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1.
Sleep Med ; 66: 24-32, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder that has a complex phenotype. Currently, few genes have been linked with OSA. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) variation along time (delta-AHI) in a prospective cohort. METHODS: We used data derived from the São Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO) (n = 1074) cohort, which was followed over eight years (n = 712). Our phenotype of interest was delta-AHI and incident OSA. Further, we were interested on the time-dependent effect of genetic variants. Our final GWAS model used delta-AHI as a dependent variable and the SNPs and covariates as independent variables. We also performed a gene-set and pathway analysis. RESULTS: The delta-AHI increased on average 6.1 events/hour (standard deviation = 14.9) over the follow-up. We found two significant and 21 suggestive variants associated with delta-AHI. The strongest association (rs12415421) was observed at ST8SIA6 gene and the other significant hit (rs4731117) was in an intergenic region in linkage disequilibrium with our third hit (rs12669165) in the ASB15 gene. We found an effect of the allele rs12415421 for the OSA incidence. Additionally, we observed that individuals with both risk alleles presented a higher incidence of OSA when compared to those with one or without any risk alleles. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified genes in these associated regions with delta-AHI, which seem to be involved in growth and stability of muscle and bone. We also observed an effect of both allele frequencies in the incidence of OSA.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874830

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that trauma caused by snoring in the pharynx could result in dysphagia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, but the literature is still scarce to define the factors associated with the presence of dysphagia in these patients. AIM: To analyze the occurrence of dysphagia and its clinical and polysomnographic features in patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea, in addition to verifying the impact of dysphagia on the quality of life of these patients. METHODS: Seventy patients with moderate or severe apnea (apnea and hypopnea index - AHI>15/hour) were selected. The patients underwent a sleep questionnaire, a quality of life in dysphagia questionnaire and a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients were included in the study, of which 49 were men (70 %), with a mean age of 48.9 years. The fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was altered in 27.3 % and the most frequent alteration was the premature oral leakage with fluid. Comparing the groups with and without dysphagia, the female gender was the only clinical parameter that showed a trend of statistical significance in the group with dysphagia (p=0.069). There was no statistical difference regarding the polysomnographic features and in the global quality of life score in dysphagia in the comparison between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of dysphagia in patients with moderate to severe apnea is frequent and subclinical, reinforcing the need to investigate this symptom in this group of patients. However, the presence of dysphagia did not result in worsening in patients' quality of life, suggesting that, although frequent, its effect is mild. There was no relevance regarding the association of clinical and polysomnographic parameters with the presence of dysphagia.

3.
Sleep ; 42(10)2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587046

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) commonly affects therapeutic response in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We aimed to determine predictors of adherence to CPAP among participants of the Sleep Apnea and cardioVascular Endpoints (SAVE) trial. METHODS: SAVE was an international, randomized, open trial of CPAP plus usual care versus usual care (UC) alone in participants (45-75 years) with co-occurring moderate-to-severe OSA (≥12 episodes/h of ≥4% oxygen desaturation) and established cardiovascular (CV) disease. Baseline sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors, OSA symptoms, and 1-month change in daytime sleepiness, as well as CPAP side effects and adherence (during sham screening, titration week, and in the first month), were entered in univariate linear regression analyses to identify predictors of CPAP adherence at 24 months. Variables with p <0.2 were assessed for inclusion in a multivariate linear mixed model with country, age, and sex included a priori and site as a random effect. RESULTS: Significant univariate predictors of adherence at 24 months in 1,121 participants included: early adherence measures, improvement in daytime sleepiness at 1 month, fixed CPAP pressure, some measures of OSA severity, cardiovascular disease history, breathing pauses, and very loud snoring. While observed adherence varied between countries, adherence during sham screening, initial titration, and the first month of treatment retained independent predictive value in the multivariate model along with fixed CPAP pressure and very loud snoring. CONCLUSIONS: Early CPAP adherence had the greatest predictive value for identifying those at highest risk of non-adherence to long-term CPAP therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: SAVE is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00738179).

4.
Sleep Breath ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One of the concerns regarding surgical treatment of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been the possibility that these patients may experience a higher rate of perioperative complications, which could be aggravated by the upper airway edema caused by surgical trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate impact of pharyngeal surgery on the respiratory parameters of adult patients with OSAS. METHODS: Twenty-three adults with moderate to severe OSAS and indications for pharyngeal surgery (with or without nasal surgery) were consecutively selected. The subjects underwent surgical treatment and monitoring of sleep parameters preoperatively (by type I polysomnography, PSG) and in the immediate postoperative period (arterial tonometry). RESULTS: Twenty-two subjects, aged 20 to 59 years (mean ± SD, 38.0 ± 12.1 years), were included in the study. Nineteen (86.4%) were male. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 59.3 ± 26.0 events/h. Comparison between preoperative PSG and postoperative arterial tonometry revealed statistically significant reductions in AHI (p = 0.03), respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (p = 0.05), and oxygen desaturation index (p = 0.001), as well as increases in nadir oxyhemoglobin saturation (p = 0.003) and percentage of REM sleep (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of patients with moderate and severe OSAS who underwent pharyngeal surgery, the vast majority of patients did not exhibit any deterioration of respiratory parameters in the immediate postoperative period. Conversely, there was a significant improvement in the parameters.

5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 11: 81-88, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317133

RESUMO

Background: The growing awareness for the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) coupled with the dramatic proportion of undiagnosed individuals motivates the elaboration of a simple but accurate screening test. This study assesses, for the first time, the performance of oximetry combined with demographic information as a screening tool for identifying OSA in a representative (i.e. non-referred) population sample. Methods: A polysomnography (PSG) clinical database of 887 individuals from a representative population sample of São Paulo's city (Brazil) was used. Using features derived from the oxygen saturation signal during sleep periods and demographic information, a logistic regression model (termed OxyDOSA) was trained to distinguish between non-OSA and OSA individuals (mild, moderate, and severe). The OxyDOSA model performance was assessed against the PSG-based diagnosis of OSA (AASM 2017) and compared to the NoSAS and STOP-BANG questionnaires. Findings: The OxyDOSA model had mean AUROC = 0.94 ±â€¯0.02, Se = 0.87 ±â€¯0.04 and Sp = 0.85 ±â€¯0.03. In particular, it did not miss any of the 75 severe OSA individuals. In comparison, the NoSAS questionnaire had AUROC = 0.83 ±â€¯0.03, and missed 23/75 severe OSA individuals. The STOP-BANG had AUROC = 0.77 ±â€¯0.04 and missed 14/75 severe OSA individuals. Interpretation: We provide strong evidence on a representative population sample that oximetry biomarkers combined with few demographic information, the OxyDOSA model, is an effective screening tool for OSA. Our results suggest that sleep questionnaires should be used with caution for OSA screening as they fail to identify many moderate and even some severe cases. The OxyDOSA model will need to be further validated on data recorded using overnight portable oximetry.

6.
Sleep Breath ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240542

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Information on access and adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment is lacking at the regional level in Latin America. This study characterized access and adherence to PAP in patients with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in Latin America. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, conducted at 9 sleep centers across Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Adults diagnosed with moderate-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) in the previous 12-18 months were eligible. Anthropometrics, health coverage, and OSA severity data were collected. Data on access to therapy, barriers to access, adherence, and factors related to non-compliance were obtained via standardized telephone survey. RESULTS: Eight hundred eighty patients (70% male, 54 ± 13 years, AHI 49 ± 28/h, body mass index 32 ± 7 kg/m2) were included. Four hundred ninety patients (56%) initiated PAP, 70 (14%) discontinued therapy during the first year (mainly due to intolerance), and 420 (48%) were still using PAP when surveyed. Health insurance was private in 36.9% of patients, via the social security system in 31.1%, and via the state in 13.3%, and 18.7% did not have any coverage; 49.5% of patients had to pay all equipment costs. Reasons for not starting PAP were unclear or absent indication (42%), coverage problems (36%), and lack of awareness of OSA burden (14%). Patients with better adherence were older (55.3 ± 13 vs 52 ± 13; p = 0.002) and had more severe OSA (AHI 51.8 ± 27 vs 45.6 ± 27; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Less than half moderate-severe OSA patients started and continue to use PAP. Unclear or absent medical indication and financial limitations were the most relevant factors limiting access to therapy.

7.
Sleep Sci ; 12(1): 2-9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105888

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate anthropometric measures and their effectiveness as screening method for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in each gender. We also evaluated which measures were associated with OSA in the adult population of a large metropolitan city, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 552 women and 450 men were submitted to polysomnography (PSG), and the anthropometric measurements as body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio, neck and waist circumference were collected. The measurements were then compared with the OSA classification established by the PSG. In women, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were found to be the best predictor, while in men, the factors with great potential for identification varied according to severity of the disease, highlighting waist-to-height ratio, neck circumference and BMI had strongest association. The accuracy of the classification in relation to mild-to-severe OSA based on cut-off values of 92.5cm for waist circumference was greater than 72.9% in men, and 78.9% in women based on cut off values of 95cm. Regarding severe OSA, cut-off values of 116.1cm were greater than 91.3% accurate in the male population, and 95.1% in the female population with a cut-off value of 126.5cm. The study found waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio to be the best measure to assess sleep-disordered breathing in women. Waist-to-height ratio and neck circumferences were the best measures in men with mild OSA, but BMI was more closely associated with severe OSA. The present study identified the anthropometric variables with the highest risk for OSA and their respective cutoff value, according to gender.

8.
Sleep Breath ; 23(2): 619-626, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020485

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) tend to have a high prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and dysphagia. These diseases are known to share the same risk factors and may be interrelated, but there is a lack of studies evaluating their co-occurrence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the presence of signs and symptoms suggestive of LPR may be associated with the presence of dysphagia in patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as well as assess the additional impact of these diseases on quality of life in patients with OSA. METHODS: Seventy adult patients with moderate or severe OSA were included in the study. The RSI (Reflux Symptom Index) and Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) in dysphagia questionnaires were administered, laryngoscopy was performed to calculate the Reflux Finding Score (RFS), and fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) was conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of LPR was 59.7%, and the prevalence of dysphagia was 27.3%. The association between LPR and dysphagia was present in 17.9% of patients, but with no statistically significant difference. Lower SWAL-QOL scores were observed in several domains in patients with LPR and in only one domain in patients with evidence of dysphagia on FEES. CONCLUSIONS: Although 17.9% of patients presented with findings suggestive of concomitant LPR and dysphagia, there was no statistically significant association between these two conditions. Patients with LPR had worse scores in several domains of dysphagia-related quality of life, while FEES evidence of dysphagia was associated with worse quality of life in only one domain.

9.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(4): 629-639, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952214

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a global health issue and is associated with obesity and oropharyngeal crowding. Global data are limited on the effect of ethnicity and sex on these relationships. We compare associations between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and these risk factors across ethnicities and sexes within sleep clinics. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, multicenter study of patients with OSA from eight sleep centers representing the Sleep Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium (SAGIC). Four distinct ethnic groups were analyzed, using a structured questionnaire: Caucasians (Australia, Iceland, Germany, United States), African Americans (United States), Asians (Taiwan), and South Americans (Brazil). Regression analyses and interaction tests were used to assess ethnic and sex differences in relationships between AHI and anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], neck circumference, waist circumference) or Mallampati score. RESULTS: Analyses included 1,585 individuals from four ethnic groups: Caucasian (60.6%), African American (17.5%), Asian (13.1%), and South American (8.9%). BMI was most strongly associated with AHI in South Americans (7.8% increase in AHI per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI; P < .0001) and most weakly in African Americans (1.9% increase in AHI per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI; P = .002). In Caucasians and South Americans, associations were stronger in males than females. Mallampati score differed between ethnicities but did not influence AHI differently across groups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate ethnic and sex variations in associations between obesity and OSA. For similar BMI increases, South American patients show greatest AHI increases compared to African Americans. Findings highlight the importance of considering ethnicity and sex in clinical assessments of OSA risk.

10.
Dysphagia ; 34(3): 333-340, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251146

RESUMO

There is evidence in the literature demonstrating that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may present with dysphagia, but few studies have evaluated whether this complaint can be reversed with treatment of OSA. To assess whether findings of dysphagia in patients with OSA can be reversed with the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices. Seventy adult patients (age 18-70 years) with moderate or severe OSA were included in the study. All patients underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and completed the SWAL-QOL questionnaire on quality of life in dysphagia. Patients with visible abnormalities on FEES were treated with CPAP and reassessed after 3 months. The prevalence of dysphagia was 27.3% (18 patients). Premature spillage was the main finding. On comparison of groups with and without dysphagia, the SWAL-QOL score was significantly worse in the dysphagia group in domain 2 (eating duration and eating desire, p = 0.015), with no impact on overall score (p = 0.107). Of the 18 patients with dysphagia, 12 were started on CPAP; 11 exhibited satisfactory adherence and remained in the study. Abnormal FEES findings resolved in 81% (n = 9/11) of patients who started CPAP (p = 0.004), and dysphagia-specific quality of life also improved significantly (overall SWAL-QOL score, p = 0.028). In this sample of patients with OSA, the overall prevalence of dysphagia (as demonstrated by premature spillage on FEES) was 27.3%. Treatment of OSA with CPAP was able to reverse the endoscopic findings of swallowing dysfunction and to improve quality of life as measured by the SWAL-QOL.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sleep Breath ; 23(1): 25-31, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203176

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the agreement between the manual scoring of home sleep apnea tests (HSATs) by international sleep technologists and automated scoring systems. METHODS: Fifteen HSATs, previously recorded using a type 3 monitor, were saved in European Data Format. The studies were scored by nine experienced technologists from the sleep centers of the Sleep Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium (SAGIC) using the locally available software. Each study was scored separately by human scorers using the nasal pressure (NP), flow derived from the NP signal (transformed NP), or respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) flow. The same procedure was followed using two automated scoring systems: Remlogic (RLG) and Noxturnal (NOX). RESULTS: The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) scoring using the NP, transformed NP, and RIP flow were 0.96 [95% CI 0.93-0.99], 0.98 [0.96-0.99], and 0.97 [0.95-0.99], respectively. Using the NP signal, the mean differences in AHI between the average of the manual scoring and the automated systems were - 0.9 ± 3.1/h (AHIRLG vs AHIMANUAL) and - 1.3 ± 2.6/h (AHINOX vs AHIMANUAL). Using the transformed NP, the mean differences in AHI were - 1.9 ± 3.3/h (AHIRLG vs AHIMANUAL) and 1.6 ± 3.0/h (AHINOX vs AHIMANUAL). Using the RIP flow, the mean differences in AHI were - 2.7 ± 4.5/h (AHIRLG vs AHIMANUAL) and 2.3 ± 3.4/h (AHINOX vs AHIMANUAL). CONCLUSIONS: There is very strong agreement in the scoring of the AHI for HSATs between the automated systems and experienced international technologists. Automated scoring of HSATs using commercially available software may be useful to standardize scoring in future endeavors involving international sleep centers.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Assistência Domiciliar/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Polissonografia/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia/instrumentação , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico
12.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(12): 2037-2045, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518442

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the association between short telomere length, sleep parameters, and sleep disorders in an adult general population sample. METHODS: As part of the EPISONO cohort (São Paulo, Brazil), 925 individuals answered questionnaires, underwent a full-night polysomnography and clinical assessment, and had peripheral blood collected for DNA extraction. Insomnia was diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; and obstructive sleep apnea was defined according to apnea-hypopnea index. For the objective insomnia phenotype, we combined insomnia diagnosis with total sleep time from polysomnography with a cutoff of 360 minutes, allowing the classification of six groups. Self-reported sleep duration was used to classify the individuals as short (< 6 hours), average (6 to 8 hours) and long (> 8 hours) sleepers. The leukocyte telomere length was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Based on its distribution, we considered leukocyte telomere length < 10th percentile as short telomere and leukocyte telomere length ≥ 10th percentile as non-short telomere. RESULTS: After adjusting for sex, age, and body mass index, only insomnia disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 2.654, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.025-6.873, P = .044), insomnia disorder total sleep time < 360 minutes (OR = 4.205, 95% CI = 1.097-16.117, P = .036) and long sleepers (OR = 2.177, 95% CI = 1.189- 3.987, P = .012) were associated with short telomere. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the existence of an association among insomnia, insomnia phenotype, and self-reported long sleep duration with the maintenance of telomere length. COMMENTARY: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1975.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Encurtamento do Telômero/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Eur Respir J ; 52(5)2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287472

RESUMO

Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are often associated, but whether a temporal relationship exists is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effect of OSA on the risk of developing MetS in the general population.A prospective study was conducted combining two population-based samples: Episono (Brazil) and HypnoLaus (Switzerland). MetS was assessed according to unified criteria. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed at baseline and follow-up in Episono, and at baseline in HypnoLaus. OSA was defined according to the apnoea-hypopnoea index as mild (≥5- <15 events h-1) and moderate-to-severe (≥15 events·h-1). We included 1853 participants (mean±sd age 52±13 years, 56% female) without MetS at baseline.After mean±sd 6±1 years, 318 (17.2%) participants developed MetS. Moderate-to-severe OSA was independently associated with incident MetS (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.61-4.11) and increased the number of MetS components from baseline to follow-up through mediation of the percentage of time with arterial oxygen saturation <90%. Subset analysis in Episono confirmed that the increase in this parameter between baseline and follow-up PSGs represented a risk factor for incident MetS (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.95, for each 10% increase).OSA is independently associated with an increased risk of developing MetS through mediation of nocturnal hypoxaemia in the general population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suíça/epidemiologia
15.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 23(4): 45-54, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304153

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Occlusal side effects or development of pain and/or functional impairment of the temporomandibular complex are potential reasons for poor compliance or abandonment of mandibular advancement splints treatment for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at providing a comprehensive review evaluating the craniofacial side effects of oral appliance therapy for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: An electronic search was systematically conducted in PubMed and Virtual Health Library from their inception until October 2016. Only Randomized Controlled Trials whose primary aim was to measure objectively identified side effects on craniofacial complex of a custom-made oral appliance for treating primary snoring or obstructive sleep apnea were included. Studied patients should be aged 20 or older. The risk of bias in the trials was assessed in accordance with the recommendations of The Cochrane Risk of Bias criteria. RESULTS: A total of 62 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. After the review process, only 6 met all the inclusion criteria. All studies were rated as having a high risk of bias. The most uniformly reported mandibular advancement splint side effects were predominantly of dental nature and included a decrease in overjet and overbite. The risk of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex appeared limited with long-term mandibular advancement splint use. CONCLUSION: The limited available evidence suggests that mandibular advancement splint therapy for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea results in changes in craniofacial morphology that are predominantly dental in nature, specially on a long-term basis. Considering the chronic nature of obstructive sleep apnea and that oral appliance use might be a lifelong treatment, a thorough customized follow-up should therefore be undertaken to detect possible side effects on craniofacial complex. It is also important to provide adequate information to the patients regarding these possible changes, especially to those in whom larger occlusal changes are to be expected or in whom they are unfavorable. Long-term assessments of adverse effects of oral appliance therapy, with larger study samples and recruitment of homogenous patient population are still required.


Assuntos
Avanço Mandibular/efeitos adversos , Contenções Periodontais/efeitos adversos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Ronco/terapia , Adulto , Humanos
16.
Chest ; 154(4): 808-817, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise and CPAP improve OSA. This study examined the effects of exercise in patients with heart failure (HF) and OSA. METHODS: Patients with HF and OSA were randomized to the following study groups: control, exercise, CPAP, and exercise + CPAP. RESULTS: Sixty-five participants completed the protocol. Comparing baseline vs 3 months, the mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) did not change significantly (in events per hour) in the control group, decreased moderately in the exercise group (28 ± 17 to 18 ± 12; P < .03), and decreased significantly more in the CPAP group (32 ± 25 to 8 ± 11; P < .007) and in the exercise + CPAP group (25 ± 15 to 10 ± 16; P < .007). Peak oxygen consumption, muscle strength, and endurance improved only with exercise. Both exercise and CPAP improved subjective excessive daytime sleepiness, quality of life, and the New York Heart Association functional class. However, compared with the control group, changes in scores on the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Survey and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire were only significant in the exercise groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HF and OSA, our preliminary results showed that exercise alone attenuated OSA and improved quality of life more than CPAP. In the landscape treatment of OSA in patients with HF, this analysis is the only randomized trial showing any treatment (in this case, exercise) that improved all the studied parameters. The results highlight the important therapeutic benefits of exercise, particularly because adherence to CPAP is low.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Polissonografia , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia
17.
Sleep Med ; 51: 9-14, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare vascular endothelial function between dipping (D) and nondipping (ND) patterns in patients with and without mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using EndoPAT, a test of reactive hyperemia used to assess peripheral vascular endothelial function. METHODS: The sample consisted of individuals of both genders between 18 and 65 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of ≤35 kg/m2 and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of ≤15. The nondipping pattern was considered present when the dip of nocturnal blood pressure (NBP) was <10%. All of the sample underwent clinical and physical evaluation, full polysomnography, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and EndoPAT evaluation. A generalized linear model was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sample comprised 120 individuals, 35 in the control group and 85 in the mild OSA group. Four groups were formed: Control-ND, Control-D, Mild OSA-ND, and Mild OSA-D according to nocturnal ABPM patterns. The frequency of nondipping was (34.1%) in the Mild OSA group and (17.1%) in the Control group (p = 0.07). The Mild OSA-ND group had a higher augmentation index (AIx) than the Mild OSA-D group. Regression analysis showed that male gender, higher age, and nondipping status were associated with these results, whereas oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and AHI did not. With respect to the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), the Mild OSA-D group had lower values compared to the Control-ND group, but an association with OSA was not confirmed in the regression model. CONCLUSION: Nondipping status was associated with a worse augmentation index in both groups independently of AHI or oxygen desaturation index. Male gender, higher age, and nondipping status were associated with augmentation index. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01461486.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur Respir J ; 52(4)2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093572

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is positively associated with cardiometabolic diseases; however, high levels of physical activity could decrease the incidence of OSA and associated comorbidities.In this study we aimed to examine the incidence of OSA in relation to physical activity, and its role as a protective factor in individuals with OSA on the incidence of cardiometabolic diseases, in an 8-9-year follow-up study. We analysed data of 658 volunteers from the São Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO), a cohort study of individuals aged 20-80 years, collected through polysomnography, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and an assessment of cardiometabolic profile.Active subjects had a lower risk of developing OSA compared with nonactive subjects (relative risk 0.877, 95% CI 0.296-0.855) and there was a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in active/apnoeic subjects (relative risk 0.493, 95% CI 0.252-0.961) compared with nonactive subjects. Metabolic equivalent was negatively associated to cardiometabolic markers, such as C-reactive protein (exp(B)=0.720; p=0.001), interleukin-6 (exp(B)=0.991; p=0.03), insulin (exp(B)=0.982; p=0.03), triglycerides (exp(B)=0.997; p<0.001), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (exp(B)≤0.946; p<0.024), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (exp(B)=992.4; p<0.001) and mean arterial pressure (exp(B)=0.987; p=0.001).Physical activity was a protective factor against type 2 diabetes mellitus in apnoeic individuals; moreover, being active reduced the risk of developing OSA and was associated with a better cardiometabolic profile.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Exercício , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sleep Sci ; 11(2): 118-122, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083300

RESUMO

Mandibular advancement device (MAD) has been described as an alternative treatment to the severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), once it is not as effective as the continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) in reducing the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI). The objective of this study is to report a case using a MAD in a CPAP-intolerant patient suffering from severe OSA. Polysomnography exams were performed before and after treatment. Five months after fitting and titrating the MAD, the AHI was reduced from 80.5 events/hour to 14.6 events/hour and the minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) increased from 46% to 83%. A two-year assessment of therapy revealed an AHI of 8 events/hour and SpO2 of 85%.

20.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 45-54, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-953040

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Occlusal side effects or development of pain and/or functional impairment of the temporomandibular complex are potential reasons for poor compliance or abandonment of mandibular advancement splints treatment for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: This study aimed at providing a comprehensive review evaluating the craniofacial side effects of oral appliance therapy for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Methods: An electronic search was systematically conducted in PubMed and Virtual Health Library from their inception until October 2016. Only Randomized Controlled Trials whose primary aim was to measure objectively identified side effects on craniofacial complex of a custom-made oral appliance for treating primary snoring or obstructive sleep apnea were included. Studied patients should be aged 20 or older. The risk of bias in the trials was assessed in accordance with the recommendations of The Cochrane Risk of Bias criteria. Results: A total of 62 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. After the review process, only 6 met all the inclusion criteria. All studies were rated as having a high risk of bias. The most uniformly reported mandibular advancement splint side effects were predominantly of dental nature and included a decrease in overjet and overbite. The risk of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex appeared limited with long-term mandibular advancement splint use. Conclusion: The limited available evidence suggests that mandibular advancement splint therapy for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea results in changes in craniofacial morphology that are predominantly dental in nature, specially on a long-term basis. Considering the chronic nature of obstructive sleep apnea and that oral appliance use might be a lifelong treatment, a thorough customized follow-up should therefore be undertaken to detect possible side effects on craniofacial complex. It is also important to provide adequate information to the patients regarding these possible changes, especially to those in whom larger occlusal changes are to be expected or in whom they are unfavorable. Long-term assessments of adverse effects of oral appliance therapy, with larger study samples and recruitment of homogenous patient population are still required.


RESUMO Introdução: efeitos colaterais oclusais e o desenvolvimento de dor e/ou disfunção do complexo temporomandibular podem levar à baixa adesão ou ao abandono do tratamento do ronco e da apneia obstrutiva do sono com aparelhos de avanço mandibular. Objetivo: fornecer uma revisão abrangente da literatura sobre os efeitos colaterais craniofaciais do tratamento do ronco e da apneia obstrutiva do sono com aparelhos de avanço mandibular. Métodos: foram realizadas buscas eletrônicas sistematicamente no PubMed e na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde até outubro de 2016. Foram incluídos apenas Ensaios Controlados Randomizados, com o objetivo primário de mensurar objetivamente os efeitos colaterais no complexo craniofacial associados ao uso de aparelhos de avanço mandibular no tratamento do ronco e da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Os pacientes estudados deveriam ter 20 anos de idade ou mais. A avaliação do risco de viés dos trabalhos selecionados seguiu as recomendações do The Cochrane Risk of Bias. Resultados: no total, 62 artigos completos foram avaliados em relação à elegibilidade. Após o processo de revisão, apenas 6 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Todos os estudos foram julgados como tendo alto risco de viés. Os efeitos colaterais mais frequentemente encontrados foram de natureza dentária e incluíram uma diminuição do overjet e do overbite. O risco de desenvolvimento de dor ou disfunção do complexo temporomandibular pareceu limitado na avaliação de longo prazo do uso do aparelho de avanço mandibular. Conclusão: as evidências disponíveis são limitadas e sugerem que o tratamento do ronco e da apneia obstrutiva do sono com aparelhos de avanço mandibular resulta em alterações craniofaciais predominantemente dentárias, especialmente nas avaliações de longo prazo. Considerando-se que a apneia obstrutiva do sono é crônica e que os aparelho intrabucais se constituem em uma forma de tratamento contínuo e por tempo indefinido, é necessário um acompanhamento individualizado para monitorar possíveis efeitos colaterais no complexo craniofacial. Também é importante informar aos pacientes sobre esses possíveis efeitos, especialmente àqueles nos quais são esperadas maiores alterações oclusais ou nos quais elas sejam desfavoráveis. Ainda são necessárias avaliações de longo prazo dos efeitos colaterais do tratamento com aparelhos intrabucais, com amostras maiores e mais homogêneas.

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