one splice site variant (c.1092+5G>A). Three patients presented with a typical clinical picture of autosomal recessive RP, two patients presented with atypical RP, and one patient presented with a particularly mild form of RP. The findings of the patients that underwent detailed neurological and neurophysiological testing were not suggestive for the presence of progressive PCA, but one patient showed mild cerebellar signs without worsening over time. Five out of six of our cases carry the splice site variant c.1092+5G>A at least on one allele possibly providing evidence as to that this splice site variant may cause a milder form of non-syndromic autosomal recessive RP. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in FLVCR1 can present with the clinical picture of a non-syndromic autosomal recessive RP (in this case RP without PCA), RP with mild cerebellar signs, but also PCARP. Additionally, we show evidence for a spectrum of the severity of the retinal involvement likely depending on the genotype.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutação , Receptores Virais/genética , Retina/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Retina/fisiopatologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico , Retinite Pigmentosa/metabolismo , Transtornos das Sensações , Degenerações Espinocerebelares , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
11.
Brain ; 142(1): 80-92, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544257

RESUMO

Alterations of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluN2A, encoded by GRIN2A, have been associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with prominent speech-related features, and epilepsy. We performed a comprehensive assessment of phenotypes with a standardized questionnaire in 92 previously unreported individuals with GRIN2A-related disorders. Applying the criteria of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics to all published variants yielded 156 additional cases with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in GRIN2A, resulting in a total of 248 individuals. The phenotypic spectrum ranged from normal or near-normal development with mild epilepsy and speech delay/apraxia to severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, often within the epilepsy-aphasia spectrum. We found that pathogenic missense variants in transmembrane and linker domains (misTMD+Linker) were associated with severe developmental phenotypes, whereas missense variants within amino terminal or ligand-binding domains (misATD+LBD) and null variants led to less severe developmental phenotypes, which we confirmed in a discovery (P = 10-6) as well as validation cohort (P = 0.0003). Other phenotypes such as MRI abnormalities and epilepsy types were also significantly different between the two groups. Notably, this was paralleled by electrophysiology data, where misTMD+Linker predominantly led to NMDAR gain-of-function, while misATD+LBD exclusively caused NMDAR loss-of-function. With respect to null variants, we show that Grin2a+/- cortical rat neurons also had reduced NMDAR function and there was no evidence of previously postulated compensatory overexpression of GluN2B. We demonstrate that null variants and misATD+LBD of GRIN2A do not only share the same clinical spectrum (i.e. milder phenotypes), but also result in similar electrophysiological consequences (loss-of-function) opposing those of misTMD+Linker (severe phenotypes; predominantly gain-of-function). This new pathomechanistic model may ultimately help in predicting phenotype severity as well as eligibility for potential precision medicine approaches in GRIN2A-related disorders.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebelar/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Ratos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
JIMD Rep ; 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569318

RESUMO

Advancements in genetic testing now allow early identification of previously unresolved neuromuscular phenotypes. To illustrate this, we here present diagnoses of glycogen storage disease IV (GSD IV) in two patients with hypotonia and delayed development of gross motor skills. Patient 1 was diagnosed with congenital myopathy based on a muscle biopsy at the age of 6 years. The genetic cause of his disorder (two compound heterozygous missense mutations in GBE1 (c.[760A>G] p.[Thr254Ala] and c.[1063C>T] p.[Arg355Cys])), however, was only identified at the age of 17, after panel sequencing of 314 genes associated with neuromuscular disorders. Thanks to the availability of next-generation sequencing, patient 2 was diagnosed before the age of 2 with two compound heterozygous mutations in GBE1 (c.[691+2T>C] (splice donor variant) and the same c.[760A>G] p.[Thr254Ala] mutation as patient 1). GSD IV is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a broad and expanding clinical spectrum, which hampers targeted diagnostics. The current cases illustrate the value of novel genetic testing for rare genetic disorders with neuromuscular phenotypes, especially in case of clinical heterogeneity. We argue that genetic testing by gene panels or whole exome sequencing should be considered early in the diagnostic procedure of unresolved neuromuscular disorders.

13.
Neurology ; 91(22): e2078-e2088, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the neurologic phenotypes associated with COL4A1/2 mutations and to seek genotype-phenotype correlation. METHODS: We analyzed clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 44 new and 55 previously reported patients with COL4A1/COL4A2 mutations. RESULTS: Childhood-onset focal seizures, frequently complicated by status epilepticus and resistance to antiepileptic drugs, was the most common phenotype. EEG typically showed focal epileptiform discharges in the context of other abnormalities, including generalized sharp waves or slowing. In 46.4% of new patients with focal seizures, porencephalic cysts on brain MRI colocalized with the area of the focal epileptiform discharges. In patients with porencephalic cysts, brain MRI frequently also showed extensive white matter abnormalities, consistent with the finding of diffuse cerebral disturbance on EEG. Notably, we also identified a subgroup of patients with epilepsy as their main clinical feature, in which brain MRI showed nonspecific findings, in particular periventricular leukoencephalopathy and ventricular asymmetry. Analysis of 15 pedigrees suggested a worsening of the severity of clinical phenotype in succeeding generations, particularly when maternally inherited. Mutations associated with epilepsy were spread across COL4A1 and a clear genotype-phenotype correlation did not emerge. CONCLUSION: COL4A1/COL4A2 mutations typically cause a severe neurologic condition and a broader spectrum of milder phenotypes, in which epilepsy is the predominant feature. Early identification of patients carrying COL4A1/COL4A2 mutations may have important clinical consequences, while for research efforts, omission from large-scale epilepsy sequencing studies of individuals with abnormalities on brain MRI may generate misleading estimates of the genetic contribution to the epilepsies overall.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1366-1371, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080950

RESUMO

Biallelic PDE6C mutations are a known cause for rod monochromacy, better known as autosomal recessive achromatopsia (ACHM), and early-onset cone photoreceptor dysfunction. PDE6C encodes the catalytic α'-subunit of the cone photoreceptor phosphodiesterase, thereby constituting an essential part of the phototransduction cascade. Here, we present the results of a study comprising 176 genetically preselected patients who remained unsolved after Sanger sequencing of the most frequent genes accounting for ACHM, and were subsequently screened for exonic and splice site variants in PDE6C applying a targeted next generation sequencing approach. We were able to identify potentially pathogenic biallelic variants in 15 index cases. The mutation spectrum comprises 18 different alleles, 15 of which are novel. Our study significantly contributes to the mutation spectrum of PDE6C and allows for a realistic estimate of the prevalence of PDE6C mutations in ACHM since our entire ACHM cohort comprises 1,074 independent families.

16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(7): 3041-3052, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025130

RESUMO

Purpose: Mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa-1-like-1 (RP1L1) gene are the major cause of autosomal dominant occult macular dystrophy (OCMD), while recessive mutations have been linked to autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). We present the clinical phenotype of a large German OCMD cohort, as well as four RP patients. Methods: A total of 42 OCMD patients (27 families) and 4 arRP patients (3 families) with genetically confirmed mutations in RP1L1 were included. Genomic DNA was analyzed by targeted analysis of the c.133C>T;p.R45W mutation for all RP or macular dystrophy-related genes. All patients underwent ophthalmologic examination including psychophysical tests, electrophysiology, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Follow-up time was up to 12 years. Results: In 25 OCMD index patients genomic testing revealed the heterozygous mutation c.133C>T;p.R45W in RP1L1; one patient was homozygous for the mutation. Two OCMD patients displayed the variants c.3599G>A;p.G1200D and c.2849G>A;p.R950H, respectively, in a heterozygous state. All OCMD patients showed characteristic clinical findings and typical microstructural photoreceptor changes. Two arRP patients displayed the novel homozygous mutations c.3022C>T;p.Q1008* and c.1107G>A;p.W369*, respectively, while two RP-siblings carried the two heterozygous mutations c.455G>A;p.R152Q and c.5959C>T;p.Q1987*, the first also being novel. All arRP cases were mild with disease onset ≈30 years and preserved ERG-responses. Conclusions: OCMD phenotype showed consistent clinical findings including classical microstructural changes on SD-OCT. An important hallmark of RP1L1-related OCMD is the dominant family history with reduced penetrance. Furthermore, novel mutations in association with arRP were identified, outlining the complexity of the protein.

17.
J Orthop ; 15(2): 685-689, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881221

RESUMO

Idiopathic toe walking (ITW) is a pathological gait pattern in which children walk on their tip toes with no orthopedic or neurological reason. Physiological characteristics of the gastrocnemius muscles, the Achilles tendon, and the foot of toe walkers differ from subjects with a plantigrade walking pattern. McArdle's disease is characterized by the inability to break down muscle glycogen. It is an autosomal-recessive condition, characterized by low exercise tolerance, muscular atrophy at the shoulder girdle, episodes of myoglobinuria after vigorous physical activities and the occurrence of the second wind phenomenon. The aim of this review is to present the case studies of two subjects who were originally diagnosed as idiopathic toe walkers, but were then found to have McArdle's disease. This review will describe some physical characteristics that distinguish McArdle´s disease from Idiopathic toe walkers.

18.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1198-1204, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740868

RESUMO

Variants in several potassium channel genes have been found in developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE). We report on 2 females with de novo variants in KCNT2 with West syndrome followed by Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or with DEE with migrating focal seizures. After in vitro analysis suggested quinidine-responsive gain-of-function effects, we treated 1 of the girls with quinidine add-on therapy and achieved marked clinical improvements. This suggests that the new spectrum of KCNT2-related disorders do not only share similar phenotypic and in vitro functional and pharmacological features with previously known KCNT1-related disorders, but also represents a further example for possible precision medicine approaches. Ann Neurol 2018;83:1198-1204.

19.
Mol Vis ; 24: 326-339, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769798

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic basis of cone-rod dystrophy in 18 unrelated families of Polish origin. Cone-rod dystrophy is one of the inherited retinal dystrophies, which constitute a highly heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Methods: The study group was composed of four groups of patients representing different Mendelian inheritance of the disease: autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XL), and autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive (AR/XL). The combined molecular strategy included Sanger sequencing of the RPGR-ORF15 gene (three families with XL and three families with the AR/XL mode of inheritance), mutation-specific microarray analysis of the ABCA4 gene (five families with the AR mode of inheritance and two families with the AR/XL mode of inheritance), targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of inherited retinal disease-associated (IRD) genes (seven families with the AD mode of inheritance and five families with the AR mode of inheritance), and whole exome sequencing, performed in select families who had been mutation-negative in the analysis with the targeted NGS panel (one family with the AD mode of inheritance, one family with the AR mode of inheritance, and two families with the AR/XL mode of inheritance). Results: Based on this combined strategy, we managed to identify potentially causative variants in seven out of 18 families with CRD. Five of these variants are novel: c.3142_3143dupAA, p.(Glu1049Argfs*41) in the RPGR-ORF15 gene, two variants: c.1612delT, p.(Trp538Glyfs*15) and c.2389dupG, p.(Ile798Hisfs*20) in the PROM1 gene in one family, c.592A>C, p.(Ser198Arg) in the PRPH2 gene and the variant c.1691A>G, p.(Asp564Gly) in the ATF6 gene that we have already reported to be pathogenic. NGS on the IRD panel allowed the molecular basis of CRD to be identified in four out of 14 families with a total detection rate of 38%. WES allowed identification of the molecular genetic basis of CRD in one family. Conclusions: This is the first report on the spectrum of disease genes and pathogenic variants causing CRD in the Polish population. The study presents five novel variants identified in four genes and therefore, broadens the spectrum of probable pathogenic variants associated with CRD.


Assuntos
Antígeno AC133/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Distrofias de Cones e Bastonetes/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Periferinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Distrofias de Cones e Bastonetes/diagnóstico , Distrofias de Cones e Bastonetes/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes Dominantes , Genes Recessivos , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polônia , Polimorfismo Genético , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(2): 420-425, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445489

RESUMO

We present a case of diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) which showed increased nuchal translucency at 1st trimester and missing ossification of the lower spine, short ribs with posterior gaps, and absent nasal bone in midtrimester. Autopsy revealed additionally bilateral nephroblastomatosis. Molecular genetic analysis showed a new mutation in the BMPER gene.

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