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1.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356231

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists are the cornerstone in the treatment of hyperglycemia in many people suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D). These drugs have potent glucose-lowering actions and, additionally, lower body weight through satiety induction while reducing blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Partly through these actions, GLP-1 receptor agonism was shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with T2D with previous CVD or at high-risk thereof. In these cardiovascular safety trials, in secondary or exploratory analyses, GLP-1 receptor agonists were also shown to reduce macro-albuminuria, an accepted surrogate marker for diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a condition that still represents a major unmet medical need. In this review we will discuss the evidence which suggests renoprotection induced by GLP-1 receptor agonists and the potential mechanisms that may be involved. These include mitigation of hyperglycemia, overweight and insulin resistance, systemic and glomerular hypertension, dyslipidemia, sodium retention, inflammation and renal hypoxia. The recently initiated large-sized FLOW trial investigating the effects of semaglutide on hard renal outcomes in patients with DKD will provide clarity whether GLP-1 receptor agonists may reduce the burden of DKD in addition to their other beneficial metabolic and cardiovascular effects.

2.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387022

RESUMO

We report a case of a patient who developed dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI) after the use of canagliflozin. A 66-year-old man with type 2 diabetes who was recovering from left knee septic arthritis at a rehabilitation facility was admitted with oliguric AKI 5 days after starting treatment with canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2). The patient presented with hematuria, non-nephrotic-range proteinuria, and serum creatinine level of 6.8 (baseline, 1.1-1.3) mg/dL. There was no recent use of radiocontrast agents or exposure to other nephrotoxins. The patient subsequently required hemodialysis. Due to recent antibiotic use (ampicillin-sulbactam), acute interstitial nephritis was considered in the differential diagnosis. Kidney biopsy was performed, which showed the presence of osmotic nephropathy. The patient's kidney function returned to baseline after 2 weeks of hemodialysis. This case provides evidence of an association of osmotic nephropathy with the use of canagliflozin and discusses potential mechanisms. We recommend kidney biopsy for cases of severe AKI associated with SGLT2 inhibitors to better understand the relationship of this complication with the use of this class of medications.

3.
Semin Pediatr Surg ; 29(1): 150883, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238288

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery, an emerging treatment for severely obese youth with and without T2D, provides marked improvement in insulin resistance, beta-cell function, and central adiposity. Further, preliminary data suggest that bariatric surgery also results in significant improvement in markers of obesity-related nephropathy and DKD, beyond that which can be achieved with current medical interventions. Yet, the mechanisms whereby bariatric surgery attenuates kidney disease remain unclear. This review summarizes the data on the effects of bariatric surgery on obesity-related nephropathy and DKD in youth with and without T2D, in addition to potential mechanisms underlying the nephroprotective effects of weight loss surgery and how these may differ in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass vs. vertical sleeve gastrectomy. Finally, we discuss potential future non-surgical therapies to mitigate kidney disease.

4.
Kidney Int ; 97(5): 995-1005, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229096

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery improves markers of kidney health in severe obesity, yet it is unclear if kidney disease outcomes differ according to age at surgery. Therefore, we examined health effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass between 161 adolescents and 396 adults participating in two related but distinct studies. Primary outcomes were elevated urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 30 mg/g or more and hyperfiltration (an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 135 ml/min/1.73m2 or more). Analyses were stratified by the presence of pre-operative type 2 diabetes. Adolescents with pre-operative type 2 diabetes had a significantly increased prevalence of elevated UACR prior to surgery compared to adults (22.5 vs. 9.0%). Resolution of elevated UACR following surgery differed between adolescents and adults with type 2 diabetes, with adolescents experiencing a significantly earlier improvement following surgery. Adolescents without pre-operative type 2 diabetes demonstrated a significantly increased prevalence of UACR prior to surgery compared to adults (9.4 vs. 4.5%), with no improvement occurring in either group post-operatively. Adolescents with pre-operative type 2 diabetes had a significantly increased prevalence of hyperfiltration that remained throughout the study period, whereas hyperfiltration prevalence was similar among those without type 2 diabetes. Thus, adolescents with pre-operative type 2 diabetes experienced earlier attenuation of elevated UACR compared to adults with pre-operative type 2 diabetes in response to gastric bypass.

5.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(Supplement_1): i24-i32, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003832

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a common complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and a major risk factor for premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current treatments, such as control of hyperglycaemia and hypertension, are beneficial, but only partially protect against DKD. Finding new, safe and effective therapies to halt nephropathy progression has proven to be challenging. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have demonstrated, in addition to glycaemic lowering, impressive protection against DKD and CVD progression in people with type 2 diabetes. Although these beneficial cardiorenal effects may also apply to people with T1D, supporting data are lacking. Furthermore, the increased rates of euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis may limit the use of this class in people with T1D. In this review we highlight the pathophysiology of DKD in T1D and the unmet need that exists. We further detail the beneficial and adverse effects of SGLT2 inhibitors based on their mechanism of action. Finally, we balance the effects in people with T1D and indicate future lines of research.

6.
Kidney Int ; 97(1): 31-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901353

RESUMO

Cardiovascular and renal outcome trials demonstrate nephroprotection with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in people with type 2 diabetes. Attenuation of hyperfiltration is believed to be responsible for the nephroprotection, and studies in young adults with type 1 diabetes suggest that afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction induced by a tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism may be responsible for this effect. The study by van Bommel et al. suggests that this mechanism may not hold true in older adults with type 2 diabetes, who instead attenuate elevated glomerular filtration rate via post-glomerular vasodilation.

7.
J Diabetes ; 12(3): 197-204, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fructose is distinct among common sugars in its ability to raise serum uric acid, and some studies suggest fructose-induced uric acid production may have a role in the ability of this sugar to induce metabolic syndrome. A fructose tolerance test has been previously developed to evaluate the relative ability of fructose to raise uric acid in individuals. However, the effect of fructose to raise uric acid in people with diabetes has not been studied. METHODS: People with type 2 diabetes (n = 143) and without diabetes controls (n = 132) with similar body mass index (BMI) underwent an oral fructose tolerance test. As a comparison, participants also had their uric acid levels measured after an oral glucose tolerance test on a different day. RESULTS: Serum uric acid was lower in people with type 2 diabetes compared to controls with a similar BMI, especially those with poor glucose control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥ 8%). Fructose administration raised serum uric acid in both groups, with a lower absolute rise in people with diabetes. People with diabetes with a blunted rise in serum uric acid had higher baseline serum uric acid concentrations and a higher BMI. People without diabetes with a higher BMI also showed a blunted serum uric acid response. Oral glucose administration lowered serum uric acid in both participants, with a greater fall in those with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Both the presence of diabetes and obesity blunt the serum uric acid response to fructose ingestion. These data demonstrate altered fructose-dependent urate metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 228-234, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Impaired insulin sensitivity is associated with hyperfiltration (i.e., elevated glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and adults with prediabetes. Yet, these relationships are based on studies that relied on estimated GFR (eGFR), estimates of insulin sensitivity, or both. We aimed to verify the relationship between insulin sensitivity and renal hemodynamic function by gold standard methods in adults with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (M value) (glucose infusion rate in mg/kglean/min) and renal hemodynamic function by urinary inulin (GFR) and para-aminohippuric acid (effective renal plasma flow [ERPF]) clearances in participants with T2D without overt kidney disease. Filtration fraction (FF) (GFR/ERPF) was calculated. Relationships between insulin sensitivity and renal hemodynamic parameters were examined by multivariable linear regression. Renal hemodynamic parameters were examined across tertiles of M values. RESULTS: We tested 44 adults with T2D, of whom 77% were male, with mean ± SD age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 4.0 kg/m2, and HbA1c 7.4 ± 0.6%. Average GFR was 110 ± 26 mL/min, with an FF of 22.1 ± 2.8% and median 24-h urinary albumin excretion of 11.3 mg (interquartile range 5.8-17.0). Average M value was 5.6 ± 2.9 mg/kglean/min. Insulin sensitivity inversely correlated with GFR (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and FF (r = -0.40, P < 0.01), and these associations remained significant after multivariable adjustments for age, sex, renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use, and HbA1c. In addition, GFR, FF, and urinary albumin excretion were highest in the participants in the lowest M value tertile. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrate that impaired insulin sensitivity is associated with intrarenal hemodynamic dysfunction by gold standard techniques in adults with T2D treated with metformin monotherapy.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 187-195, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare diabetic kidney disease (DKD) rates over 5 years of follow-up in two cohorts of severely obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) undergoing medical or surgical treatment for T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed of data collected from obese participants of similar age and racial distribution enrolled in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) and the Treatment Options of Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) studies. Teen-LABS participants underwent metabolic bariatric surgery (MBS). TODAY participants were randomized to metformin alone or in combination with rosiglitazone or intensive lifestyle intervention, with insulin therapy given for glycemic progression. Glycemic control, BMI, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin excretion (UAE), and prevalence of hyperfiltration (eGFR ≥135 mL/min/1.73 m2) and elevated UAE (≥30 mg/g) were assessed annually. RESULTS: Participants with T2D from Teen-LABS (n = 30, mean ± SD age, 16.9 ± 1.3 years; 70% female; 60% white; BMI 54.4 ± 9.5 kg/m2) and TODAY (n = 63, age 15.3 ± 1.3 years; 56% female; 71% white; BMI 40.5 ± 4.9 kg/m2) were compared. During 5 years of follow-up, hyperfiltration decreased from 21% to 18% in Teen-LABS and increased from 7% to 48% in TODAY. Elevated UAE decreased from 27% to 5% in Teen-LABS and increased from 21% to 43% in TODAY. Adjusting for baseline age, sex, BMI, and HbA1c, TODAY participants had a greater odds of hyperfiltration (odds ratio 15.7 [95% CI 2.6, 94.3]) and elevated UAE (27.3 [4.9, 149.9]) at 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with MBS, medical treatment of obese youth with T2D was associated with a higher odds of DKD over 5 years.

10.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 16(2): 75-86, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822862

RESUMO

Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia affects ~20% of the general population in the USA, with variable rates in other countries. Historically, asymptomatic hyperuricaemia was considered a benign laboratory finding with little clinical importance in the absence of gout or kidney stones. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that asymptomatic hyperuricaemia can predict the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease and might contribute to disease by stimulating inflammation. Although urate has been classically viewed as an antioxidant with beneficial effects, new data suggest that both crystalline and soluble urate activate various pro-inflammatory pathways. This Review summarizes what is known about the role of urate in the inflammatory response. Further research is needed to define the role of asymptomatic hyperuricaemia in these pro-inflammatory pathways.

11.
Endocr Rev ; 41(2)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633153

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease remains the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease in the world. Despite reductions in incidence rates of myocardial infarction and stroke in people with diabetes over the past 3 decades, the risk of diabetic kidney disease has remained unchanged, and may even be increasing in younger individuals afflicted with this disease. Accordingly, changes in public health policy have to be implemented to address the root causes of diabetic kidney disease, including the rise of obesity and diabetes, in addition to the use of safe and effective pharmacological agents to prevent cardiorenal complications in people with diabetes. The aim of this article is to review the mechanisms of pathogenesis and therapies that are either in clinical practice or that are emerging in clinical development programs for potential use to treat diabetic kidney disease.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0216851, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603912

RESUMO

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is an essential part of diabetes care. Real-time CGM data are beneficial to patients for daily glucose management, and aggregate summary statistics of CGM measures are valuable to direct insulin dosing and as a tool for researchers in clinical trials. Yet, the various commercial systems still report CGM data in disparate, non-standard ways. Accordingly, there is a need for a standardized, free, open-source approach to CGM data management and analysis. A package titled cgmanalysis was developed in the free programming language R to provide a rapid, easy, and consistent methodology for CGM data management, summary measure calculation, and descriptive analysis. Variables calculated by our package compare well to those generated by various CGM software, and our functions provide a more comprehensive list of summary measures available to clinicians and researchers. Consistent handling of CGM data using our R package may facilitate collaboration between research groups and contribute to a better understanding of free-living glucose patterns.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 42(12): 2290-2297, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is the leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations (LEAs). Identification of patients with foot ulcers at risk for amputation remains clinically challenging. Plasma copeptin, a surrogate marker of vasopressin, is associated with the risk of cardiovascular and renal complications in diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the association between baseline plasma copeptin and risk of LEA during follow-up in four cohorts of people with type 1 (GENESIS, n = 503, and GENEDIAB, n = 207) or type 2 diabetes (DIABHYCAR, n = 3,101, and SURDIAGENE, n = 1,452) with a median duration of follow-up between 5 and 10 years. Copeptin concentration was measured in baseline plasma samples by an immunoluminometric assay. RESULTS: In the pooled cohorts with type 1 diabetes (n = 710), the cumulative incidence of LEA during follow-up by increasing tertiles (tertile 1 [TER1], TER2, and TER3) of baseline plasma copeptin was 3.9% (TER1), 3.3% (TER2), and 10.0% (TER3) (P = 0.002). Cox regression analyses confirmed the association of copeptin with LEA: hazard ratio (HR) for 1 SD increment of log[copeptin] was 1.89 (95% CI 1.28-2.82), P = 0.002. In the pooled cohorts of type 2 diabetes (n = 4,553), the cumulative incidence of LEA was 1.1% (TER1), 2.9% (TER2), and 3.6% (TER3) (P < 0.0001). In Cox regression analyses, baseline plasma copeptin was significantly associated with LEA: HR for 1 SD increment of log[copeptin] was 1.42 (1.15-1.74), P = 0.001. Similar results were observed in the cohort with type 2 diabetes for lower-limb revascularization (HR 1.20 [95% CI 1.03-1.39], P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline plasma copeptin is associated with cumulative incidence of LEA in cohorts of people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and may help to identify patients at risk for LEA.

14.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(5): F1224-F1230, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545924

RESUMO

Pharmacological Na+-glucose linked cotransporter (SGLT)2 inhibition is being examined as a renal protection strategy in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. We quantified renal SGLT mRNA expression in healthy controls (HC), glomerulonephritis (GN), and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) to identify differences in expression across a spectrum of renal diseases. mRNA expression of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in renal tubules and glomeruli, obtained using microdissection and microarray techniques, was evaluated in two large cohorts. The European Renal cDNA bank included HC, GN, and DKD (98 glomeruli and 93 tubulointerstitium). The Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network cohort included 124 adults with membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and IgA nephropathy. Within the European Renal cDNA bank, SGLT2 tubular and glomerular log2 mRNA expression significantly differed across HC, GN, and DKD (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0004), with the highest expression in HC. Within the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network, there were no differences in SGLT log2 mRNA expression across GN subtypes. Tubular SGLT2 log2 mRNA expression positively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation) and glycated hemoglobin (r = 0.33 and 0.34, P < 0.05) and inversely correlated with interstitial fibrosis (r = -0.21, P < 0.05). In conclusion, SGLT2 mRNA expression was lower in DKD compared with HC or GN and inversely related to interstitial fibrosis. The relationships between SGLT mRNA, protein expression, and transporter activity require further elucidation.

15.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(9): 1297-1305, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Marathon runners develop transient AKI with urine sediments and injury biomarkers suggesting nephron damage. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: To investigate the etiology, we examined volume and thermoregulatory responses as possible mechanisms in runners' AKI using a prospective cohort of runners in the 2017 Hartford Marathon. Vitals, blood, and urine samples were collected in 23 runners 1 day premarathon and immediately and 1 day postmarathon. We measured copeptin at each time point. Continuous core body temperature, sweat sodium, and volume were assessed during the race. The primary outcome of interest was AKI, defined by AKIN criteria. RESULTS: Runners ranged from 22 to 63 years old; 43% were men. Runners lost a median (range) of 2.34 (0.50-7.21) g of sodium and 2.47 (0.36-6.81) L of volume via sweat. After accounting for intake, they had a net negative sodium and volume balance at the end of the race. The majority of runners had increases in core body temperature to 38.4 (35.8-41)°C during the race from their baseline. Fifty-five percent of runners developed AKI, yet 74% had positive urine microscopy for acute tubular injury. Runners with more running experience and increased participation in prior marathons developed a rise in creatinine as compared with those with lesser experience. Sweat sodium losses were higher in runners with AKI versus non-AKI (median, 3.41 [interquartile range (IQR), 1.7-4.8] versus median, 1.4 [IQR, 0.97-2.8] g; P=0.06, respectively). Sweat volume losses were higher in runners with AKI versus non-AKI (median, 3.89 [IQR, 1.49-5.09] versus median, 1.66 [IQR, 0.72-2.84] L; P=0.03, respectively). Copeptin was significantly higher in runners with AKI versus those without (median, 79.9 [IQR, 25.2-104.4] versus median, 11.3 [IQR, 6.6-43.7]; P=0.02, respectively). Estimated temperature was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: All runners experienced a substantial rise in copeptin and body temperature along with salt and water loss due to sweating. Sodium and volume loss via sweat as well as plasma copeptin concentrations were associated with AKI in runners. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2019_08_13_CJASNPodcast_19_09_.mp3.

16.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(8): 1110-1117, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate copeptin concentrations in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine the associations between copeptin and measures of arterial stiffness and kidney dysfunction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This analysis included 169 adolescents with T1D (12-19 years of age, 59% girls, mean HbA1c 9.0 ± 1.5% and diabetes duration of 8.6 ± 2.9 years), in addition to 61 controls without T1D. Arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV), carotid-radial PWV (CR-PWV), augmentation index normalized to heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@HR75), and brachial artery distensibility (BAD). Serum copeptin, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by serum creatinine and cystatin C were also assessed. RESULTS: Compared to controls, adolescents with T1D had higher median (Q1-Q3) copeptin (7.5 [5.2-11.3] vs 6.4 [4.8-8.3] pmol/L, P = .01), mean ± SD eGFR (121 ± 23 vs 112 ± 16 mL/min/1.73m2 , P = .002) and lower BAD (7.1 ± 1.3 vs 7.2 ± 1.2%, P = .02). Adolescents with T1D in the in high tertile copeptin group (>9.1 pmol/L) had higher AIx@HR75 (10.7 ± 1.2 vs 5 ± 1.2, P = .001), CR-PWV (5.30 ± 1.0 vs 5.18 ± 1.0 m/s, P = .04), and UACR (12 ± 1 vs 8 ± 1 mg/g, P = .025) compared to those in low tertile (<5.8 pmol/L) after adjusting for age, sex, and eGFR. Copeptin inversely associated with CF-PWV independent of age, sex, eGFR, SBP, and HbA1c in T1D adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that elevated copeptin was associated with worse arterial stiffness in adolescents with T1D. These findings suggest that copeptin could improve CVD risk stratification in adolescents with T1D.

17.
Diabetes Care ; 42(10): 1921-1929, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In people with type 2 diabetes, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce cardiovascular risk and progression of diabetic kidney disease. Our aim was to determine whether sotagliflozin (SOTA), a dual SGLT1i and SGLT2i, had favorable effects on clinical biomarkers suggestive of kidney protection in adults with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this 52-week pooled analysis, 1,575 adults enrolled in the inTandem1 and inTandem2 trials were randomized to SOTA 200 mg, 400 mg, or placebo in addition to optimized insulin therapy. Changes in cardiorenal biomarkers were assessed. RESULTS: At 52 weeks, in response to SOTA 200 and 400 mg, the placebo-corrected least squares mean change from baseline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was -2.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.010) and -0.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.52), respectively. Systolic blood pressure difference was -2.9 and -3.6 mmHg (P < 0.0001 for both); diastolic blood pressure changed by -1.4 (P = 0.0033) and -1.6 mmHg (P = 0.0008). In participants with baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥30 mg/g, UACR decreased by 23.7% (P = 0.054) and 18.3% (P = 0.18) for SOTA 200 and SOTA 400 mg, respectively, versus placebo. Increases in serum albumin and hematocrit and reductions in uric acid were observed throughout 52 weeks with both SOTA doses. CONCLUSIONS: SOTA was associated with short- and long-term renal hemodynamic changes, which were similar to those seen with SGLT2i in type 2 diabetes. Further investigation around cardiorenal effects of SOTA in people with type 1 diabetes is justified.

18.
Kidney Int Rep ; 4(6): 786-796, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194091

RESUMO

Introduction: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is routinely used for clinical assessment of kidney function. However, the accuracy of estimating equations in older adults is uncertain. Methods: In 66 adults with ≥50 years type 1 diabetes (T1D) duration and 73 nondiabetic controls from age/sex-matched subgroups (65 ± 8 years old and 77[55%] were women) we evaluated the performance of estimated GFR (eGFR) by creatinine (Modification of Diet and Renal Disease [MDRD], Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology [CKD-EPI]cr), cystatin C (CKD-EPIcys, CKD-EPIcr-cys), and ß2-microglobulin (ß2M) compared with measured GFR by inulin clearance (mGFR). Performance was evaluated using metrics of bias (mean difference), precision (SD), and accuracy (proportion of eGFR that differed by >20% of mGFR). Results: Mean mGFR was 104 ± 18 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (range: 70-154 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and was not different between T1D and controls (103 ± 17 vs. 105 ± 19 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P = 0.39). All equations significantly underestimated mGFR (bias: -15 to -30 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P < 0.001 for all comparisons) except for ß2M, which had bias of 1.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (P = 0.61). Bias was greatest in cystatin C-based equations. Precision was lowest for ß2M (SD: 43.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P < 0.001 for each comparison). Accuracy was lowest for CKD-EPIcysC (69.1%, P < 0.001 for each comparison). Cystatin C-based equations demonstrated greater bias and lower accuracy in older age subgroups (<60, 60-69, ≥70 years). All equations demonstrated greater bias across higher ranges of mGFR (60-89, 90-119, ≥120 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Results were similar between T1D and controls except that ß2M had lower performance in T1D. Conclusion: Better estimates of GFR in older adults are needed for research and clinical practice, as this subgroup of the population has an amplified risk for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that requires accurate GFR estimation methods.

19.
J Diabetes Complications ; 33(8): 547-549, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186164

RESUMO

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) influences intrarenal hemodynamics in animal models, but the relationship between cGMP and renal function in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear. In this study, plasma cGMP correlated with efferent arteriolar resistance, effective renal plasma flow, and renal vascular resistance in adults with T1D.

20.
Ren Fail ; 41(1): 427-433, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162987

RESUMO

Objectives: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to explore clinical and biochemical factors, including the achievement of American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended targets associated with DKD in people living with T1D for ≥50 years. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study of 75 participants enrolled in the Canadian Study of Longevity in T1D. We explored diabetes-related complications, including neuropathy, retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and DKD. Study participants were dichotomized based on the achievement of ADA recommended targets as the low-target group (achieving ≤4 targets, n = 31) and high-target group (achieving >4 targets, n = 44). The outcome of interest was DKD defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values <60/mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or 24-h albumin excretion >30 mg. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for DKD with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Of the 75 participants with prolonged T1D duration (45% male, mean age 66 years), 25 participants had DKD and 50 did not. There was no statistical difference between the high- and low-target groups in terms of age and body mass index. eGFR was significantly higher and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly lower in the high-target group. Older age at diagnosis of T1D and lower frequency component to high-frequency component ratio increased the odds of having DKD. Conclusions: In adults with prolonged T1D duration, older age at diagnosis and lower heart rate variability may be associated with DKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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