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1.
Stroke ; 50(10): 2937-2940, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446883

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Stroke mimics (SM) pose a common clinical challenge, but the burden of SM in patients with previous ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack is unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the incidence of SM in IS survivors, compare it with the incidence of recurrent stroke in the same population, and explore the time-dependent patterns of SM etiologies. Methods- This prospective cohort study registered SM events and etiologies among 1872 IS and transient ischemic attack survivors diagnosed with index stroke at Haukeland University Hospital stroke unit from 2007 to 2013 by review of medical records. Cumulative incidences of SM were estimated with a competing risks Cox model and compared with incidence of recurrent stroke in the same population. Results- During 8172 person-years of follow-up, 339 patients had 480 SM events. The cumulative incidence rate of SM during follow-up was 58.7 per 1.000 person-years (95% CI, 53.7-64.2) compared with 34.0 per 1.000 person-years (95% CI, 30.2-38.2) for recurrent stroke in the same time period. The risks of SM and recurrent stroke were highest the first year after index IS or transient ischemic attack. The most frequent SM diagnoses were sequelae of cerebral infarction (19.8%), medical observation, and evaluation for suspected cerebrovascular disease (15.6%) and infections (14.0%). The 2 most frequent and unspecific diagnoses (sequelae of cerebral infarction and medical observation) were clustered in the first months after index stroke. Conclusions- SM after IS or transient ischemic attack are more frequent than recurrent stroke and the risk is especially high in the early period. SMs are multietiological and unspecific diagnoses are most frequent early after index stroke.

2.
J Neurol Sci ; 403: 31-37, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke subtype may influence the risk of readmission and mortality after ischemic stroke (IS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) due to differences in comorbidity, risk factors, and stroke severity. We aimed to study the five-year incidence and risk of all-cause readmission, cause-specific readmission and mortality after IS or TIA by stroke subtype. METHODS: The medical records of 1453 patients admitted with IS or TIA to the stroke unit at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway, between 2007 and 2012 were reviewed for identification of unplanned readmissions within five years after discharge. Stroke etiology was classified as large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), cardioembolism (CE), small vessel occlusion (SVO), stroke of other determined etiology (SOE), multiple etiologies (ME), or cryptogenic stroke (CS). Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression analyses were used to determine incidences and risk of readmission and death. RESULTS: The five-year incidence of all-cause readmission was 72.6% (74% LAA, 81% CE, 65% SVO, 55% SOE, 71% ME, and 67% CS), with infections, cardiac disease, stroke-related events and fractures as the most frequent causes. Compared to patients with other subtypes, SVO subtype had a 21% lower risk of all-cause readmission and a 48% lower risk of death, whereas CE had a 25% higher risk of all cause readmission and a 34% higher risk of death. CE subtype also had a 75% higher risk of readmission due to cardiac disease, whereas CS subtype had a 44% lower risk of readmission with cardiac disease. CONCLUSION: The five-year incidence of readmission and mortality varied among the stroke subtypes. The risk of readmission and death are especially high in patients with CE subtype, and lowest for patients with SVO subtype.

3.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 140(1): 3-8, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recurrent ischemic stroke (IS) or TIA is frequent with a considerable variation in incidence and mortality across populations. Current data on stroke recurrence and mortality are useful to examine trends, risk factors, and treatment effects. In this study, we calculated the incidence of recurrent IS or TIA in a hospital-based stroke population in Western Norway, investigated recurrence factors, and estimated the effect of recurrence on all-cause mortality. METHODS: This prospective cohort study registered recurrence and mortality among 1872 IS and TIA survivors admitted to the stroke unit at Haukeland University Hospital between July 2007 and December 2013. Recurrence and death until September 1, 2016, were identified by medical chart review. Cumulative incidences of recurrence were estimated with a competing risks Cox model. Multivariate Cox models were used to examine recurrence factors and mortality. RESULTS: During follow-up, 220 patients had 277 recurrent IS or TIAs. The cumulative recurrence rate was 5.4% at 1 year, 11.3% at 5 years, and 14.2% at the end of follow-up. Hypertension (HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.21-2.25), prior symptomatic stroke (HR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.18-2.24), chronic infarcts on MRI (HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.10-1.99), and age (HR 1.02/year, 95% CI 1.00-1.03) were independently associated with recurrence. A total of 668 (35.7%) patients died during follow-up. Recurrence significantly increased the all-cause mortality (HR = 2.55, 95% CI 2.04-3.18). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of recurrent IS stroke or TIA was modest in our population and was associated with previously established risk factors. Recurrence more than doubled the all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
4.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(3)2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30754951

RESUMO

BAKGRUNN: I 2002 ble Forskerlinjen opprettet for tidlig å rekruttere medisinstudenter til forskning. Vi ønsket å kartlegge hvor mange tidligere forskerlinjestudenter fra Universitetet i Bergen som fortsatte å forske og identifisere faktorer som var assosiert med videre forskning. MATERIALE OG METODE: Alle studenter innrullert i forskerlinjeprogrammet ved Universitetet i Bergen siden oppstart i 2002 som var uteksaminert fra medisinstudiet innen juni 2017 ble kontaktet per e-post med en elektronisk spørreundersøkelse. Vi undersøkte om deltagerne holdt på med eller hadde gjennomført doktorgrad, antall publiserte artikler, tid siden siste publisering, akademisk undervisning og veiledning samt nåværende stilling på universitet eller høyskole. RESULTATER: Totalt 102 av 148 (69 %) besvarte spørreundersøkelsen. Av disse hadde 68 % gått videre med doktorgrad, 38 % var involvert i akademisk undervisning eller veiledning og 29 % var ansatt i en akademisk stilling. Samlet hadde deltagerne i median publisert fire artikler. Kvinner hadde større sannsynlighet for å gå videre med doktorgrad enn menn. Det samme hadde de som publiserte minst én artikkel før fullført medisinstudium, og de som ikke hadde mottatt regelmessig veiledning som forskerlinjestudent. Det var ingen sammenheng mellom det å fullføre Forskerlinjen og det å gå videre med doktorgrad. FORTOLKNING: Mange medisinstudenter som har gått Forskerlinjen ved Universitetet i Bergen fortsetter med forskning etter fullført studium. Dette gjelder også de som ikke fullfører linjen.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Educação Médica , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 15, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of hospital readmission after stroke is substantial, but little knowledge exists on factors associated with long-term readmission after stroke. In a cohort comprising patients with ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), we examined and compared factors associated with readmission within 1 year and first readmission during year 2-5. METHODS: Patients with ischemic stroke or TIA who were discharged alive between July 2007 and October 2012, were followed for 5 years by review of medical charts. The timing and primary cause of the first unplanned readmission were registered. Cox regression was used to identify independent risk factors for readmission within 1 year and first readmission during year 2-5 after discharge. RESULTS: The cohort included 1453 patients, of whom 568 (39.1%) were readmitted within 1 year. Of the 830 patients that were alive and without readmission 1 year after discharge, 439 (52.9%) were readmitted within 5 years. Patients readmitted within 1 year were older, had more severe strokes, poorer functional outcome, and a higher occurrence of complications during index admission than patients readmitted during year 2-5. Cardiovascular comorbidity and secondary preventive treatment did not differ between the two groups of readmitted patients. Higher age, poorer functional outcome, coronary artery disease and hypertension were independently associated with readmission within both 1 year and during year 2-5. Peripheral artery disease was independently associated with readmission within 1 year, and atrial fibrillation was associated with readmission during year 2-5. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of all patients who survived the first year after stroke without any readmissions were readmitted within 5 years. Patients readmitted within 1 year and between years 2-5 shared many risk factors for readmission, but they differed in age, functional outcome and occurrence of complications during the index admission.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
Brain Behav ; 8(10): e01108, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence of recurrent stroke is highest within 30 days after the initial ischemic stroke (IS) or TIA, but knowledge about early recurrence is lacking. We aimed to identify etiological groups with highest risk of early recurrence and assess how the TOAST classification identified index stroke etiology. METHODS: Medical records of 1874 IS and TIA patients in the Bergen NORSTROKE registry were retrospectively reviewed for identification of recurrent IS or TIA within 30 days after index IS or TIA. Stroke etiology was determined by review of electronical medical journals. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for 30-day recurrence. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients (1.8%) were readmitted with recurrent IS or TIA within 30 days after index stroke. By using TOAST, 12 patients were initially classified with stroke of unknown etiology (SUE). Etiologies behind recurrent IS or TIA were after the recurrent episode identified as extracranial large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) in 14 patients (42.4%), intracranial arterial pathology in seven patients (21.2%), active malignancy in six patients (18.2%), and cardio embolism in four patients (12.1%). Small vessel occlusion and SUE were the causes in one patient each. Logistic regression showed that patients with stroke of other determined etiology (SOE) and LAA had increased risk of 30-day recurrence (OR = 9.72, 95% CI 1.84-51.3, p < 0.01 and OR = 4.36, 95% CI 2.01-9.47, p < 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with LAA and SOE had increased risk of recurrent IS or TIA within 30 days. TOAST was inadequate at identifying exact etiologies behind recurrent stroke at index event.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Brain Behav ; 8(3): e00935, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541545

RESUMO

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most severe form of stroke, but data on readmission after ICH are sparse. We aimed to determine frequency, causes, and predictors of 30-day readmission after ICH. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study includes all spontaneous ICH survivors admitted to the stroke unit at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen in Norway from July 2007 to December 2013. Patients were followed by review of electronic medical charts, and the first unplanned readmission within 30 days after discharge was used as final outcome. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of 30-day readmission. Results: We identified 226 patients with spontaneous ICH, 70 (31.0%) of whom died before discharge or were discharged to palliative care. Of the remaining 156 ICH survivors, 28 (18.0%) were readmitted within 30 days. Median time to readmission was 12 days (IQR 4.5 - 18.5). Most patients were readmitted due to infections (N = 13). None of the patients were readmitted with recurrent stroke. Pneumonia and enteral feeding during the index hospitalization were associated with readmission for infections (both p < .01). Age was the only independent predictor of readmission (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.11, p = .006). Conclusions: Almost one in five of our spontaneous ICH survivors was readmitted within 30 days, and most readmissions were caused by infections.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Nutrição Enteral/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Causa Fundamental
9.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 45(1-2): 42-47, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke can be the first manifestation of cancer and it is therefore important to ascertain which stroke patients should be considered for cancer-diagnostic investigations. We aimed to determine the frequency of active cancer in patients with acute ischemic stroke and to compare clinical findings in stroke patients with active cancer to ischemic stroke patients with no history of cancer. Finally, we aimed to develop a predictive and feasible score for clinical use to uncover underlying malignancy. METHODS: All ischemic stroke patients admitted to the stroke unit in the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital were consecutively included in the Norwegian Stroke Research Registry (NORSTROKE). Stroke etiology was determined by the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. Data on cancer diagnoses was obtained from patients' medical records and the Cancer Registry of Norway. Active cancer was defined as cancer diagnosis, metastasis of known cancer, recurrent cancer or receiving cancer treatment, all within 12 months before or after the index stroke. Based on variables independently associated with active cancer, a predictive score was developed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curves. Bayes' theorem was used to calculate post-test probabilities of active cancer. RESULTS: Of the 1,646 ischemic stroke patients included, 82 (5.0%) had active cancer. Increased D-dimer (OR = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1-1.2, p = <0.001), lower Hb (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.7, p = <0.001), smoking (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-4.3, p = 0.02) and suffering a stroke of undetermined etiology (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, p = 0.03) were factors independently associated with active cancer. These were included in the final predictive score which gave an AUC of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.65-0.81) in patients younger than 75 years of age. Assuming the prevalence of cancer to be 5%, the score shows that if a patient fulfills all 3 score points, the probability of active cancer is 53%. CONCLUSIONS: Active cancer was found in 5% of our ischemic stroke patients. We found that a clinical score comprising elevated D-dimer ≥3 mg/L, lower Hb ≤12.0 g/dL and previous or current smoking is feasible for predicting active cancer in ischemic stroke patients.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Stroke Res Treat ; 2018: 7195369, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643624

RESUMO

Background: Stroke aetiology may affect the risk and causes of readmission after ischaemic stroke (IS) and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) due to differences in risk factors, functional outcome, and treatment. We aimed to examine frequencies, causes, and risk of 30-day readmission by stroke subtype, determine predictors of 30-day readmission, and study the impact of 30-day readmissions on one-year mortality. Methods: All surviving patients admitted with IS or TIA from July 2007 to December 2013 were followed by review of medical records for all unplanned readmissions within 30 days after discharge. Stroke subtype was classified as large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), cardioembolism (CE), small vessel occlusion (SVO), stroke of other determined aetiology (SOE), or stroke of undetermined aetiology (SUE). Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the risk of 30-day readmission for the stroke subtypes and identify predictors of 30-day readmission, and its impact on one-year mortality. Results: Of 1874 patients, 200 (10.7%) were readmitted within 30 days [LAA 42/244 (17.2%), CE 75/605 (12.4%), SVO 12/205 (5.9%), SOE 6/32 (18.8%), SUE 65/788 (8.3%)]. The most frequent causes of readmissions were stroke-related event, infection, recurrent stroke/ TIA, and cardiac disease. After adjusting for age, sex, functional outcome, length of stay, and the risk factor burden, patients with LAA and SOE subtype had significantly higher risks of readmission for any cause, recurrent stroke or TIA, and stroke-related events. Predictors of 30-day readmission were higher age, peripheral arterial disease, enteral feeding, and LAA subtype. Thirty-day readmission was an independent predictor of one-year mortality. Conclusions: Patients with LAA or SOE have a high risk of 30-day readmission, possibly caused by an increased risk of recurrent stroke and stroke-related events. Awareness of the risk of readmission for different causes and appropriate handling according to stroke subtype may be useful for preventing some readmissions after stroke.

11.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 5(3): 107-13, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26648966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underlying malignancy can cause ischemic stroke in some patients. Mechanisms include the affection of the coagulation cascade, tumor mucin secretion, infections and nonbacterial endocarditis. The release of necrotizing factor and interleukins may cause inflammation of the endothelial lining, creating a prothrombotic surface that triggers thromboembolic events, including stroke. The aims of this study were to assess the occurrence of cancer in patients who had recently suffered an ischemic stroke and to detect possible associations between stroke and cancer subtypes. METHODS: All ischemic stroke patients registered in the Norwegian Stroke Research Registry (NORSTROKE) as part of the ongoing Bergen NORSTROKE study were included. Blood samples were obtained on admission. Stroke etiology was determined by the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria, and the severity of stroke was defined according to the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score. Information about cancer disease after stroke was obtained from patient medical records and The Cancer Registry of Norway. RESULTS: From a total of 1,282 ischemic stroke patients with no history of cancer, 55 (4.3%) patients were diagnosed with cancer after stroke. The median time from stroke onset to cancer diagnosis was 14.0 months (interquartile range 6.2-24.5). Twenty-three (41.8%) patients were diagnosed with cancer within 1 year and 13 (23.6%) within 6 months. The most common cancer type was lung cancer (19.0%). By Cox regression analysis, cancer after stroke was associated with elevated D-dimer levels on admittance (p < 0.001), age (p = 0.01) and smoking (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer-associated stroke is rare, and routine investigation for cancer seems unwarranted in acute ischemic stroke. However, in stroke patients with elevated levels of blood coagulation factors, C-reactive protein, higher age and a history of smoking, underlying malignancy should be considered. Our study suggests that an unknown stroke etiology does not predict malignancy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/epidemiologia
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