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Front Psychiatry ; 11: 480690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329072


The objective of the study was to examine the process of mother to infant trauma transmission among traumatized mothers in humanitarian contexts. We investigated the impact of mothers' post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms on the quality of the dyadic interaction by conducting a microanalysis of mother-infant interactions at specific moments when trauma was recalled, compared to more neutral moments. Twenty-four mother-infant dyadic interactions of traumatized mothers and children aged from 1.5 to 30 months Central Africa, Chad, and Cameroon were videotaped during three sequences: a neutral initial session (baseline) exploring mothers' representations of the infant and of their bonding; a second sequence, "the traumatic narration," in which mothers were asked to talk about the difficult events they had experienced; and a third sequence focusing on a neutral subject. Three minutes of each sequence were coded through a specific grid for microanalysis [based on the scales developed at Bobigny Faculty of Medicine and the work of (1)], according to different communication modalities (touch, visual, and vocal), for both the mother and the child. Impact of traumatic event (IES-R), the level of depression and anxiety (HAD) were investigated in order to have a holistic understanding of the trauma transmission mechanism. The data analysis highlighted significant differences in mothers, children and their interaction during the "traumatic narration": mothers touched and looked at the infant less, looked more absent and smiled less, and looked less at the interviewer; infants looked less at the interviewer, and sucked the breast more. The mother-child interaction "infant self-stimulation-mother looks absent" and "Infant sucks the breast-mother looks absent" occurred more often during the mothers' traumatic narrations. The "absence" of the mother during trauma recall seems to have repercussions on infants' behavior and interaction; infants show coping strategies that are discussed. We found no significant associations between interaction and infant gender and age, the severity of traumatic experience, mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms, and the country of residence. The results of the microanalysis of interaction can shed light on the fundamental role of intermodal exchanges between mother and infant in trauma transmission during mothers' trauma reactivation.

Int J Ment Health Syst ; 14(1): 85, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292375


An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413


Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

F1000Res ; 9: 1310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628437


Background: Many small and malnourished infants under 6 months of age have problems with breastfeeding and restoring effective exclusive breastfeeding is a common treatment goal. Assessment is a critical first step of case management, but most malnutrition guidelines do not specify how best to do this. We aimed to identify breastfeeding assessment tools for use in assessing at-risk and malnourished infants in resource-poor settings. Methods: We systematically searched: Medline and Embase; Web of Knowledge; Cochrane Reviews; Eldis and Google Scholar databases. Also the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), CAse REport guidelines, Emergency Nutrition Network, and Field Exchange websites. Assessment tool content was analysed using a framework describing breastfeeding 'domains' (baby's behaviour; mother's behaviour; position; latching; effective feeding; breast health; baby's health; mother's view of  feed; number, timing and length of feeds). Results: We identified 29 breastfeeding assessment tools and 45 validation studies. Eight tools had not been validated. Evidence underpinning most tools was low quality and mainly from high-income countries and hospital settings. The most comprehensive tools were the Breastfeeding, Evaluation and Education Tool, UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative tools and CARE training package. The tool with the strongest evidence was the WHO/UNICEF B-R-E-A-S-T-Feed Observation Form. Conclusions: Despite many possible tools, there is currently no one gold standard. For assessing malnourished infants in resource-poor settings, UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative tools, Module IFE and the WHO/UNICEF B-R-E-A-S-T-Feed Observation Form are the best available tools but could be improved by adding questions from other tools. Allowing for context, one tool for rapid community-based assessment plus a more detailed one for clinic/hospital assessment might help optimally identify breastfeeding problems and the support required. Further research is important to refine existing tools and develop new ones. Rigorous testing, especially against outcomes such as breastfeeding status and growth, is key.

Aleitamento Materno , Nações Unidas , Criança , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Organização Mundial da Saúde
Soins ; 63(827): 34-36, 2018.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008363


In Central Africa, a team of psychosocial workers provides psychological support to traumatised mothers and their babies. They experience significant countertransferences, particularly when patients' accounts remind them of traumatic events they themselves have lived through. The emotions and the intensity felt by the team demonstrate the need for specific supervision in this context.

Contratransferência , Mães , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , África Central , Humanos , Lactente