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1.
Urol Oncol ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Differences exist concerning when and how to perform lymph node dissection (LND) during radical prostatectomy due to lack of high-grade evidence to its safety and efficacy. We aimed to compare readmission rates between limited and extended LND during open radical prostatectomy (ORP) and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective trial of 3,706 eligible patients comparing ORP vs. RARP (LAPPRO). Six hundred and twenty-seven underwent concomitant LND. Data were retrieved for readmissions within 90 days from surgery from the Swedish Patient Registry. Causes for readmissions were classified according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification system. We estimated risks for readmission stratified by type of LND and surgical approach. RESULTS: We recorded 107 readmissions in 90 patients. The overall readmission rate was 14% (90/627). In the open group, extended LND had a higher, but not statistically significant readmission rate of 18% compared to 11% after limited LND (95%CI 0.87-3.01). In the robot-assisted group, readmissions after extended LND did not differ from limited LND (15% vs. 18%, 95%CI 0.49-1.61). RARP with limited LND showed a higher risk for any (RR 1.98, 95%CI [1.02-3.81]) as well as Clavien-Dindo grade 1 to 2 readmissions (RR 2.49, 95%CI [1.10-5.63]) compared to open approach with limited LND. Robot-assisted extended LND reduced the risk for Clavien-Dindo grade 3 to 5 complications leading to readmissions compared to the open approach by 59% (RR 0.41, 95%CI [0.19-0.87]). CONCLUSIONS: The risk for hospital readmission was similar when performing limited or extended LND during a radical prostatectomy. Robot-assisted technique for performing extended LND may decrease the risk for severe complications.

2.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395667

RESUMO

The incidence of treatment-related neuroendocrine (NE) prostate cancer (t-NEPC) is rising as more potent drugs targeting the androgen signaling axis are clinically implemented. Neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NEtD), an putative initial step in t-NEPC development, is induced by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or anti-androgens, and by activation of the ß2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in prostate cancer cell lines. Thus, understanding whether ADRB2 is involved in ADT-initiated NEtD may assist in developing treatment strategies that can prevent or reverse t-NEPC emergence, thereby prolonging therapeutic responses. Here we found that in primary, treatment-naïve prostate cancers, ADRB2 mRNA was positively correlated with expression of luminal differentiation markers, and ADRB2 protein levels were inversely correlated with Gleason grade. ADRB2 mRNA was upregulated in metastatic prostate cancer, and progressively downregulated during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and t-NEPC emergence. In androgen-deprivated medium, high ADRB2 was required for LNCaP cells to undergo NEtD, measured as increased neurite outgrowth and expression of neuron differentiation and NE genes. ADRB2 overexpression induced an NE-like morphology in both AR positive and -negative prostate cancer cell lines. ADRB2 downregulation in LNCaP cells increased canonical Wnt signaling, and GSK3α/ß inhibition reduced the expression of neuron differentiation and NE genes. In LNCaP xenografts, more pronounced castration-induced NEtD was observed in tumors derived from high than low-ADRB2 cells. In conclusion, high ADRB2 expression is required for ADT-induced NEtD, characterized by ADRB2 downregulation and t-NEPC emergence. Implications: This data suggest a potential application of ß-blockers to prevent cancer cells committed to a neuroendocrine lineage from evolving into t-NEPC.

3.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nocturia is one of the most prevalent and bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men, leading to increased morbidity and mortality and a considerable economic burden on healthcare systems. Understanding its natural history, effect of pharmacotherapy, and predictors of failure of pharmacotherapy would allow optimised patient management. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and effect of clinically relevant nocturia (crN) on quality of life in a contemporary cohort of European men aged ≥50 yr in a "real-life" setting, to understand its natural history, to detect any effect of pharmacotherapy, and to identify predictors of pharmacotherapy failure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a secondary analysis of the data from the Evolution Registry-a European, multicentre, prospective, observational registry, conducted in five European countries within a sample of general practitioners' and urologists' clinics. A consecutive sample of 2175 men aged ≥50 yr with LUTS in association with benign prostatic enlargement was enrolled between February 2010 and April 2011, and followed up for 2yr. Overall, data from 1838 men were suitable for analysis. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary outcome was evaluation of the baseline incidence of nocturia in the study population. Secondary outcomes included the impact of nocturia on quality of life, efficacy of pharmacotherapy, and predictive factors associated with persistence of nocturia. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the data. Logistic regressions were used to analyse associations between comorbid conditions and risk factors in men with nocturia. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, 1198 men (65%) reported crN (two or more voids per night). This increased age dependently from 59% in the 50-59-yr age group (n=74) to 89% in the 80-99-yr age group (n=25). Overall, the incidence of crN improved in those who commenced pharmacological treatment at study entry, from 69% at baseline to 49% at 24 mo (p<0.00001). This was statistically significant only in those <80 yr old. A weak correlation was found between the severity of nocturia at baseline and quality-of-life scores on the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire (r=0.33, p<0.001). Of the patients treated with an alpha-blocker or a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, 62% still had crN at 24 mo. CONCLUSIONS: Almost two-thirds of men in the Evolution Registry reported clinically significant nocturia with increased incidence with age. Despite prostate-targeted treatment, most patients, especially older men, still had persistent or worsening nocturia at 2-yr follow-up, and in this study, it was not possible to identify specific clinical factors that predicted those who could respond well to treatment in this regard. PATIENT SUMMARY: This large study of men from five different European countries has shown that waking up at night to pass urine (nocturia) is very common and becomes more common with older age, and treatments that target the prostate do not significantly improve symptoms over 2yr in most men.

4.
Prostate ; 79(14): 1611-1621, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated in cancer drug resistance, metastasis, and immunosuppression and has been identified as a promising therapeutic target for new anticancer drugs. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a major role in the suppression of antitumor immunity and STAT3 is involved in the accumulation, generation, and function of MDSCs. Thus, targeting STAT3 holds the potential of reversing immunosuppression in cancer. This study aims to investigate the effect of the small molecule STAT3 inhibitor galiellalactone on prostate cancer cell- induced generation of MDSCs from monocytes and the effect on immunosuppressive factors and inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Primary human monocytes were cocultured with prostate cancer cells (DU145, PC3, and LNCaP-IL6) or with conditioned medium (CM) from prostate cancer cells in the presence or absence of the STAT3 inhibitor galiellalactone. Monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry for an MDSC-like phenotype (CD14+ HLA-DR-/lo ). The secretion and gene expression of immunosuppressive factors and inflammatory cytokines from prostate cancer cells and monocytes were investigated. RESULTS: Galiellalactone blocked the prostate cancer cell-induced generation of MDSC-like monocytes with an immunosuppressive phenotype ex vivo. Monocytes cultured with CM from prostate cancer cells showed increased expression of phosphorylated STAT3. Prostate cancer cells increased the expression of interleukin1ß (IL1ß), IL10, and IL6 in monocytes which was inhibited by galiellalactone. In addition, galiellalactone decreased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene expression in monocytes. Galiellalactone reduced the levels of IL8 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in prostate cancer cells per se. CONCLUSION: The STAT3 inhibitor galiellalactone may prevent the prostate cancer cell-induced generation of MDSCs and reverse the immunosuppressive mechanisms caused by the interplay between prostate cancer cells and MDSCs. This is a potential new immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of prostate cancer.

5.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Owing to the large variation in treatment response among patients with high-risk prostate cancer, it would be of value to use objective tools to monitor the status of bone metastases during clinical trials. Automated Bone Scan Index (aBSI) based on artificial intelligence has been proposed as an imaging biomarker for the quantification of skeletal metastases from bone scintigraphy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how an increase in aBSI during treatment may predict clinical outcome in a randomised controlled clinical trial including patients with high-risk prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively selected all patients from the Zometa European Study (ZEUS)/SPCG11 study with image data of sufficient quality to allow for aBSI assessment at baseline and at 48-mo follow-up. Data on aBSI were obtained using EXINIboneBSI software, blinded for clinical data and randomisation of zoledronic acid treatment. Data on age, overall survival (OS), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at baseline and upon follow-up were available from the study database. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Association between clinical parameters and aBSI increase during treatment was evaluated using Cox proportional-hazards regression models, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and log-rank test. Discrimination between prognostic variables was assessed using the concordance index (C-index). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In this cohort, 176 patients with bone metastases and a change in aBSI from baseline to follow-up of ≤0.3 had a significantly longer median survival time than patients with an aBSI change of >0.3 (p<0.0001). The increase in aBSI was significantly associated with OS (p<0.01 and C-index=0.65), while age and PSA change were not. CONCLUSIONS: The aBSI used as an objective imaging biomarker predicted outcome in prostate cancer patients in the ZEUS/SPCG11 study. An analysis of the change in aBSI from baseline to 48-mo follow-up represents a valuable tool for prognostication and monitoring of prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. PATIENT SUMMARY: The increase in the burden of skeletal metastases, as measured by the automated Bone Scan Index (aBSI), during treatment was associated with overall survival in patients from the Zometa European Study/SPCG11 study. The aBSI may be a useful tool also in monitoring prostate cancer patients with newly developed bone metastases.

6.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(3): 333-336, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200849

RESUMO

Within the Movember Foundation's Global Action Plan Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance (GAP3) initiative, 25 centers across the globe collaborate to standardize active surveillance (AS) protocols for men with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). A centralized PCa AS database, comprising data of more than 15000 patients worldwide, was created. Comparability of the histopathology between the different cohorts was assessed by a centralized pathology review of 445 biopsies from 15 GAP3 centers. Grade group 1 (Gleason score 6) in 85% and grade group ≥2 (Gleason score ≥7) in 15% showed 89% concordance at review with moderate agreement (κ=0.56). Average biopsy core length was similar among the analyzed cohorts. Recently established highly adverse pathologies, including cribriform and/or intraductal carcinoma, were observed in 3.6% of the reviewed biopsies. In conclusion, the centralized pathology review of 445 biopsies revealed comparable histopathology among the 15 GAP3 centers with a low frequency of high-risk features. This enables further data analyses-without correction-toward uniform global AS guidelines for men with low-risk PCa. PATIENT SUMMARY: Movember Foundation's Global Action Plan Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance (GAP3) initiative combines data from 15000 men with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) across the globe to standardize active surveillance protocols. Histopathology review confirmed that the histopathology was consistent with low-risk PCa in most men and comparable between different centers.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(1): 13-24, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apalutamide is an inhibitor of the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor. Whether the addition of apalutamide to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) would prolong radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival as compared with placebo plus ADT among patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer has not been determined. METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer to receive apalutamide (240 mg per day) or placebo, added to ADT. Previous treatment for localized disease and previous docetaxel therapy were allowed. The primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 525 patients were assigned to receive apalutamide plus ADT and 527 to receive placebo plus ADT. The median age was 68 years. A total of 16.4% of the patients had undergone prostatectomy or received radiotherapy for localized disease, and 10.7% had received previous docetaxel therapy; 62.7% had high-volume disease, and 37.3% had low-volume disease. At the first interim analysis, with a median of 22.7 months of follow-up, the percentage of patients with radiographic progression-free survival at 24 months was 68.2% in the apalutamide group and 47.5% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for radiographic progression or death, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.60; P<0.001). Overall survival at 24 months was also greater with apalutamide than with placebo (82.4% in the apalutamide group vs. 73.5% in the placebo group; hazard ratio for death, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89; P = 0.005). The frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events was 42.2% in the apalutamide group and 40.8% in the placebo group; rash was more common in the apalutamide group. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer, overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival were significantly longer with the addition of apalutamide to ADT than with placebo plus ADT, and the side-effect profile did not differ substantially between the two groups. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; TITAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02489318.).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Tioidantoínas/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiografia , Tioidantoínas/efeitos adversos
8.
BMC Urol ; 19(1): 35, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical research information can be retrieved through various sources. The aim is to evaluate the agreement between answers in patient questionnaires and clinical reports in a study of patients after radical prostatectomy and patient characteristics associated with agreement between these two data sources. METHODS: In the prospective non-randomized longitudinal trial LAParoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open (LAPPRO) 4003 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy at 14 centers in Sweden were followed. Analysis of agreement is made using a variety of methods, including the recently proposed Gwet's AC1, which enables us to handle the limitations of Cohen's Kappa where agreement depends on the underlying prevalence. RESULTS: The incidence of postoperative events was consistently reported higher by the patient compared with the clinical reports for all outcomes. Agreement regarding the absence of events (negative agreement) was consistently higher than agreement regarding events (positive agreement) for all outcome variables. Overall impression of agreement depends on which measure used for the assessment. The previously reported desirable properties of Gwet's AC1 as well as the patient characteristics associated with agreement were confirmed. CONCLUSION: The differences in incidence and agreement across the different variables and time points highlight the importance of carefully assessing which source of information to use in clinical research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN06393679 ( www.isrctn.com ). Date of registration: 07/02/2008. Retrospectively registered.

9.
Prostate ; 79(7): 784-797, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is observed to be constitutively activated in several malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study, we investigated the expression of total STAT3 (tSTAT3) and two forms of activated phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3727 and pSTAT3705 ) in tissue microarrays (TMA) of two cohorts of localized hormone-naïve PCa patients and analyzed associations between the expression and disease outcome. METHODS: The expression of tSTAT3, pSTAT3727 , and pSTAT3705 was scored in the nuclei and cytoplasm of prostatic gland epithelial cells in two TMAs of paraffin-embedded prostatic tissue. The TMAs consisted of tissue originated from hormone-naïve radical prostatectomy patients from two different sites: Malmö, Sweden (n = 300) and Dublin, Ireland (n = 99). RESULTS: The nuclear expression levels of tSTAT3, pSTAT3727 , and pSTAT3705 in the epithelial cells of benign glands were significantly higher than in the cancerous glands. Cytoplasmic tSTAT3 levels were also higher in benign glands. Patients with low pSTAT3727 and pSTAT3705 levels in the cancerous glands showed reduced times to biochemical recurrence, compared with those with higher levels. No significant trends in nuclear nor in cytoplasmic tSTAT3 were observed in relation to biochemical recurrence in the Malmö cohort. Higher cytoplasmic tSTAT3 was associated with reduced time to biochemical recurrence in the Dublin cohort. Adding the tSTAT3 and pSTAT3 expression data to Gleason score or pathological T stage did not improve their prognostic values. CONCLUSIONS: Low pSTAT3727 and pSTAT3705 expression in epithelial cells of cancerous prostatic glands in hormone-naïve PCa was associated with faster disease progression. However, pSTAT3 and tSTAT3 expression did not improve the prognostic value of Gleason score or pathological T stage and may not be a good biomarker in the early hormone naïve stages of PCa.

10.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known concerning what may influence surgeon satisfaction with a surgical procedure and its associations with intraoperative factors. The objective was to explore the relationships between surgeons' self-assessed satisfaction with performed radical prostatectomies and intraoperative factors such as technical difficulties and intraoperative complications as reported by the surgeon subsequent to the operation. METHODS: We utilized prospectively collected data from the controlled LAPPRO trial where 4003 patients with prostate cancer underwent open (ORP) or robot-assisted laparoscopic (RALP) radical prostatectomy. Patients were included from fourteen centers in Sweden during 2008-2011. Surgeon satisfaction was assessed by questionnaires at the end of each operation. Intraoperative factors included time for the surgical procedure as well as difficulties and complications in various steps of the operation. To model surgeon satisfaction, a mixed effect logistic regression was used. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The surgeons were satisfied in 2905 (81%) and dissatisfied in 702 (19%) of the surgical procedures. Surgeon satisfaction was not statistically associated with type of surgical technique (ORP vs. RALP) (OR 1.36, CI 0.76; 2.43). Intraoperative factors such as technical difficulties or complications, for example, suturing of the anastomosis was negatively associated with surgeon satisfaction (OR 0.24, CI 0.19; 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that technical difficulties and/or intraoperative complications were associated with a surgeon's level of satisfaction with an operation.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(9): 2679-2681, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808772

RESUMO

SPINK1 +/ETS - prostate cancer is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. New data suggest a novel treatment by upregulating the expression of miR-338-5p/-421 through epigenetic modulation or by miRNA replacement. This is a new and interesting concept that warrants further exploration in clinical trials.See related article by Bhatia et al., p. 2755.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal/genética
12.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807653

RESUMO

The associations of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk have not been examined comprehensively. We examined the prospective association of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk overall, by tumor subtypes, and prostate cancer death. 142,239 men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who were free from cancer at recruitment were included. Dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were estimated using center-specific validated dietary questionnaires at baseline and calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases and 936 prostate cancer deaths were ascertained. Intakes of individual fatty acids were not related to overall prostate cancer risk. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the association of some short chain saturated fatty acids with prostate cancer risk by tumor stage (pheterogeneity < 0.015), with a positive association with risk of advanced stage disease for butyric acid (4:0; HR1SD = 1.08; 95%CI = 1.01-1.15; p-trend = 0.026). There were no associations with fatal prostate cancer, with the exception of a slightly higher risk for those who consumed more eicosenoic acid (22:1n-9c; HR1SD = 1.05; 1.00-1.11; p-trend = 0.048) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3c; HR1SD = 1.07; 1.00-1.14; p-trend = 0.045). There was no evidence that dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were associated with overall prostate cancer risk. However, a higher intake of butyric acid might be associated with a higher risk of advanced, whereas intakes of eicosenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids might be positively associated with fatal prostate cancer risk.

13.
Scand J Urol ; 53(1): 26-33, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727795

RESUMO

Purpose: All types of surgery are associated with complications. The debate is ongoing whether robot-assisted radical prostatectomy can lower this risk compared to open surgery. The objective of the present study was to evaluate post-operative adverse events leading to readmissions, using clinical records to classify these adverse events systematically. Materials and methods: A prospective controlled trial of men who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic (RALP) or retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) at 14 departments of Urology (LAPPRO) between 2008 and 2011. Data on all readmissions within 3 months of surgery were collected from the Patient registry, Swedish Board of Health and Welfare. For each readmission the highest Clavien-Dindo grade was listed. Results: A total of 4003 patients were included in the LAPPRO trial and, after applying exclusion criteria, 3706 patients remained for analyses. The results showed no statistically significant difference in the overall readmission rates (8.1 vs. 7.1%) or readmission due to major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥3b, 1.7 vs. 1.9%) between RALP and RRP within 90 days after surgery. Patients subjected to lymph-node dissection (LND) had twice the risk for readmission as men not undergoing LND, irrespective RALP or RRP technique. Blood transfusion was significantly more frequent during and within 30 days of RRP surgery (16 vs. 4%). Abdominal symptoms were more common after RALP. Conclusions: There is a substantial risk for hospital readmission after prostate-cancer surgery, regardless of technique; although major complications are rare. Regardless of surgical technique, attention should be focused on specific types of complications.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274982

RESUMO

Background: An increasing number of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) tumors exhibit neuroendocrine (NE) features. NE prostate cancer (NEPC) has poor prognosis, and its development is poorly understood.Experimental Design: We applied mass spectrometry-based proteomics to a unique set of 17 prostate cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDX) to characterize the effects of castration in vivo, and the proteome differences between NEPC and prostate adenocarcinomas. Genome-wide profiling of REST-occupied regions in prostate cancer cells was correlated to the expression changes in vivo to investigate the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in castration-induced NEPC differentiation.Results: An average of 4,881 proteins were identified and quantified from each PDX. Proteins related to neurogenesis, cell-cycle regulation, and DNA repair were found upregulated and elevated in NEPC, while the reduced levels of proteins involved in mitochondrial functions suggested a prevalent glycolytic metabolism of NEPC tumors. Integration of the REST chromatin bound regions with expression changes indicated a direct role of REST in regulating neuronal gene expression in prostate cancer cells. Mechanistically, depletion of REST led to cell-cycle arrest in G1, which could be rescued by p53 knockdown. Finally, the expression of the REST-regulated gene secretagogin (SCGN) correlated with an increased risk of suffering disease relapse after radical prostatectomy.Conclusions: This study presents the first deep characterization of the proteome of NEPC and suggests that concomitant inhibition of REST and the p53 pathway would promote NEPC. We also identify SCGN as a novel prognostic marker in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 1-14. ©2018 AACR.

15.
Eur Urol ; 74(6): 816-824, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid adoption of robot-assisted laparoscopy in radical prostatectomy has preceded data regarding associated costs. Qualitative evidence regarding cost outcomes is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed how costs were affected by robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) compared with open surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cost analysis was based on the dataset of the LAPPRO (Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open) clinical trial, which is a prospective controlled, nonrandomised trial of patients who underwent prostatectomy at 14 centres in Sweden between September 2008 and November 2011. Currently, data are available from a follow-up period of 24 mo. INTERVENTION: In the LAPPRO trial, RALP was compared with radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Costs per surgical technique were assessed based on resource variable data from the LAPPRO database. The calculation of average costs was based on mean values; Swedish currency was converted to purchasing power parity US dollar (PPP$). All tests were two-tailed and conducted at α=0.05 significance level. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The cost analysis comprised 2638 men. Based on the LAPPRO trial data, RALP was associated with an increased cost/procedure of PPP$ 3837 (95% confidence interval: 2747-4928) compared with RRP. The result was sensitive to variations in caseload. Main drivers of overall cost were robotic system cost, operation time, length of stay, and sick leave. Limitations of the study include the uneven distribution between RALP and RRP regarding procedures in public/for-profit hospitals and surgeon/centre procedural volume. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the LAPPRO trial data, this study showed that RALP was associated with an increased cost compared with RRP in Swedish health care. There are many factors influencing the costs, making the absolute result dependent on the specific setting. However, by identifying the main cost drivers and/or most influential parameters, the study provides support for informed decisions and predictions. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we looked at the cost outcome when performing prostatectomies by robot-assisted laparoscopic technique compared with open surgery in Sweden. We found that the robot-assisted procedure was associated with a higher mean cost.

16.
BMC Med Imaging ; 18(1): 8, 2018 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Bone Scan Index (BSI) is used to quantitatively assess the total tumour burden in bone scans of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. The clinical utility of BSI has recently been validated as a prognostic imaging biomarker. However, the clinical utility of the on-treatment change in BSI is dependent on the reproducibility of bone scans. The objective of this prospective study is to evaluate the intra-patient reproducibility of two bone scan procedures performed at a one-week interval. METHODS: We prospectively studied prostate cancer patients who were referred for bone scintigraphy at our centres according to clinical routine. All patients underwent two whole-body bone scans: one for clinical routine purposes and a second one as a repeated scan after approximately one week. BSI values were obtained for each bone scintigraph using EXINI boneBSI software. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were enrolled. There was no statistical difference between the BSI values of the first (median = 0.66, range 0-40.77) and second (median = 0.63, range 0-22.98) bone scans (p = 0.41). The median difference in BSI between the clinical routine and repeated scans was - 0.005 (range - 17.79 to 0). The 95% confidence interval for the median value was - 0.1 to 0. A separate analysis was performed for patients with BSI ≤ 10 (n = 17). Differences in BSI were smaller for patients with BSI ≤ 10 compared to the whole cohort (median - 0.1, range - 2.2-0, 95% confidence interval - 0.1 to 0). CONCLUSIONS: The automated BSI demonstrated high intra-individual reproducibility for BSI ≤ 10 in the two repeated bone scans of patients with prostate cancer. The study supports the use of BSI as a quantitative parameter to evaluate the change in total tumour burden in bone scans.

17.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(7): 944-951, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799999

RESUMO

Importance: Prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, and bone metastases are associated with pathologic fractures, pain, and reduced survival. Bone disease is routinely visualized using the technetium Tc 99m (99mTc) bone scan; however, the standard interpretation of bone scan data relies on subjective manual assessment of counting metastatic lesion numbers. There is an unmet need for an objective and fully quantitative assessment of bone scan data. Objective: To clinically assess in a prospectively defined analysis plan of a clinical trial the automated Bone Scan Index (aBSI) as an independent prognostic determinant of overall survival (OS) in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a prospectively planned analysis of the aBSI in a phase 3 multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of tasquinimod (10TASQ10). Men with bone metastatic chemotherapy-naïve CRPC were recruited at 241 sites in 37 countries between March 2011 and August 2015. The statistical analysis plan to clinically evaluate the aBSI was prospectively defined and locked before unmasking of the 10TASQ10 study. The analysis of aBSI was conducted between May 25, 2016, and June 3, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: The associations of baseline aBSI with OS, radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), time to symptomatic progression, and time to opiate use for cancer pain. Results: Of the total 1245 men enrolled, 721 were evaluable for the aBSI. The mean (SD) age (available for 719 men) was 70.6 (8.0) years (age range, 47-90 years). The aBSI population was representative of the total study population based on baseline characteristics. The aBSI (median, 1.07; range, 0-32.60) was significantly associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14-1.26; P < .001). The median OS by aBSI quartile (lowest to highest) was 34.7, 27.3, 21.7, and 13.3 months, respectively. The discriminative ability of the aBSI (C index, 0.63) in prognosticating OS was significantly higher than that of the manual lesion counting (C index, 0.60) (P = .03). In a multivariable survival model, a higher aBSI remained independently associated with OS (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11; P = .03). A higher aBSI was also independently associated with time to symptomatic progression (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23; P < .001) and time to opiate use for cancer pain (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.30; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: To date, this investigation is the largest prospectively analyzed study to validate the aBSI as an independent prognostic imaging biomarker of survival in mCRPC. These data support the prognostic utility of the aBSI as an objective imaging biomarker in the design and eligibility of clinical trials of systemic therapies for patients with mCRPC. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01234311.

18.
Prostate ; 78(10): 724-730, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to a third of prostate cancer patients fail curative treatment strategies such as surgery and radiation therapy in the form of biochemical recurrence (BCR) which can be predictive of poor outcome. Recent clinical trials have shown that men experiencing BCR might benefit from earlier intervention post-radical prostatectomy (RP). Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify earlier prognostic biomarkers which will guide clinicians in making accurate diagnosis and timely decisions on the next appropriate treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate Serum Response Factor (SRF) protein expression following RP and to investigate its association with BCR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SRF nuclear expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in TMAs across three international radical prostatectomy cohorts for a total of 615 patients. Log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used for BCR comparisons. Stepwise backwards elimination proportional hazard regression analysis was used to explore the significance of SRF in predicting BCR in the context of other clinical pathological variables. Area under the curve (AUC) values were generated by simulating repeated random sub-samples. RESULTS: Analysis of the immunohistochemical staining of benign versus cancer cores showed higher expression of nuclear SRF protein expression in cancer cores compared with benign for all the three TMAs analysed (P < 0.001, n = 615). Kaplan-Meier curves of the three TMAs combined showed that patients with higher SRF nuclear expression had a shorter time to BCR compared with patients with lower SRF expression (P < 0.001, n = 215). Together with pathological T stage T3, SRF was identified as a predictor of BCR using stepwise backwards elimination proportional hazard regression analysis (P = 0.0521). Moreover ROC curves and AUC values showed that SRF was better than T stage in predicting BCR at year 3 and 5 following radical prostatectomy, the combination of SRF and T stage had a higher AUC value than the two taken separately. CONCLUSIONS: SRF assessment by IHC following RP could be useful in guiding clinicians to better identify patients for appropriate follow-up and timely treatment.

19.
J Urol ; 199(6): 1470-1474, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 4 kallikrein panel, commercially available as the 4Kscore®, is a statistical model that has been shown to accurately predict Gleason Grade Group 2 or greater (high grade) cancer on biopsy and the long-term risk of distant prostate cancer metastases. The panel includes 2 novel markers, namely intact prostate specific antigen and hK2. It has been questioned whether these 2 additional markers add discrimination to the clinical predictors of patient age, digital rectal examination and prior biopsy, and the established molecular markers total and free prostate specific antigen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of published studies in which the 4 kallikrein panel was measured in men undergoing prostate biopsy. We assess the improvement in discrimination associated with including intact prostate specific antigen and hK2 along with total and free prostate specific antigen in the statistical model. RESULTS: Included in analysis were 14,510 men from a total of 10 studies. The fixed effects meta-analytical estimate of the discrimination of the model without intact prostate specific antigen and hK2 was 0.742 (95% CI 0.727-0.756) compared to 0.813 (95% CI 0.801-0.825) for the full kallikrein model. The 95% CIs did not overlap and the difference in discrimination was highly statistically significant (0.069, 95% CI 0.057-0.080, p <0.0001). Intact prostate specific antigen (increase in discrimination 0.059, 95% CI 0.050-0.069) and hK2 (increase in discrimination 0.024, 95% CI 0.020-0.029, each p <0.0001) added independently to the model. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical value of the panel could not be replicated using data readily available to urologists without measuring intact prostate specific antigen and hK2.

20.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2018 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery for prostate cancer has a large impact on quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors for the level of self-assessed QoL at 3 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo after robot-assisted laparoscopic (RALP) and open radical prostatectomy (ORP). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The LAParoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open study, a prospective, controlled, nonrandomised trial of more than 4000 men who underwent radical prostatectomy at 14 centres. Here we report on QoL issues after RALP and ORP. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary outcome was self-assessed QoL preoperatively and at 3 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo postoperatively. A direct validated question of self-assessed QoL on a seven-digit visual scale was used. Differences in QoL were analysed using logistic regression, with adjustment for confounders. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: QoL did not differ between RALP and ORP postoperatively. Men undergoing ORP had a preoperatively significantly lower level of self-assessed QoL in a multivariable analysis compared with men undergoing RALP (odds ratio: 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.43), that disappeared when adjusted for preoperative preparedness for incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and certainty of being cured (odds ratio: 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.40). Incontinence and erectile dysfunction increased the risk for poor QoL at 3 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo postoperatively. Biochemical recurrence did not affect QoL. A limitation of the study is the nonrandomised design. CONCLUSIONS: QoL at 3 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo after RALP or ORP did not differ significantly between the two techniques. Poor QoL was associated with postoperative incontinence and erectile dysfunction but not with early cancer relapse, which was related to thoughts of death and waking up at night with worry. PATIENT SUMMARY: We did not find any difference in quality of life at 3 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo when open and robot-assisted surgery for prostate cancer were compared. Postoperative incontinence and erectile dysfunction were associated with poor quality of life.

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