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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of ascending aortic dissection in patients with Turner syndrome in the United States remains largely unknown with data surmised from published case reports or case series. Dissection of other vascular structures has only rarely been reported in this patient cohort. Recent European data identified aortic dissection to be a relatively rare event in a group of adult women with Turner syndrome. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, vascular dissection in women with Turner syndrome followed in the United States. METHOD: Retrospective review of all adult patients (age > 18 years) with Turner syndrome seen by any medical care provider within 2 medical systems covering a 5 state referral base was performed. Demographic, clinical, surgical and imaging variables of interest were recorded. RESULTS: Vascular dissection occurred in 16 (4.1%) of the 393 adult women and prophylactic aortic replacement occurred in 14 (3.5%). Only 35% of patients were under the care of a cardiologist with the remainder followed exclusively by other care providers. Vascular dissections occurred in the ascending & descending aorta as well as pulmonary artery and cerebral vessels. In addition to bicuspid aortic valve, and prior cardiac surgery, risk factors for vascular dissection included rural residence and lack of ongoing care by a cardiologist. CONCLUSION: Transition to adult cardiology subspecialty care is lacking in patients with Turner syndrome. Aortic dissection is not uncommon. Ongoing interaction with a cardiologist is essential to optimize cardiac outcomes in those with cardiac risk factors and may best be accomplished with centralized multidisciplinary clinics.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660046

RESUMO

Although there are many recognized health benefits for the consumption of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), intake in the United States remains below recommended amounts. This analysis was designed to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 LCPUFA intake (eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States adult population, based on education, income, and race/ethnicity, using data from the 2003-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 44,585). Over this survey period, participants with less education and lower income had significantly lower n-3 LCPUFA intakes and fish intakes (p < 0.001 for all between group comparisons). N-3 LCPUFA intake differed significantly according to ethnicity (p < 0.001), with the highest intake of n-3 LCPUFA and fish in individuals in the "Other" category (including Asian Americans). Supplement use increased EPA + DHA intake, but only 7.4% of individuals consistently took supplements. Overall, n-3 LCPUFA intake in this study population was low, but our findings indicate that individuals with lower educational attainment and income are at even higher risk of lower n-3 LCPUFA and fish intake.

3.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 10(4): 440-445, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine has been suggested as an arrhythmia prophylactic agent after surgery for congenital heart disease due to its heart rate lowering effect, though studies are conflicting. We sought to study the effect of dexmedetomidine in infants that are at highest risk for arrhythmias. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of infants less than six months of age undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart disease. The arrhythmia incidence in the first 48 hours after surgery in infants receiving dexmedetomidine for sedation was compared to those that did not receive dexmedetomidine. RESULTS: A total of 309 patients were included, 206 patients who did not receive dexmedetomidine and 103 patients who did. The incidence of tachyarrhythmias was similar between the non-DEX group and the DEX group (19% vs 15%, P = .34). When adjusted for baseline differences, the non-DEX group did not have an increased risk of postoperative tachyarrhythmias (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-3.8). The non-DEX group had an increased need for treatment for arrhythmias (18% vs 8%, P = .012). The three lesions with baseline higher risk for arrhythmias (tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and complete atrioventricular canal) had an increased incidence of tachyarrhythmias in the non-DEX group (34% vs 6%, P = .027). This risk was not significant in multivariate analysis (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.4-15.5). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk infants had decreased incidence of tachyarrhythmias when receiving dexmedetomidine, though this was not significant after accounting for baseline differences between groups.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Cardiol Young ; 29(7): 945-953, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prematurity impacts myocardial development and may determine long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that preterm neonates develop right ventricle dysfunction and adaptive remodelling by 32 weeks post-menstrual age that persists through 1 year corrected age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A subset of 80 preterm infants (born <29 weeks) was selected retrospectively from a prospectively enrolled cohort and measures of right ventricle systolic function and morphology by two-dimensional echocardiography were assessed at 32 weeks post-menstrual age and at 1 year of corrected age. Comparisons were made to 50 term infants at 1 month and 1 year of age. Sub-analyses were performed in preterm-born infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension. RESULT: In both term and preterm infants, right ventricle function and morphology increased over the first year (p < 0.01). The magnitudes of right ventricle function measures were lower in preterm-born infants at each time period (p < 0.01 for all) and right ventricle morphology indices were wider in all preterm infants by 1 year corrected age, irrespective of lung disease. Measures of a) right ventricle function were further decreased and b) morphology increased through 1 year in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Preterm infants exhibit abnormal right ventricle performance with remodelling at 32 weeks post-menstrual age that persists through 1 year corrected age, suggesting a less developed intrinsic myocardial function response following preterm birth. The development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension leave a further negative impact on right ventricle mechanics over the first year of age.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Doenças do Prematuro/patologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular , Displasia Broncopulmonar/patologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Lipids ; 54(4): 221-230, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025717

RESUMO

The long-chain n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a crucial role in health, but previous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) analyses have shown that EPA and DHA intake in the United States is far below recommendations (~250-500 mg/day EPA + DHA). Less is known about docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), the metabolic intermediate of EPA and DHA; however, evidence suggests DPA may be an important contributor to long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake and impart unique benefits. We used NHANES 2003-2014 data (n = 45,347) to assess DPA intake and plasma concentrations, as well as the relationship between intake and plasma concentrations of EPA, DPA, and DHA. Mean DPA intake was 22.3 ± 0.8 mg/day from 2013 to 2014, and increased significantly over time (p < 0.001), with the lowest values from 2003 to 2004 (16.2 ± 1.2 mg/day). DPA intake was higher in adults (20-55 years) and seniors (55+ years) compared to younger individuals. In regression analyses, DPA intake was a significant predictor of plasma EPA (ß = 138.5; p < 0.001) and DHA (ß = 318.9; p < 0.001). Plasma DPA was predicted by EPA and DHA intake (ß = 13.15; p = 0.001 and ß = 7.4; p = 0.002), but not dietary DPA (p = 0.3). This indicates that DPA intake is not a good marker of plasma DPA status (or vice versa), and further research is needed to understand the factors that affect the interconversion of EPA and DPA. These findings have implications for future long-chain n-3 fatty acids dietary recommendations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Med Oncol ; 36(4): 34, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840157

RESUMO

Clinical trial accrual is vital to advancing care. A single study elucidated demographic data correlating with glioma patients' clinical trial enrollment. However, it did not investigate the underlying decision-making process for non-participation. In this study, we seek to understand this key aspect of patient accrual. All notes for glioma patients seen by a single neuro-oncologist from July 2010 to May 2017 were examined for mention of clinical trial offerings. When a trial was declined, the patient's reasoning was recorded along with the following: diagnosis, KPS, extent of resection, age, gender, race, marital status, income group, religion, trial offered at initial visit versus subsequent, and distance from trial site. Of 279 consecutive glioma patients, 88 were eligible for and offered a clinical trial. Fifty-seven accepted (65%), and 31 (35%) declined participation (Fig. 1). Of those offered a clinical trial, patients with glioblastoma (GBM) were significantly more likely to accept (44 out of 57 (77%) vs. 13 out of 57 (23%), p =0.03). After we adjusted for gender and travel distance, GBM was the only significant predictor of clinical trial acceptance, with an odds ratio of 3.18 (95% CI 1.17, 8.61, p =0.02). Reasons cited for non-participation included: travel distance (39%), lack of interest (39%), visit frequency (16%), and fear of randomization (6%). This study clarified for the first time individual glioma patient rationale for non-participation and potential areas for improving enrollment. Allowing off-site treatment centers or telemedicine visits may entice rural patients to participate. Visit frequency should be carefully considered and minimized whenever possible. Further prospective study of rationale for non-participation may improve enrollment over time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Glioma/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Feminino , Glioma/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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