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1.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 23(5): 18, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694019

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review considers the framework of high-risk vs. population approaches as proposed in the Rose's axiom within the context of cardiovascular diseases, including its benefits and limitations. We also contextualize the use of precision medicine in primary prevention therapy and contrast that with population approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the high-risk strategy aims at individualized care, the complexity of pharmacologic regimens and other limitations reduces its real-life impact. On the other hand, broad population strategies include treatment of a substantial number of low-risk individuals who are unlikely to benefit from treatment. The use of additional strategies to identify those low-risk individuals, instead of targeting at identifying the high-risk population, is and alternative strategy to be considered. Evidence of the potential use of coronary artery calcium score and polypills for this strategy is discussed. A more targeted population approach to primary prevention in cardiovascular diseases with the use of polypills and coronary artery calcium score might be considered in a structured mass-strategy approach to risk reduction.

2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(5): 105671, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of carotid plaques and common carotid artery intima-media thickness with traditional modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We examined 4,266 participants aged 35-74years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. The presence of plaques at all carotid arteries sites was evaluated. The mean far wall common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured. To evaluate the association of cardiovascular risk factors with plaques and plaque burden, we applied logistic regression models presented as crude, adjusted by sociodemographic variables, along with multivariate further adjustment for hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking. For the association of cardiovascular risk factors and common carotid artery intima-media thickness, linear regression models were used with the same adjustments. RESULTS: Median age was 51 years (interquartile range: 45-58 years; 54.5% of females). Plaque prevalence in at least one segment of the carotid arteries was 35.9%. Mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness of the far walls was 0.609 ± 0.133 mm. In the multivariate model for plaque presence, the odds ratios were:1.39 (1.19-1.63) for hypertension;1.58 (1.36-1.82) for hypercholesterolemia; 2.00 (1.65-2.43),1.19 (1.02-1.40) for current and past smoking, and 1.13 (0.95-1.35) for diabetes. In the multivariate linear regression models, common carotid artery intima-media thickness beta-coefficients were: 0.035 mm (0.027-0.043) for hypertension; 0.020 mm (0.013-0.027) for hypercholesterolemia; 0.020 mm (0.010-0.029), 0.012 mm (0.004-0.020) for current and past smoking, and 0.024 mm (0.015-0.033) for diabetes. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with increasing common carotid artery intima-media thickness, plaque prevalence, and plaque scores. Diabetes did not show an independent association with plaques in the multivariate model.

3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with severe hypercholesterolemia are at a high risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Many of them have familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). OBJECTIVES: To assess from a patient perspective the degree of awareness about severe hypercholesterolemia, especially FH, ASCVD risk perception, cascade screening performance, and treatment of individuals participating in a routine health evaluation program. METHODS: From a database of 70,000 Brazilian individuals evaluated between 2006 and 2016, 1,987 (2.8%) met the inclusion criteria (age ≥ 18 years and LDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dL or ≥ 160 mg/dL, respectively, if not in use of statins or on statin therapy). Two-hundred individuals were randomly invited to complete an extensive questionnaire. FH was diagnosed if suspected by the attending physician. RESULTS: Although 97% of the sample (age 48±9 years; 16% women; 95% college/university education; 88% primary prevention; LDL-C 209±47 mg/dL) had severe hypercholesterolemia, only 18% and 29.5% believed to be at high ASCVD risk and reported knowledge of their recommended LDL-C goal, respectively. Fifty-eight percent reported being informed that high cholesterol could be a family disease, 24.5% (n = 49) had ever heard about FH, and merely 14% (n = 29) had been previously identified as suspected of having FH (age at FH diagnosis 35±12 years; 79% and 31% diagnosed, respectively, > 30 and > 40 years old). Only 2.5% underwent genetic tests, 17% underwent cascade screening, and 17% were not in use of pharmacological treatment. CONCLUSIONS: An important gap in risk perception, cholesterol management, and aspects related to FH was encountered in individuals with severe hypercholesterolemia. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

5.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify dietary patterns associated with subclinical atherosclerosis measured as coronary artery calcification (CAC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. Dietary data were assessed using a FFQ, and a principal component factor analysis was used to derive the dietary patterns. Scree plot, eigenvalues > 1 and interpretability were considered to retain the factors. CAC was measured using a computed tomography scanner and an electrocardiography-gated prospective Ca score examination and was categorised into three groups based on the CAC score: 0, 1-100 and >100 Agatston units. Multinomial regression models were conducted for dietary patterns and CAC severity categories. SETTING: Brazil, São Paulo, 2008-2010. PARTICIPANTS: Active and retired civil servants who lived in São Paulo and underwent a CAC exam were included (n 4025). RESULTS: Around 10 % of participants (294 men, 97 women) had a detectable CAC (>0), 6·5 % (182 men, 73 women) had a CAC of 1-100 and 3·5 % (110 men, 23 women) had a CAC > 100. Three dietary patterns were identified: convenience food, which was positively associated with atherosclerotic calcification; plant-based and dairy food, which showed no association with CAC; and the traditional Brazilian food pattern (rice, legumes and meats), which was inversely associated with atherosclerotic calcification. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that a dietary pattern consisting of traditional Brazilian foods could be important to reducing the risk of atherosclerotic calcification and prevent future cardiovascular events, whereas a convenience dietary pattern was positively associated with this outcome.

7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(12): 1052-1058, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between job stress and subclinical cardiovascular disease at ELSA-Brasil. METHODS: We considered job stress domains (demand, skill discretion, decision authority, and social support) as independent variables and coronary artery calcium (CAC more than 0) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT more than P75% as a continuous variable) as dependent ones. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were presented crude, with further adjustments for sociodemographic, cardiovascular risk factors, and lifestyle variables. Linear regression models were built for CIMT using the same covariates. RESULTS: Although significant associations were observed in the crude models, after multivariate adjustment CAC and CIMT were not significantly associated with demand, skill discretion, decision authority, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not support an association between job stress and subclinical cardiovascular disease measured by CAC or CIMT.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303383

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) provides a wealth of clinically meaningful information beyond anatomic stenosis alone, including the presence or absence of nonobstructive atherosclerosis and high-risk plaque features as precursors for incident coronary events. There is, however, no uniform agreement on how to identify and quantify these features or their use in evidence-based clinical decision-making. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography and North American Society of Cardiovascular Imaging addresses this gap and provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence on imaging of coronary atherosclerosis. In this statement, we provide standardized definitions for high-risk plaque (HRP) features and distill the evidence on the effectiveness of risk stratification into usable practice points. This statement outlines how this information should be communicated to referring physicians and patients by identifying critical elements to include in a structured CCTA report - the presence and severity of atherosclerotic plaque (descriptive statements, CAD-RADS™ categories), the segment involvement score, HRP features (e.g., low attenuation plaque, positive remodeling), and the coronary artery calcium score (when performed). Rigorous documentation of atherosclerosis on CCTA provides a vital opportunity to make recommendations for preventive care and to initiate and guide an effective care strategy for at-risk patients.

9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1051-1060, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152934

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento Em regiões endêmicas da doença de Chagas, por muitos anos, existe uma observação empírica recorrente de que a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) é incomum em pacientes com doença de Chagas. Estudos anteriores baseados em análise patológica ou angiografia coronária invasiva apresentam resultados controversos. Objetivo Investigar se a DAC é menos prevalente e menos grave em pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica em comparação a uma população pareada controle, com perfil de risco para DAC similar. Métodos Um total de 86 participantes, 43 pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica consecutivos e 43 indivíduos assintomáticos, sem qualquer história prévia de doença cardíaca ou doença DAC conhecida (grupo controle), foram incluídos no estudo. Pacientes e controles foram pareados quanto sexo, idade e escore de risco de Framingham. Todos os pacientes foram analisados quanto ao escore de cálcio coronário (ECC) e submetidos à angiotomografia coronária usando um tomógrafo de 320 detectores. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de p < 0,05. Resultados O ECC foi significativamente mais baixo em pacientes com doença de Chagas em comparação aos controles (p<0,05). A presença de placas ateroscleróticas coronárias foi significativamente menos frequente em pacientes com doença de Chagas que nos controles (20,9% versus 41,9%, p=0,037). Após ajuste quanto ao escore de Framingham, o odds ratio para a presença de qualquer calcificação coronária foi de 0,26 (IC95%: 0,07-0,99, p=0,048). O padrão é similar para escore de cálcio coronário (ECC) > 10 (OR: 0,11, IC95%: 0,01-0,87, p=0,04), e para a presença de estenose (OR: 0,06, IC95%: 0,01-0,47, p=0,001). O pareamento por escore de propensão também mostrou um efeito da doença de Chagas no ECC (-21,6 pontos no escore absoluto e 25% menos pacientes com ECC > 10; p=0,015). Conclusões A prevalência e a gravidade da DAC são mais baixas nos pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica em comparação a uma população pareada e perfil de risco para DAC similar. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1051-1060)


Abstract Background In Chagas' disease endemic regions, there has been for many years a recurrent empirical observation that coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncommon in patients with Chagas' disease. Previous pathological and invasive coronary angiography studies led to controversial results. Objective We sought to investigate whether CAD is less prevalent and less severe in patients with chronic Chagas' disease when compared with a matched population with a similar CAD risk profile. Methods A total of 86 participants, 43 consecutive patients with chronic Chagas' disease and 43 asymptomatic individuals, without any prior history of cardiac disease or known CAD (control group), were included. Patients and controls were matched according to gender, age, and Framingham risk score. All participants underwent coronary calcium scoring and coronary computed tomography angiography on a 320-row detector scanner. Statistical significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Results The coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was significantly lower in patients with Chagas' disease than in controls (p<0.05). The presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques was significantly less frequent in patients with Chagas' disease than in controls (20.9% versus 41.9%, p=0.037). After adjustment for the Framingham score, the odds ratio for the presence of any coronary artery calcium (CAC) in Chagas patients was 0.26 (95%CI: 0.07-0.99, p=0.048). The pattern is similar for CACS > 10 (OR: 0.11, 95%CI: 0.01-0.87, p=0.04) and for the presence of any stenosis (OR: 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01-0.47, p=0.001). Propensity score matching also indicated an effect of Chagas disease on the CACS (-21.6 points in the absolute score and 25% less of patients with CACS >10, p=0.015). Conclusions CAD is less prevalent and less severe in patients with chronic Chagas' disease when compared with a matched population with a similar CAD risk profile. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1051-1060)

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the value, in terms of sample size and cost, of using the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score to enrich the study population of primary prevention randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with participants at high absolute risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. BACKGROUND: The feasibility of RCTs assessing the efficacy of novel add-on therapies for primary prevention among high-risk individuals treated with statins may be limited by sample size and cost. METHODS: We evaluated 3,075 statin-naive participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with estimated 10-year ASCVD risk of ≥7.5%. CAC of >100, CAC of >400, high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels of >2 and >3 mg/l, ankle-brachial index of <0.9, and triglyceride levels of >175 mg/dl were each evaluated as enrichment criteria on top of estimated ASCVD risk of ≥7.5%, ≥10%, ≥15% and ≥20%. For each criterion, using the observed 5-year incidence of CVD, we projected the incidence of CVD assuming a 28% relative risk reduction with high-intensity statin therapy and after addition of novel therapy with additive relative risk reductions of 15% and 25%. Sample size and cost of a hypothetical primary prevention 5-year RCT of a novel therapy on top of statins versus statins alone were then computed by using the projected incidences. Yearly costs per included participant of $6,000 to $9,000 and of $500/$600 per screened nonparticipant were assumed. RESULTS: CAC of >400, present in 15% to 23% participants, consistently identified the subgroups with highest 5-year incident events and outperformed the other features yielding the smallest projected sample size, ranging 33% to 58% lower than using risk estimations alone for participant selection. CAC of >400 also yielded the lowest projected RCT costs, at least $40 million lower than using risk estimations alone. CAC of >100 showed the second-best performance in most scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: High CAC scores used as study entry criteria can improve the efficiency and feasibility of primary prevention RCTs evaluating the incremental efficacy of novel add-on therapies.

11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 171: 108558, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242513

RESUMO

AIMS: The FINDRISC was created to predict the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since T2DM associates with inflammation we evaluated if the FINDRISC could predict either current or incident T2DM, and elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). METHODS: 41,880 people (age 41.9 ± 9.7 years; 31% female) evaluated between 2008 and 2016 were included. First, the cross-sectional association between the FINDRISC with presence of either T2DM or hs-CRP ≥ 2.0 mg/L was tested. After a 5 ± 3 years follow-up we tested the score predictive value for incident T2DM and inflammation in respectively 10,559 individuals without diabetes and in a subset of 2,816 individuals having no elevated hs-CRP at baseline. RESULTS: In the cross sectional analysis the FINDRISC was associated with both T2DM (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.23-1.26, P < 0.001) and inflammation (OR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.09-1.11, P < 0.001) per FINDRISC unit, as well as in longitudinal analyses (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.14-1.20, P < 0.001; and OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07, P < 0.001; respectively, per FINDRISC unit). The C-statistic for incident T2DM and inflammation was 0.79 (95% CI 0.77-0.82) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.53-0.58), respectively. CONCLUSION: The FINDRISC shows good discrimination for incident T2DM but less for inflammation.

12.
Endocrinology ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165533

RESUMO

Subclinical thyroid disorders have been associated with atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. As triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles (TRLP) have recently emerged as a casual factor for atherogenesis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between subclinical hypo and hyperthyroidism and TRLP subfractions. We selected 5,066 participants from the ELSA-Brasil cohort with available data of thyroid function and lipid profile measured by NMR. Individuals were divided into three groups by baseline thyroid function (subclinical hypothyroidism, euthyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism). TRLP subfractions were analyzed through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. To examine the association between TRLP subfractions and thyroid function, we conducted univariate and multivariate linear regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics, BMI, diabetes, smoking status and alcohol use. Of 3,304 individuals, 54% were women, with a mean age of 50.6±8,7 years, 51% white and 53% with at least college education. Of these individuals, 92% were euthyroid, whereas 6.8% had subclinical hypothyroidism and 1.2% had subclinical hyperthyroidism. The univariate linear regression showed that Very Small TRLP (p=0.026) and Very Large TRLP (p=0.008) were statistically increased in subclinical hypothyroidism when compared to euthyroidism. In subclinical hyperthyroidism, there was a reduction in total TRLP (p=0.003), seemingly driven by reduced Very Small-TRLP (p=0.067). The findings were confirmed when adjusted for demographic characteristics, as well as comorbidities. This study suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to very small and very large TRLP, which are related to an unfavorable atherogenic profile. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated to lower very small TRLP.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients eligible for coronary artery bypass grafting, no data assess the importance of the Heart Team in programming the best surgical strategy for patients with diffuse coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aims to determine the contribution of the Heart Team in predicting the feasibility of coronary artery bypass graft and angiographic surgical success in these patients based on visual angiographic analysis. METHODS: Patients with diffuse and severe CAD undergoing incomplete coronary artery bypass graft surgery were prospectively included. One-year postoperative coronary angiograms were obtained to evaluate graft occlusion. Two clinical cardiologists, two cardiovascular surgeons, and one interventional cardiologist retrospectively analyzed preoperative angiograms. A subjective scale was applied at a single moment to quantify the chance of successful coronary artery bypass grafting for each coronary territory with anatomical indication for revascularization. Based on individual scores, the Heart Team's and the specialists' scores were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The examiners evaluated 154 coronary territories, of which 85 (55.2%) were protected. The Heart Team's accuracy for predicting the angiographic success of the surgery was 74.9%, almost equal to that of the surgeons alone (73.2%). Only the interventional cardiologist predicted left anterior descending territory grafting success. The Heart Team had good specificity and reasonable sensitivity, and the surgeons had high sensitivity and low specificity in predicting angiographic success. CONCLUSION: The multispecialty Heart Team achieved good accuracy in predicting the angiographic coronary artery bypass graft success in patients with diffuse CAD, with a high specificity and reasonable sensitivity.

18.
Atherosclerosis ; 312: 60-65, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thyroid dysfunction is related to several lipid abnormalities. There is no consensus about concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in different studies. The aim of this report is to evaluate HDL particle (HDL-P) subfractions across a spectrum of thyroid functions in a Brazilian population. METHODS: Individuals were divided into three groups by baseline thyroid function (subclinical hypothyroidism, euthyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism). HDL-P subfractions were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. To examine the association between HDL-P subfractions and thyroid function, we used univariate and multivariate linear regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, lifestyle factors, and traditional lipid measurement (HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides). RESULTS: Of 3304 participants, 54.1% were women, 51.2% white, with mean age 50.6 ± 8.7 years. HDL-C and triglycerides levels (p = 0.032 and p = 0.016, respectively) were higher in the SC hypothyroid group. There were no statistically significant differences in total cholesterol levels and LDL-C levels. In univariate analysis, small HDL-P subfractions were significantly lower in subclinical hypothyroidism (p = 0.026) whereas intermediate HDL-P were higher in subclinical hyperthyroidism (p = 0.049), compared to euthyroidism. After adjustment for demographic data, SC hypothyroidism was still statistically associated with lower levels of small HDL-P. After adjusting for comorbidities, lifestyle factors, and traditional lipid measurements, SC hypothyroidism had an established association with lower levels of small HDL-P while SC hyperthyroidism was associated with lower levels of large HDL-P. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort from a Brazilian population, subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with lower small HDL-P subfractions, and subclinical hyperthyroidism with lower large HDL-P subfractions and higher intermediate HDL-P subfractions.

19.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(12): 2383-2391, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964327

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is a primary driver of vascular inflammation, plaque development, and atherosclerotic disease. The Computed Tomography-adapted Leaman Score (CT-LeSc) has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiac events in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients but has never been studied for broader applicability. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with similar systemic inflammatory processes as CAD, and its presence as assessed by Computed Tomography Liver and Spleen Attenuation (CT-LSA) may impact on the extension of the CT-LeSc. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the CT-LeSc and NAFLD and to characterize and compare the inflammatory processes of each disease state. This was an exploratory study in which patients with known multivessel CAD who were scheduled to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention were included. CT-LeSc were graded on pre-existing criteria by two independent CoreLab analysts. CT-LSA parameters analyzed included the liver absolute attenuation value, liver and spleen attenuation difference and liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio and were scored by two independent CoreLab analysts as well. Inflammatory mediator analysis included routine laboratory draws for a variety of known signal molecules. The overall liver absolute attenuation value did not correlate significantly with the CT-LeSc, but the subgroup 50 to 65 HU showed moderately negative correlation (R = - 0.629; p = 0.008). The overall liver and spleen attenuation difference did not correlate significantly with the CT-LeSc, but the subgroup 1 to 18 HU showed moderately positive correlation (R = 0.513; p = 0.017). The overall and subgroup liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio did not correlate with the CT-LeSc. The eosinophil and leukocyte ratio showed weakly negative correlation with the overall CT-LeSc (R = - 0.4602; p = 0.008), and VCAM-1 showed moderately negative correlation with CT-LeSc < 16.0 (R = - 0.5678; p = 0.022). Some CT-LSA parameters correlate with high risk CT-LeSc and may both provide complementary information for cardiovascular risk stratification. The significant metrics of liver absolute attenuation value and liver and spleen attenuation difference can be quickly completed in the clinical setting and may support a suspicion of CAD.

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