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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805249

RESUMO

COVID-19 restrictions led to reduced levels of physical activity, increased screen usage, and declines in mental health in youth; however, in-depth understandings of the experiences of high school student-athletes have yet to be explored. To describe the experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic on student-athletes' physical activity, social connection, and mental health, 20 high school student-athletes living in Calgary, Alberta participated in semi-structured interviews, designed using phenomenography. Participants reported variations in physical activity, social connections, and mental health which were influenced by stay-at-home restrictions and weather. Access to resources, changes to routines, online classes, and social support all influenced engagement in physical activity. School and sports provided opportunities for in-person social connections, impacted by the onset of the pandemic. Participants reported their mental health was influenced by social connections, online classes, and physical activity. Findings from this study will inform the development of resources for high school student-athletes amidst COVID-19.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Alberta/epidemiologia , Atletas , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pandemias , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e039070, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An online, evidence-based resource was created to support the development of sport and recreational injury prevention programmes. The resource, called Active & Safe Central (www.activesafe.ca), provides evidence-based information across the public health approach for a number of sport and recreational activities. The objective of this project was to evaluate the perceived usefulness of Active & Safe Central as an educational tool. DESIGN: A mixed-methods study design, guided by the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework, was used to evaluate Active & Safe Central. SETTING: Data were collected using an online survey, available to all users of the site, and focus groups (n=2) that took place in Vancouver and Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Survey respondents (n=87) were recruited online, including parents, coaches, youth and adult athletes, and teachers. Focus group participants (n=16) were key stakeholders and end users, recruited from academia, local health sectors, sport and recreational organisations, and not-for-profit injury prevention organisations. RESULTS: Post launch, there were 1712 users visiting the website 2306 times (sessions), with the majority representing new users, over returning users (87.5% and 12.5%, respectively). There were 6340 page visits, with the most popular pages including soccer, playgrounds and ice hockey. Active & Safe Central was reported as a credible source of evidence-based sport and recreational information and that the site would be recommended to others. Information collected from focus group participants was used to inform necessary adaptations to the online platform, including critical navigation issues, visualisations and interactivity. The major themes that emerged from focus group and survey data included increased awareness of injury prevention recommendations and that the recommendations would be used in one's own sporting activity and/or practice. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the evaluation suggest the tool is a useful resource for sport and recreational injury information that has significant potential to impact prevention practice.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 307-319, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

4.
J Dance Med Sci ; 24(4): 175-182, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218371

RESUMO

Training load has been identified as a risk factor for musculoskeletal injury in sport, but little is known about the effects of training load in dance. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent dancers' internal training load (ITL) and compare objective and subjective measures of ITL using heart rate (HR) training impulse methods and session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE), respectively. Fifteen female elite adolescent ballet dancers at a vocational dance school volunteered to participate in the study. Internal training load data using HR and sRPE were collected over 9 days of multiple technique classes at the midpoint of the dancers' training year. Heart rate data were quantified using Edwards' training impulse (ETRIMP) and Banister's training impulse (BTRIMP), and sRPE was estimated from the modified Borg 0 to 10 scale and class duration. Descriptive statistics (median [M], and interquartile range [IQR]) were determined in arbitrary units (AU), and were as follows for all classes combined: ETRIMP: M = 134 AU (IQR = 79 to 244 AU); BTRIMP: M = 67 AU (IQR = 38 to 109); sRPE: M = 407 AU (IQR = 287 to 836 AU). The association and agreement between objective and subjective ITL measures in ballet and pointe class was assessed using Spearman correlations (rs) and adjusted Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LOA), respectively, with alpha set at 0.05. A significant moderate positive correlation was found between ETRIMP and BTRIMP in pointe class (rρ = 0.8000, p = 0.0031). The mean difference (LOA) between ETRIMP and BTRIMP was 121 AU (33 to 210 AU) in ballet and 43 AU (-3 to 88 AU) in pointe. It is concluded that some, but not all, measures of ITL in elite adolescent ballet dancers are comparable. Additional research is needed to examine the utilization of ITL measures for evaluating dance-related injury risk, as well as the application of ITL to inform the development of effective injury prevention strategies for this high-risk population.

5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD003678, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition affecting 10% to 15% of reproductive-age women and may cause dyspareunia, dysmenorrhoea, and infertility. One treatment strategy is combining surgery and medical therapy to reduce the recurrence of endometriosis. Though the combination of surgery and medical therapy appears to be beneficial, there is a lack of clarity about the appropriate timing of when medical therapy should be used in relation with surgery, that is, before, after, or both before and after surgery, to maximize treatment response. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of medical therapies for hormonal suppression before, after, or both before and after surgery for endometriosis for improving painful symptoms, reducing disease recurrence, and increasing pregnancy rates. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group trials register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and two trials registers in November 2019 together with reference checking and contact with study authors and experts in the field to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared medical therapies for hormonal suppression before, after, or before and after, therapeutic surgery for endometriosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where possible, we combined data using risk ratio (RR), standardized mean difference or mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Primary outcomes were: painful symptoms of endometriosis as measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain, other validated scales or dichotomous outcomes; and recurrence of disease as evidenced by EEC (Endoscopic Endometriosis Classification), rAFS (revised American Fertility Society), or rASRM (revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine) scores at second-look laparoscopy. MAIN RESULTS: We included 26 trials with 3457 women with endometriosis. We used the term "surgery alone" to refer to placebo or no medical therapy. Presurgical medical therapy compared with placebo or no medical therapy Compared to surgery alone, we are uncertain if presurgical medical hormonal suppression reduces pain recurrence at 12 months or less (dichotomous) (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.66; 1 RCT, n = 262; very low-quality evidence) or whether it reduces disease recurrence at 12 months - total (AFS score) (MD -9.6, 95% CI -11.42 to -7.78; 1 RCT, n = 80; very low-quality evidence). We are uncertain if presurgical medical hormonal suppression decreases disease recurrence at 12 months or less (EEC stage) compared to surgery alone (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.00; 1 RCT, n = 262; very low-quality evidence). We are uncertain if presurgical medical hormonal suppression improves pregnancy rates compared to surgery alone (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.36; 1 RCT, n = 262; very low-quality evidence). No trials reported pelvic pain at 12 months or less (continuous) or disease recurrence at 12 months or less. Postsurgical medical therapy compared with placebo or no medical therapy We are uncertain about the improvement observed in pelvic pain at 12 months or less (continuous) between postsurgical medical hormonal suppression and surgery alone (MD -0.48, 95% CI -0.64 to -0.31; 4 RCTs, n = 419; I2 = 94%; very low-quality evidence). We are uncertain if there is a difference in pain recurrence at 12 months or less (dichotomous) between postsurgical medical hormonal suppression and surgery alone (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.12; 5 RCTs, n = 634; I2 = 20%; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain if postsurgical medical hormonal suppression improves disease recurrence at 12 months - total (AFS score) compared to surgery alone (MD -2.29, 95% CI -4.01 to -0.57; 1 RCT, n = 51; very low-quality evidence). Disease recurrence at 12 months or less may be reduced with postsurgical medical hormonal suppression compared to surgery alone (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.54; 4 RCTs, n = 433; I2 = 58%; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain about the reduction observed in disease recurrence at 12 months or less (EEC stage) between postsurgical medical hormonal suppression and surgery alone (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.91; 1 RCT, n = 285; very low-quality evidence). Pregnancy rate is probably increased with postsurgical medical hormonal suppression compared to surgery alone (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.39; 11 RCTs, n = 932; I2 = 24%; moderate-quality evidence). Pre- and postsurgical medical therapy compared with surgery alone or surgery and placebo There were no trials identified in the search for this comparison. Presurgical medical therapy compared with postsurgical medical therapy We are uncertain about the difference in pain recurrence at 12 months or less (dichotomous) between postsurgical and presurgical medical hormonal suppression therapy (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.07; 2 RCTs, n = 326; I2 = 2%; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain about the difference in disease recurrence at 12 months or less (EEC stage) between postsurgical and presurgical medical hormonal suppression therapy (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.28; 1 RCT, n = 273; very low-quality evidence). We are uncertain about the difference in pregnancy rate between postsurgical and presurgical medical hormonal suppression therapy (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.21; 1 RCT, n = 273; very low-quality evidence). No trials reported pelvic pain at 12 months or less (continuous), disease recurrence at 12 months - total (AFS score) or disease recurrence at 12 months or less (dichotomous). Postsurgical medical therapy compared with pre- and postsurgical medical therapy There were no trials identified in the search for this comparison. Serious adverse effects for medical therapies reviewed There was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding serious adverse effects, as no studies reported data suitable for analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the data about the efficacy of medical therapy for endometriosis are inconclusive, related to the timing of hormonal suppression therapy relative to surgery for endometriosis. In our various comparisons of the timing of hormonal suppression therapy, women who receive postsurgical medical therapy compared with no medical therapy or placebo may experience benefit in terms of disease recurrence and pregnancy. There is insufficient evidence regarding hormonal suppression therapy at other time points in relation to surgery for women with endometriosis.

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e038166, 2020 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between self-reported exposure to concussion education and knowledge, beliefs and self-reported behaviour among parents and coaches of youth ice hockey players. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Community ice hockey teams from Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Parents and coaches of ice hockey players (ages 11-17, all divisions of play). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed a questionnaire developed and validated to measure concussion knowledge, beliefs and concussion management behaviour (ie, coaches removing athletes from play; parents taking children with suspected concussions to physicians) consistent with the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). The questionnaire examined specific HAPA constructs (ie, risk perception, outcome expectancies, action self-efficacy, intention, action planning, maintenance self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy) relevant to concussion management behaviour. RESULTS: Participants included 786 parents (31.8% with coaching experience) and 10 non-parent coaches. Of the participants, 649 (82.6%) previously received concussion education. Based on a multivariable regression analysis adjusting for coaching experience, previous history of a child sustaining one or more concussions, first aid experience and cluster by team, exposure to concussion education was associated with a mean score difference of 1.36 (95% CI 0.68 to 2.03), p<0.0001, in the knowledge score. Exposure to concussion education was not significantly associated with any of the HAPA constructs based on Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. CONCLUSION: Exposure to concussion education may be associated with small overall differences in concussion knowledge but may not be associated with significant differences in beliefs or intended behaviours related to concussion management among youth hockey parents and coaches.When providing education or recommendations for concussion education sources to coaches and parents, educational strategies grounded in behavioural change theory that specifically target the motivators of behavioural change should be considered.

7.
Menopause ; 27(7): 735-745, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433263

RESUMO

The North American Menopause Society held the 2019 Pre-Meeting Symposium on September 25, 2019, in Chicago, Illinois, to review the current state of the science related to the physiology of the perimenopause and to address management of the most prevalent and pressing clinical issues. The perimenopause, as defined by the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop + 10, encompasses the menopause transition as well as the first year following menopause, the final menstrual period. This phase in the continuum of women's reproductive lives had been one of the least well understood. Fortunately, contributions from a number of prospective, longitudinal, decades-long studies have provided a better understanding of the perimenopause, whereas posing important new questions related to symptom interaction and linkages between symptoms and long-term health. There is now added clarity to distinguish the effects of reproductive hormonal changes from aging. The variation in symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms, among women over time including differences in experiences by ethnicity and race, provides paradigm shifts in clinical perspective. Refinements in understanding the character, timing, and potential predictive markers for menstrual cycles during the transition have emerged. From the perspective of myriad clinical management challenges, significant progress in recommendations for evaluation and therapeutic approaches has been achieved. Finally, recognizing the menopause transition as an opportunity to initiate positive lifestyle changes to enhance future health was emphasized.

8.
Epidemiology ; 31(3): 441-447, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of prostate cancer progression are important for discovering risk factors that may increase the risk of prostate cancer-specific death; however, little is known about the validity of self-reported prostate cancer progression. METHODS: We conducted a validation study of self-reported prostate cancer progression in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and in a prostate cancer cohort enrolled in a Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC)-based study. We calculated measures of validity for self-reported progression, including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value using medical records as the gold standard. RESULTS: Our results suggest that ascertaining prostate cancer progression-related events (i.e., prostate-specific antigen elevation, recurrence, metastasis, and use of secondary treatment) through self-report may be a viable option for identifying men whose disease has progressed after diagnosis or initial therapy, particularly when multiple questions related to progression are included in the assessment (aggregate cluster of questions: sensitivity = 0.76 [PLCO]; 0.93 [FHCRC], specificity = 0.80 [PLCO]; 0.97 [FHCRC]). With an aggregate positive predictive value of 0.50 (PLCO), however, our PLCO results suggest that additional medical record verification of self-reported progression events may be necessary to rule out false positives. Most individuals reporting no evidence of progression-related events, however, were true negatives (aggregate negative predictive value = 0.92 [PLCO]; 0.98 [FHCRC]). Thus, there may be limited utility to investing resources in chart review to confirm self-reported nonevents. CONCLUSION: Ascertaining prostate cancer progression through self-report provides an efficient and valid approach to enhancing existing cancer cohorts with updated data on progression status. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B658.

9.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 96(5)2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179899

RESUMO

Globally, the conversion of primary forests to plantations and agricultural landscapes is a common land use change. Kauri (Agathis australis) is one of the most heavily impacted indigenous tree species of New Zealand with <1% of primary forest remaining as fragments adjacent to pastoral farming and exotic forest plantations. By contrasting two forest systems, we investigated if the fragmentation of kauri forests and introduction of pine plantations (Pinus radiata) are significantly impacting the diversity and composition of soil microbial communities across Waipoua kauri forest, New Zealand. Using next generation based 16S rRNA and ITS gene region sequencing, we identified that fungal and bacterial community composition significantly differed between kauri and pine forest soils. However, fungal communities displayed the largest differences in diversity and composition. This research revealed significant shifts in the soil microbial communities surrounding remnant kauri fragments, including the loss of microbial taxa with functions in disease suppression and plant health. Kauri dieback disease, caused by Phytophthora agathidicida, currently threatens the kauri forest ecosystem. Results from this research highlight the need for further investigations into how changes to soil microbial diversity surrounding remnant kauri fragments impact tree health and disease expression.


Assuntos
Pinus , Ecossistema , Florestas , Nova Zelândia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol ; 12(Suppl 1): 28-40, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041390

RESUMO

Although pregnancy and abortion rates have declined in adolescents, unintended pregnancies remain unacceptably high in this age group. The use of highly effective methods of contraception is one of the pillars of unintended pregnancy prevention and requires a shared decision making process within a rights based framework. Adolescents are eligible to use any method of contraception and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which are "forgettable" and highly effective, may be particularly suited for many adolescents. Contraceptive methods may have additional non-contraceptive benefits that address other needs or concerns of the adolescent. Dual method use should be encouraged among adolescents for the prevention of both unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Health care providers have an important role to play in ensuring that adolescents have access to high quality and non-judgmental reproductive health care services and contraceptive methods in adolescent-friendly settings that recognize the unique biopsychosocial needs of the adolescent.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Anticoncepção/economia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção Pós-Coito , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual
11.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(4): 367-376, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996370

RESUMO

Longer-than-annual screening intervals have been suggested to improve the balance of benefits and harms in prostate cancer screening. Many researchers, societies, and guideline committees have suggested that screening intervals could depend on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) result. We analyzed data from men (N = 33,897) ages 55-74 years with a baseline PSA test in the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial (United States, 1993-2001). We estimated 5- and 10-year risks of aggressive cancer (Gleason ≥8 and/or stage III/IV) and 15-year risks of prostate cancer-related mortality for men with baseline PSA ≤ 0.5 ng/mL (N = 4,862), ≤1 ng/mL (N = 15,110), and 1.01-2.5 ng/mL (N = 12,422). A total of 217 men died from prostate cancer through 15 years, although no men with PSA ≤ 1 ng/mL died from prostate cancer within 5 years [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.00%-0.03%]. The 5-year incidence of aggressive disease was low (0.08%; 95% CI, 0.03%-0.12%) for men with PSA ≤ 1 ng/mL, and higher for men with baseline PSA 1.01-2.5 ng/mL (0.51%; 95% CI, 0.38%-0.74%). No men aged ≥65 years with PSA ≤ 0.5 ng/mL died from prostate cancer within 15 years (95% CI, 0.00%-0.32%), and their 10-year incidence of aggressive disease was low (0.25%; 95% CI, 0.00%-0.53%). Compared with white men, black men with PSA ≤ 1 ng/mL had higher 10-year rates of aggressive disease (1.6% vs. 0.4%; P < 0.01). Five-year screening intervals may be appropriate for the 45% of men with PSA ≤ 1 ng/mL. Men ages ≥65 years with PSA ≤ 0.5 ng/mL could consider stopping screening. Substantial risk disparities suggest appropriate screening intervals could depend on race/ethnicity.

12.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(14): 866-870, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concussion is the most common injury in youth ice hockey. Whether mouthguard use lowers the odds of concussion remains an unanswered question. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between concussion and mouthguard use in youth ice hockey. METHODS: Nested case-control design. Cases and controls were identified from two prospective cohort studies using valid injury surveillance methods. Cases were players concussed during a game or practice; controls were players who sustained a non-concussion injury during a game or practice. The primary exposure was mouthguard use at time of injury; mouthguard type (dental custom fit or off the shelf) was a secondary exposure. Physician-diagnosed or therapist-suspected concussion was the primary outcome. Dental injury was a secondary outcome. Multilevel logistic regression with random effect at a team level was used to obtain ORs for the mouthguard effect, adjusted for level of play, age group, position, concussion history, mechanism of injury, cohort, session type and body checking policy. RESULTS: Among cases, 236/315 (75%) were wearing a mouthguard at time of injury, while 224/270 (83%) controls were wearing a mouthguard at time of injury. Any mouthguard use was associated with an adjusted OR for concussion of 0.36 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.73). Off-the-shelf mouthguards were associated with a 69% lower odds of concussion (adjusted OR: 0.31; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.65). Dental custom-fit mouthguards were associated with a non-significant 49% lower odds of concussion (adjusted OR: 0.51; 95% CI 0.22 to 1.10). No dental injuries were identified in either cohort. CONCLUSION: Mouthguard use was associated with lower odds of concussion. Players should be required to wear mouthguards in youth ice hockey.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Hóquei/lesões , Protetores Bucais , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Traumatismos Dentários/prevenção & controle
13.
J Athl Train ; 55(2): 116-123, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917599

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Version 5 of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT5) was released in 2017 with an additional 10-word list option in the memory section and additional instructions for completing the symptom scale. OBJECTIVE: To provide reference scores for high school rugby union players on the SCAT5, including immediate memory using the 10-word list, and examine how age, sex, and concussion history affected performance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Calgary, Alberta high schools. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: High school rugby union players (ages 15-18 years) participating in a 2018 season cohort study (n = 380, males = 210, females = 170). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5 scores, including total number of symptoms (of 20), symptom severity (of 132), 10-word immediate memory (of 30), delayed memory (of 10), modified Standardized Assessment of Concussion (of 50), and balance examination (of 30). RESULTS: The median number of symptoms reported at baseline ranged from 5 to 8 across sex and age stratifications. Median symptom severity was lowest in males with no concussion history (7; range, 0-28) and highest in females with a concussion history (13, range = 0-45). Median total scores on immediate memory were 2-3 (range = 0-4) for males and 21 (range = 9-29) for females. Median total scores were 3 (range = 0-4) on digits backward and 7 (range = 0-20) on delayed memory (all groups). Based on simultaneous quantile (q) regression at 0.50 and 0.75, adjusted for age and concussion history, being female was associated with a higher total symptoms score (q0.75 ßfemale = 2.85; 99% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33, 5.37), higher total symptom severity score (q0.75 ßfemale = 8.00; 99% CI = 2.83, 13.17), and lower number of errors on the balance examination (q0.75 ßfemale = -3.00; 99% CI = -4.85, -1.15). Age and concussion history were not associated with any summary measures. CONCLUSIONS: The 10-word list option in the memory section reduced the likelihood of a ceiling effect. A player's sex may be an important consideration when interpreting the SCAT5 after concussion.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Futebol Americano/lesões , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(7): 414-420, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare rates of injury and concussion among non-elite (lowest 60% by division of play) Bantam (ages 13-14 years) ice hockey leagues that disallow body checking to non-elite Bantam leagues that allow body checking. METHODS: In this 2-year cohort study, Bantam non-elite ice hockey players were recruited from leagues where policy allowed body checking in games (Calgary/Edmonton 2014-2015, Edmonton 2015-2016) and where policy disallowed body checking (Kelowna/Vancouver 2014-2015, Calgary 2015-2016). All ice hockey game-related injuries resulting in medical attention, inability to complete a session and/or time loss from hockey were identified using valid injury surveillance methodology. Any player suspected of having concussion was referred to a study physician for diagnosis and management. RESULTS: 49 body checking (608 players) and 33 non-body checking teams (396 players) participated. There were 129 injuries (incidence rate (IR)=7.98/1000 hours) and 54 concussions (IR=3.34/1000 hours) in the body checking teams in games. After policy change, there were 31 injuries (IR=3.66/1000 hours) and 17 concussions (IR=2.01/1000 hours) in games. Policy disallowing body checking was associated with a lower rate of all injury (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR)=0.44; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.74). The point estimate showed a lower rate of concussion (adjusted IRR=0.6; 95% CI: 0.31 to 1.18), but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Policy change disallowing body checking in non-elite Bantam ice hockey resulted in a 56% lower rate of injury. There is growing evidence that disallowing body checking in youth ice hockey is associated with fewer injuries.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Hóquei/lesões , Políticas , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hóquei/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Clin J Sport Med ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Ice Hockey Summit III provided updated scientific evidence on concussions in hockey to inform these 5 objectives: (1) describe sport related concussion (SRC) epidemiology; (2) classify prevention strategies; (3) define objective, diagnostic tests; (4) identify treatment; and (5) integrate science and clinical care into prioritized action plans and policy. METHODS: Our action plan evolved from 40 scientific presentations. The 155 attendees (physicians, athletic trainers, physical therapists, nurses, neuropsychologists, scientists, engineers, coaches, and officials) voted to prioritize these action items in the final Summit session. RESULTS: To (1) establish a national and international hockey database for SRCs at all levels; (2) eliminate body checking in Bantam youth hockey games; (3) expand a behavior modification program (Fair Play) to all youth hockey levels; (4) enforce game ejection penalties for fighting in Junior A and professional hockey leagues; (5) establish objective tests to diagnose concussion at point of care; and (6) mandate baseline testing to improve concussion diagnosis for all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Expedient implementation of the Summit III prioritized action items is necessary to reduce the risk, severity, and consequences of concussion in the sport of ice hockey.

16.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 41 Suppl 2: S309-S313, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785682
18.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 49(11): 799-810, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610760

RESUMO

SYNOPSIS: The risk factors of concussion may be categorized as intrinsic (internal factors specific to the individual) or extrinsic (external factors related to the environment or sport). Identifying these factors is part of an individualized, patient-centered approach to prevention, assessment, and management of concussion. In most cases, the symptoms of concussion resolve in the initial few days following the injury, and a strategy involving a gradual return to sport and school is recommended. When symptoms persist for longer than 7 to 10 days, a multifaceted interdisciplinary assessment to guide treatment is recommended. This article applies the dynamic, recursive model of sport injury to sport-related concussion and summarizes the process of individualized assessment and management following concussion in athletes of all ages, with a focus on physical rehabilitation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2019;49(11):799-810. doi:10.2519/jospt.2019.8926.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Volta ao Esporte , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 41 Suppl 1: S1-S23, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151552

RESUMO

OBJECTIF: Fournir des lignes directrices aux fournisseurs de soins quant à l'utilisation de modes de contraception pour la prévention de la grossesse et quant à la promotion d'une sexualité saine. ISSUES: Orientation des praticiens canadiens en ce qui concerne l'efficacité globale, le mécanisme d'action, les indications, les contre-indications, les avantages n'étant pas liés à la contraception, les effets indésirables, les risques et le protocole de mise en œuvre des modes de contraception abordés; planification familiale dans le contexte de la santé sexuelle et du bien-être général; méthodes de counseling en matière de contraception; et accessibilité et disponibilité des modes de contraception abordés au Canada. RéSULTATS: La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l'intermédiaire de recherches menées dans MEDLINE et The Cochrane Library entre janvier 1994 et janvier 2015 au moyen d'un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. contraception, sexuality, sexual health) et de mots clés (p. ex. contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception) appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs publiés en anglais entre janvier 1994 et janvier 2015. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu'en juin 2015. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l'intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d'organismes s'intéressant à l'évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d'organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d'essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. VALEURS: La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d'étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau 1). CHAPITRE 7 : CONTRACEPTION INTRA-UTéRINE: Déclarations sommaires RECOMMANDATIONS.

20.
Inj Prev ; 25(6): 546-551, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sport and recreation related injuries exert a significant cost on the healthcare system. As prevention researchers and practitioners, we have a responsibility to provide guidance towards prevention to those who participate in sport and recreation, and those that coach, treat and parent children that participate. The objective of this project was to use an integrated knowledge translation approach to develop an end user-driven digital platform that provides injury prevention information and resources across 51 sport and recreational activities. DESIGN: We used an integrated knowledge translation approach to scope and develop an online sport and recreational injury prevention resource. A project team was formed that included end users-coaches, parents and athletes, injury researchers and practitioners, as well as members of a digital design team. All members of the project team informed the development process, including a review of literature and existing resources, the translation of evidence and development of the platform. At all stages of development, members of the project team cocreated knowledge for the tool, including forming the research questions, the approach, feasibility and development of outcomes. CONCLUSION: The 'Active & Safe Central' (https://activesafe.ca/) platform provides web-based sport injury and prevention information. This user-friendly, web and mobile accessible platform can increase the reach, awareness and implementation of prevention programming in sport and recreational activity.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Internet , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Recreação , Fatores de Risco , Esportes
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