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1.
Brain ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834371

RESUMO

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurocutaneous disorder caused by inactivating mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, key regulators of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. In the CNS, TSC is characterized by cortical tubers, subependymal nodules and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). SEGAs may lead to impaired circulation of CSF resulting in hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure in patients with TSC. Currently, surgical resection and mTORC1 inhibitors are the recommended treatment options for patients with SEGA. In the present study, high-throughput RNA-sequencing (SEGAs n = 19, periventricular control n = 8) was used in combination with computational approaches to unravel the complexity of SEGA development. We identified 9400 mRNAs and 94 microRNAs differentially expressed in SEGAs compared to control tissue. The SEGA transcriptome profile was enriched for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, a major regulator of cell proliferation and survival. Analysis at the protein level confirmed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is activated in SEGAs. Subsequently, the inhibition of ERK independently of mTORC1 blockade decreased efficiently the proliferation of primary patient-derived SEGA cultures. Furthermore, we found that LAMTOR1, LAMTOR2, LAMTOR3, LAMTOR4 and LAMTOR5 were overexpressed at both gene and protein levels in SEGA compared to control tissue. Taken together LAMTOR1-5 can form a complex, known as the 'Ragulator' complex, which is known to activate both mTORC1 and MAPK/ERK pathways. Overall, this study shows that the MAPK/ERK pathway could be used as a target for treatment independent of, or in combination with mTORC1 inhibitors for TSC patients. Moreover, our study provides initial evidence of a possible link between the constitutive activated mTORC1 pathway and a secondary driver pathway of tumour growth.

2.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1092, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680827

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a unique tool for in vivo visualization and tracking of stem cells in the brain. This is of particular importance when assessing safety of experimental cell treatments in the preclinical or clinical setup. Yet, specific imaging requires an efficient and non-perturbing cellular magnetic labeling which precludes adverse effects of the tag, e.g., the impact of iron-oxide-nanoparticles on the critical differentiation and integration processes of the respective stem cell population investigated. In this study we investigated the effects of very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particle (VSOP) labeling on viability, stemness, and neuronal differentiation potential of primary human adult neural stem cells (haNSCs). Cytoplasmic VSOP incorporation massively reduced the transverse relaxation time T2, an important parameter determining MR contrast. Cells retained cytoplasmic label for at least a month, indicating stable incorporation, a necessity for long-term imaging. Using a clinical 3T MRI, 1 × 103 haNSCs were visualized upon injection in a gel phantom, but detection limit was much lower (5 × 104 cells) in layer phantoms and using an imaging protocol feasible in a clinical scenario. Transcriptional analysis and fluorescence immunocytochemistry did not reveal a detrimental impact of VSOP labeling on important parameters of cellular physiology with cellular viability, stemness and neuronal differentiation potential remaining unaffected. This represents a pivotal prerequisite with respect to clinical application of this method.

4.
Epilepsia ; 60(9): 1973-1983, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that multilobar epilepsies caused by lesions restricted to the posterior cerebral quadrant (ie, the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes) can be treated successfully by a procedure termed posterior disconnection. The objective of the present paper was to identify determinants of the epileptological outcome following posterior disconnection surgery. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed a series of 29 consecutive patients undergoing posterior disconnection surgery between 2005 and 2017 for the treatment of refractory posterior quadrantic epilepsy. Specifically, all presurgical and postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) studies were reviewed to identify cases with an incomplete disconnection, or the presence of a more widespread pathology involving the whole hemisphere rather than only its posterior quadrant. In addition, we reevaluated all presurgical video-electroencephalography (EEG) reports. RESULTS: Seizure-free (International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] 1) after surgery were 3/3 patients with EEG findings restricted to the posterior quadrant, 0/7 patients who had propagation of epileptic activity to the contralateral frontal lobe, and 11/19 (57.9%) who showed propagation to ipsilateral frontal and/or contralateral posterior. Eleven of 13 (84.6%) patients with purely posterior quadrantic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (as retrospectively diagnosed by neuroimaging) vs 3/16 (18.8%) cases with additional subtle abnormalities outside the posterior quadrant became seizure-free (P = .001). Eleven of 16 (68.8%) patients with complete disconnections were seizure-free vs only 3/13 (23.0%) cases with leftover temporal lobe tissue with contact to the insula (P = .025, both Fisher's exact test). SIGNIFICANCE: A posterior disconnection is a technically demanding but very effective operation for posterior quadrantic epilepsy. Good epileptologic outcomes require not only that the epileptogenic lesion does not extend beyond the confines of the disconnected cerebral volume but also the absence of subtle MRI abnormalities, more widespread than the clear-cut lesion of the posterior quadrant. Hemispheric or contralateral (particularly frontal) propagation of the epileptic activity may also indicate the presence of a hemispheric rather than posterior quadrantic pathology.

5.
Brain ; 142(10): 3059-3071, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373622

RESUMO

The aim of epilepsy surgery in patients with focal, pharmacoresistant epilepsies is to remove the complete epileptogenic zone to achieve long-term seizure freedom. In addition to a spectrum of diagnostic methods, magnetoencephalography focus localization is used for planning of epilepsy surgery. We present results from a retrospective observational cohort study of 1000 patients, evaluated using magnetoencephalography at the University Hospital Erlangen over the time span of 28 years. One thousand consecutive cases were included in the study, evaluated at the University Hospital Erlangen between 1990 and 2018. All patients underwent magnetoencephalography as part of clinical workup for epilepsy surgery. Of these, 405 underwent epilepsy surgery after magnetoencephalography, with postsurgical follow-ups of up to 20 years. Sensitivity for interictal epileptic activity was evaluated, in addition to concordance of localization with the consensus of presurgical workup on a lobar level. We evaluate magnetoencephalography characteristics of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery versus patients who did not proceed to surgery. In operated patients, resection of magnetoencephalography localizations were related to postsurgical seizure outcomes, including long-term results after several years. In comparison, association of lesionectomy with seizure outcomes was analysed. Measures of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for magnetoencephalography resection and lesionectomy. Sensitivity for interictal epileptic activity was 72% with significant differences between temporal and extra-temporal lobe epilepsy. Magnetoencephalography was concordant with the presurgical consensus in 51% and showed additional or more focal involvement in an additional 32%. Patients who proceeded to surgery showed a significantly higher percentage of monofocal magnetoencephalography results. Complete magnetoencephalography resection was associated with significantly higher chances to achieve seizure freedom in the short and long-term. Diagnostic accuracy was significant in temporal and extra-temporal lobe cases, but was significantly higher in extra-temporal lobe epilepsy (diagnostic odds ratios of 4.4 and 41.6). Odds ratios were also higher in non-lesional versus lesional cases (42.0 versus 6.2). The results show that magnetoencephalography provides non-redundant information, which significantly contributes to patient selection, focus localization and ultimately long-term seizure freedom after epilepsy surgery. Specifically in extra-temporal lobe epilepsy and non-lesional cases, magnetoencephalography provides excellent accuracy.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(11): 1738-1744, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358956

RESUMO

It is challenging to estimate genetic variant burden across different subtypes of epilepsy. Herein, we used a comparative approach to assess the genetic variant burden and genotype-phenotype correlations in four most common brain lesions in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Targeted sequencing analysis was performed for a panel of 161 genes with a mean coverage of >400×. Lesional tissue was histopathologically reviewed and dissected from hippocampal sclerosis (n = 15), ganglioglioma (n = 16), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (n = 8), and focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 15). Peripheral blood (n = 12) or surgical tissue samples histopathologically classified as lesion-free (n = 42) were available for comparison. Variants were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. Overall, we identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in 25.9% of patients with a mean coverage of 383×. The highest number of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants was observed in patients with ganglioglioma (43.75%; all somatic) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (37.5%; all somatic), and in 20% of cases with focal cortical dysplasia type II (13.33% somatic, 6.67% germline). Pathogenic/likely pathogenic positive genes were disorder specific and BRAF V600E the only recurrent pathogenic variant. This study represents a reference for the genetic variant burden across the four most common lesion entities in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The observed large variability in variant burden by epileptic lesion type calls for whole exome sequencing of histopathologically well-characterized tissue in a diagnostic setting and in research to discover novel disease-associated genes.

7.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 140(4): 296-300, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild malformation of cortical dysplasia (mMCD) with oligodendroglial hyperplasia (MOGHE) is an epilepsy-related pathologic entity highlighted in post-surgical specimens of frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) patients. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We present two temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases with MOGHE and discuss clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging features that may be indicative of surgical outcome. METHODS: We identified two cases with MOGHE out of 30 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgical patient cohort, whose pathological distribution spared the hippocampal structures. RESULTS: The TLE cases shared common features with the FLE series in terms of patient profiles, MRI findings and post-surgical outcome. TLE plus seizure semiology combined with extratemporal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrocorticographic (ECoG) epileptiform elements at a distance from the imaging lesion were suggestive of an underlying multifocal pathology. CONCLUSIONS: MOGHE pathology has to be considered in the decision-making process for TLE epilepsy surgery when this constellation of features is met.

8.
Epilepsia ; 60(6): 1091-1103, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children, and the clinicopathological classification remains a challenging issue in daily practice. With the recent progress in DNA methylation-based classification of human brain tumors we examined whether genomic DNA methylation and gene expression analysis can be used to also distinguish human FCD subtypes. METHODS: DNA methylomes and transcriptomes were generated from massive parallel sequencing in 15 surgical FCD specimens, matched with 5 epilepsy and 6 nonepilepsy controls. RESULTS: Differential hierarchical cluster analysis of DNA methylation distinguished major FCD subtypes (ie, Ia, IIa, and IIb) from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy patients and nonepileptic controls. Targeted panel sequencing identified a novel likely pathogenic variant in DEPDC5 in a patient with FCD type IIa. However, no enrichment of differential DNA methylation or gene expression was observed in mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway-related genes. SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies extend the evidence for disease-specific methylation signatures toward focal epilepsies in favor of an integrated clinicopathologic and molecular classification system of FCD subtypes incorporating genomic methylation.

9.
Epilepsia ; 60(6): 1054-1068, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135062

RESUMO

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of fundamental importance to the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, particularly when surgery is being considered. Despite previous recommendations and guidelines, practices for the use of MRI are variable worldwide and may not harness the full potential of recent technological advances for the benefit of people with epilepsy. The International League Against Epilepsy Diagnostic Methods Commission has thus charged the 2013-2017 Neuroimaging Task Force to develop a set of recommendations addressing the following questions: (1) Who should have an MRI? (2) What are the minimum requirements for an MRI epilepsy protocol? (3) How should magnetic resonance (MR) images be evaluated? (4) How to optimize lesion detection? These recommendations target clinicians in established epilepsy centers and neurologists in general/district hospitals. They endorse routine structural imaging in new onset generalized and focal epilepsy alike and describe the range of situations when detailed assessment is indicated. The Neuroimaging Task Force identified a set of sequences, with three-dimensional acquisitions at its core, the harmonized neuroimaging of epilepsy structural sequences-HARNESS-MRI protocol. As these sequences are available on most MR scanners, the HARNESS-MRI protocol is generalizable, regardless of the clinical setting and country. The Neuroimaging Task Force also endorses the use of computer-aided image postprocessing methods to provide an objective account of an individual's brain anatomy and pathology. By discussing the breadth and depth of scope of MRI, this report emphasizes the unique role of this noninvasive investigation in the care of people with epilepsy.

10.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(4): 1599-1607, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863886

RESUMO

Supraspan list learning tests are sensitive measures used to assess temporal lobe dysfunction. Most frequently employed is the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning and Memory Test (RAVLT). The test's structure is determined by a short- and long-term memory component. During the first of five learning trials, the short-term memory component is the highest and steadily decreases over the following trials, while the long-term memory component concurrently increases and reaches its maximum at the delayed recall after a retention interval of 30 min. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that the functional relevance of left hippocampal integrity for conscious memory rises along with the increasing degree of the long-term memory component. Moreover, we investigated whether classical measures of short-term and working memory are also dependent on the hippocampus. The analysis was based on 37 adult patients who had undergone surgery for left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuronal cell densities of the resected left hippocampus were correlated with the presurgical memory performance across trials of the VLMT (the German RAVLT) and with digit span and working memory capacity (WMS-R). Whereas digit span and working memory capacity were not related to hippocampal cell counts, there was a significant correlation between left hippocampal integrity and VLMT memory performance, already regarding the first supraspan learning trial. Correlations steadily increased during the learning course. The highest correlation was seen regarding the delayed free recall. The results indicate an increasing correspondence between the integrity of the left hippocampus and verbal memory with an increasing long-term memory component. Immediate recall of verbal material became already dependent on left hippocampal integrity when the verbal memory load exceeded the memory span (supraspan list learning), while classical span measures that assess verbal short-term and working memory were not affected by left hippocampal pathology.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Células , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(2): 129-140, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892268

RESUMO

Teaching competency in the diagnosis and clinical management of epilepsy is of utmost importance for the ILAE. To achieve this mission, the Task Force for Epilepsy Education (EpiEd) developed a competency-based curriculum for epileptology, covering the spectrum of skills and knowledge for best medical practice. The curriculum encompasses seven domains, 42 competencies, and 124 learning objectives, divided into three levels: entry (Level 1), proficiency (Level 2), and advanced proficiency (Level 3). A survey of the currently existing ILAE-endorsed teaching activities identified a significant gap in education of basic knowledge of epileptology (Level 1). To bridge this gap, a web-based educational tool is being developed. A virtual campus will be constructed around the curriculum, integrating the various educational activities of the ILAE. This paper describes the development of the curriculum and future tasks necessary to achieve the educational goal of the ILAE.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Educação Baseada em Competências , Currículo , Epilepsia , Neurologia/educação , Sociedades , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos
13.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(1): 65-77, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782578

RESUMO

We comprehensively studied the clinical presentation, stereo-EEG and MRI findings, histopathological diagnosis, and brain somatic mutations in a retrospective series of drug-resistant patients with difficult-to-localize epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia at the bottom of a sulcus (BOS-FCD). We identified 10 patients with BOS-FCD from the Cleveland Clinic epilepsy surgery database submitted for intracranial video-EEG monitoring. Brain MRI, including voxel-based morphometric analysis and surgical tissue submitted for histopathology, was reviewed. Paraffin tissue samples from five patients were made available for targeted next-generation sequencing. Postsurgical follow-up was available in nine patients. BOS-FCD was identified in the superior frontal sulcus in six patients, inferior frontal sulcus in one patient, central sulcus in one patient, and intraparietal sulcus in two patients. All patients had stereotyped seizures. Intracranial EEG recordings identified ictal onset at the BOS-FCD in all 10 patients, whereas ictal scalp EEG had a localizing value in only six patients. Complete resection was achieved by lesionectomy or focal corticectomy in nine patients. Histopathologically, six patients had FCD type IIb and three had FCD type IIa. Next-generation sequencing analysis of DNA extracted from lesion-enriched (micro-dissected) tissue from five patients with FCD type II led to the identification of a germline frameshift insertion in DEPDC5, introducing a premature stop in one patient. Eight out of nine patients with available follow-up were completely seizure-free (Engel Class IA) after a mean follow-up period of six years. Our results confirm previous studies classifying difficult-to-localize BOS-FCD into the emerging spectrum of FCD ILAE type II mTORopathies. Further studies with large patient numbers and ultra-deep genetic testing may help to bridge the current knowledge gap in genetic aetiologies of FCD.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletrocorticografia , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/patologia , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(1): 122-127, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782583

RESUMO

Focal cortical dysplasia is a common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in infancy and childhood. We report a neonate with seizures occurring within the first day of life. Continuous video-EEG monitoring led to detection of left motor seizures and a right frontal EEG seizure pattern. Brain MRI revealed a lesion within the right frontal lobe without contrast enhancement. The patient was referred for epilepsy surgery due to drug resistance to vitamin B6 and four antiepileptic drugs. Lesionectomy was performed at the age of two and a half months, and histopathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia type IIb (FCD IIb). The patient is free of unprovoked seizures without medication (Engel Class I) and is normally developed at 36 months after surgery. The case study demonstrates that FCD IIb may cause seizures within the first day of life and that epilepsy surgery can be successfully performed in medically intractable patients with a clearly identifiable seizure onset zone within the first three months of life. Although radical surgery such as hemispherectomy and multi-lobar resections are over-represented in early infancy, this case also illustrates a favourable outcome with a more limited resection in this age group.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo II/cirurgia , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/etiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo II/complicações , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo II/diagnóstico
15.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(5): 837-846, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759284

RESUMO

Papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT) is a WHO-defined brain tumor entity that poses a major diagnostic challenge. Recently, SLC44A1-PRKCA fusions have been described in PGNT. We subjected 28 brain tumors from different institutions histologically diagnosed as PGNT to molecular and morphological analysis. Array-based methylation analysis revealed that 17/28 tumors exhibited methylation profiles typical for other tumor entities, mostly dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and hemispheric pilocytic astrocytoma. Conversely, 11/28 tumors exhibited a unique profile, thus constituting a distinct methylation class PGNT. By screening the extended Heidelberg cohort containing over 25,000 CNS tumors, we identified three additional tumors belonging to this methylation cluster but originally histologically diagnosed otherwise. RNA sequencing for the detection of SLC44A1-PRKCA fusions could be performed on 19 of the tumors, 10 of them belonging to the methylation class PGNT. In two additional cases, SLC44A1-PRKCA fusions were confirmed by FISH. We detected fusions involving PRKCA in all cases of this methylation class with material available for analyses: the canonical SLC44A1-PRKCA fusion was observed in 11/12 tumors, while the remaining case exhibited a NOTCH1-PRKCA fusion. Neither of the fusions was found in the tumors belonging to other methylation classes. Our results point towards a high misclassification rate of the morphological diagnosis PGNT and clearly demonstrate the necessity of molecular analyses. PRKCA fusions are highly diagnostic for PGNT, and detection by RNA sequencing enables the identification of rare fusion partners. Methylation analysis recognizes a unique methylation class PGNT irrespective of the nature of the PRKCA fusion.

16.
Epilepsy Behav ; 91: 68-74, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild malformation of cortical development with oligodendroglial hyperplasia and epilepsy (MOGHE) is a newly described, rare histopathologic entity detected in resected brain tissue of patients with refractory epilepsies. It shows a predominantly frontal localization causing a difficult-to-treat epilepsy with onset usually in early childhood. Histologically, MOGHE is characterized by blurred gray-white-matter boundaries with increased numbers of heterotopic neurons in the subcortical white matter and increased density of oligodendroglia. Little is known, to date, about radiologic features of MOGHE. Here, we report typical and age-related magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of MOGHE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 40 preoperative MR images of 25 pediatric patients with MOGHE (m/f: 13/12) who underwent epilepsy surgery at a median age of 9.3 years at our center between 2003 and 2018. Median age at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 5.2 years (1.5-20.7 years). RESULTS: Two MR subtypes were found: subtype I with an increased laminar T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal at the corticomedullary junction and subtype II with reduced corticomedullary differentiation because of increased signal of the adjacent white matter. Distribution of subtypes was age-related, with subtype I occurring between 1.5 and 5.1 years (median 2.6 years) and subtype II between 3.4 and 20.7 years (median 14.1 years). In one patient, MRI at the age of 2.7 years showed subtype I but had converted to subtype II by the age of 16 years. Histology revealed that in addition to the above mentioned typical findings of MOGHE, patchy areas of reduced density of myelin in 6 of 7 patients presenting subtype I out of 14 patients in which retrospective analysis regarding myelination was accessible. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance characteristics in patients with MOGHE are age-related and seem to change from subtype I to subtype II probably because of maturational processes between 3 and 6 years. Patchy areas of hypomyelination in histology seem to disappear during brain maturation and may therefore represent the histologic correlate of laminar T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in subtype I. This article is part of the Special Issue "Individualized Epilepsy Management: Medicines, Surgery and Beyond".

17.
World Neurosurg ; 123: e450-e456, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic biopsy is a standard procedure in neurosurgery. In addition to or even replacing frame-based stereotaxy, some centers also use frameless imaging-based techniques and more recently robotic systems. Here we report a retrospective analysis of our experience with 102 consecutive biopsies performed in our institution using the neuromate robotic device. METHODS: Between March 2013 and April 2018, 102 robot-assisted frameless biopsies were performed in 100 consecutive patients (median age/range: 66/7-86 years, male: 64). Target lesions were deep-seated (insula, basal ganglia, thalamus, midbrain, cerebellar peduncle) in 29 (28.4%) and/or small (<15 mm) in 24 (23.5%) cases. We retrospectively analyzed the histopathologic results as well as complications and the duration of the procedures. RESULTS: A definite histologic diagnosis could be established in 94 of 102 procedures (92.2%; 94/100 patients = 94.0%), including 67 glial and glioneuronal tumors, 16 central nervous system lymphomas, 7 metastases, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and 5 cases with inflammatory or infectious disorders. There were no infectious complications. A total of 13 cases (12.7%) suffered from biopsy-related hemorrhages >10 mm; however, persistent surgery-related neurologic worsening was seen in only 3 (2.9%). The average operating time was 10 minutes for placement of the localizing device under local anesthesia and 30 minutes for the actual biopsy procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Robot-assisted fameless stereotactic biopsies using the neuromate robot are an alternative to frame-based stereotaxy with a similar diagnostic yield and comparable complication rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Linfoma/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/instrumentação , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia/instrumentação , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 49(5): 1333-1346, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional MRI can be limited in detecting subtle epileptic lesions or identifying active/epileptic lesions among widespread, multifocal lesions. PURPOSE: We developed a high-resolution 3D MR fingerprinting (MRF) protocol to simultaneously provide quantitative T1 , T2 , proton density, and tissue fraction maps for detection and characterization of epileptic lesions. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) / International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) phantom, five healthy volunteers and 15 patients with medically intractable epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation with noninvasive or invasive electroclinical data. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3D MRF scans and routine clinical epilepsy MR protocols were acquired at 3 T. ASSESSMENT: The accuracy of the T1 and T2 values were first evaluated using the NIST/ISMRM phantom. The repeatability was then estimated with both phantom and volunteers based on the coefficient of variance (CV). For epilepsy patients, all the maps were qualitatively reviewed for lesion detection by three independent reviewers (S.E.J., M.L., I.N.) blinded to clinical data. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on T1 and T2 maps to quantify the multiparametric signal differences between lesion and normal tissues. Findings from qualitative review and quantitative ROI analysis were compared with patients' electroclinical data to assess concordance. STATISTICAL TESTS: Phantom results were compared using R-squared, and patient results were compared using linear regression models. RESULTS: The phantom study showed high accuracy with the standard values, with an R2 of 0.99. The volunteer study showed high repeatability, with an average CV of 4.3% for T1 and T2 in various tissue regions. For the 15 patients, MRF showed additional findings in four patients, with the remaining 11 patients showing findings consistent with conventional MRI. The additional MRF findings were highly concordant with patients' electroclinical presentation. DATA CONCLUSION: The 3D MRF protocol showed potential to identify otherwise inconspicuous epileptogenic lesions from the patients with negative conventional MRI diagnosis, as well as to correlate with different levels of epileptogenicity when widespread lesions were present. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3. Technical Efficacy Stage: 3. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;49:1333-1346.

19.
Epilepsia ; 60(2): 233-245, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surgical volumes at large epilepsy centers are decreasing. Pediatric cohorts, however, show a trend toward more resections and superior outcome. Differences in pediatric and adult epilepsy surgery were investigated in our cohort. METHODS: The Bethel database between 1990 and 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1916 adults and 1300 children underwent presurgical workup. The most common etiologies were medial temporal sclerosis (35.4%) in adults, and focal cortical dysplasias (21.1%) and diffuse hemispheric pathologies (14.7%) in children. Only 1.4% of the total cohort had normal histopathology. A total of 1357 adults (70.8%) and 751 children (57.8%) underwent resections. Surgery types for children were more diverse and showed a higher proportion of extratemporal resections (32.8%) and functional hemispherectomies (20.8%). Presurgical evaluations increased in both groups; surgical numbers remained stable for children, but decreased in the adult group from 2007 on. The patients' decision against surgery in the adult nonoperated cohort increased over time (total = 44.9%, 27.4% in 1995-1998 up to 53.2% in 2011-2014; for comparison, in children, total = 22.1%, stable over time). Postsurgical follow-up data were available for 1305 adults (96.2%) and 690 children (91.9%) 24 months after surgery. The seizure freedom rate was significantly higher in children than in adults (57.8% vs 47.5%, P < 0.001) and significantly improved over time (P = 0.016). SIGNIFICANCE: Pediatric epilepsy surgery has stable surgical volumes and renders more patients seizure-free than epilepsy surgery in adults. A relative decrease in hippocampal sclerosis, the traditional substrate of epilepsy surgery, changes the focus of epilepsy surgery toward other pathologies.

20.
Front Neurol ; 9: 927, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524352

RESUMO

In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often reveals hippocampal atrophy, while neuropathological assessment indicates the different types of hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Different HS types are not discriminated in MRI so far. We aimed to define the volume of each hippocampal subfield on MRI manually and to compare automatic and manual segmentations for the discrimination of HS types. The T2-weighted images from 14 formalin-fixed age-matched control hippocampi were obtained with 4.7T MRI to evaluate the volume of each subfield at the anatomical level of the hippocampal head, body, and tail. Formalin-fixed coronal sections at the level of the body of 14 control cases, as well as tissue samples from 24 TLE patients, were imaged with a similar high-resolution sequence at 3T. Presurgical three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted images from TLE went through a FreeSurfer 6.0 hippocampal subfield automatic assessment. The manual delineation with the 4.7T MRI was identified using Luxol Fast Blue stained 10-µm-thin microscopy slides, collected at every millimeter. An additional section at the level of the body from controls and TLE cases was submitted to NeuN immunohistochemistry for neuronal density estimation. All TLE cases were classified according to the International League Against Epilepsy's (ILAE's) HS classification. Manual volumetry in controls revealed that the dentate gyrus (DG)+CA4 region, CA1, and subiculum accounted for almost 90% of the hippocampal volume. The manual 3T volumetry showed that all TLE patients with type 1 HS (TLE-HS1) had lower volumes for DG+CA4, CA2, and CA1, whereas those TLE patients with HS type 2 (TLE-HS2) had lower volumes only in CA1 (p ≤ 0.038). Neuronal cell densities always decreased in CA4, CA3, CA2, and CA1 of TLE-HS1 but only in CA1 of TLE-HS2 (p ≤ 0.003). In addition, TLE-HS2 had a higher volume (p = 0.016) and higher neuronal density (p < 0.001) than the TLE-HS1 in DG + CA4. Automatic segmentation failed to match the manual or histological findings and was unable to differentiate TLE-HS1 from TLE-HS2. Total hippocampal volume correlated with DG+CA4 and CA1 volumes and neuronal density. For the first time, we also identified subfield-specific pathology patterns in the manual evaluation of volumetric MRI scans, showing the importance of manual segmentation to assess subfield-specific pathology patterns.

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