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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types of SOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

2.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481664

RESUMO

Lipomatosis of nerve is a rare malformation characterized by a fibrolipomatous proliferation within peripheral nerve. Lipomatosis of nerve most frequently involves the median nerve, and manifests clinically as a compressive neuropathy. However, 30-60% of cases are associated with tissue overgrowth within the affected nerve's territory (e.g., macrodactyly for lipomatosis of nerve in the distal median nerve). Somatic activating PIK3CA mutations have been identified in peripheral nerve from patients with lipomatosis of nerve with type I macrodactyly, which is now classified as a PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum disorder. However, the PIK3CA mutation status of histologically confirmed lipomatosis of nerve, including cases involving proximal nerves, and cases without territory overgrowth, has not been determined. Fourteen histologically confirmed cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the median (N = 6), brachial plexus (N = 1), ulnar (N = 3), plantar (N = 2), sciatic and superficial peroneal nerves (N = 1 each) were included. Ten cases had nerve territory overgrowth, ranging from macrodactyly to hemihypertrophy; and four cases had no territory overgrowth. Exome sequencing revealed "hotspot" activating PIK3CA missense mutations in 6/7 cases. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for the five most common PIK3CA mutations (p.H1047R, p.H1047L, p.E545K, p.E542K, and p.C420R) confirmed the exome results and identified an additional six cases with mutations (12/14 total). PIK3CA mutations were found in 8/10 cases with territory overgrowth (N = 7 p.H1047R and N = 1 p.E545K), including two proximal nerve cases with extremity overgrowth, and 4/4 cases without territory overgrowth (p.H1047R and p.H1047L, N = 2 each). The variant allele frequency of PIK3CA mutations (6-32%) did not correlate with the overgrowth phenotype. Three intraneural lipomas had no detected PIK3CA mutations. As PIK3CA mutations are frequent events in lipomatosis of nerve, irrespective of anatomic site or territory overgrowth, we propose that all phenotypic variants of this entity be classified within the PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum and termed "PIK3CA-related lipomatosis of nerve".

3.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(11): 1011-1021, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562743

RESUMO

MAPK pathway activation has been recurrently observed in desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma/astrocytoma (DIG/DIA) with reported disproportionally low mutation allele frequencies relative to the apparent high tumor content, suggesting that MAPK pathway alterations may be subclonal. We sought to expand the number of molecularly profiled cases and investigate if tumor cell composition could account for the observed low mutation allele frequencies. Molecular (targeted neuro-oncology next-generation sequencing/RNA sequencing and OncoScan microarray) and immunohistochemical (CD68-PGM1/CD163/CD14/CD11c/lysozyme/CD3/CD20/CD34/PD-L1) studies were performed in 7 DIG. Activating MAPK pathway alterations were identified in 4 (57%) cases: 3 had a BRAF mutation (V600E/V600D/V600_W604delinsDQTDG, at 8%-27% variant allele frequency) and 1 showed a TPM3-NRTK1 fusion. Copy number changes were infrequent and nonrecurrent. All tumors had at least 30% of cells morphologically and immunophenotypically consistent with microglial/macrophage lineage. Two subtotally resected tumors regrew; 1 was re-excised and received adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy/targeted therapy), with clinical response to targeted therapy only. Even with residual tumor, all patients are alive (median follow-up, 83 months; 19-139). This study further supports DIG as another MAPK pathway-driven neuroepithelial tumor, thus expanding potential treatment options for tumors not amenable to surgical cure, and suggests that DIG is a microglia/macrophage-rich neuroepithelial tumor with frequent low driver mutation allele frequencies.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the chromatin organizer CTCF were previously reported in seven individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). METHODS: Through international collaboration we collected data from 39 subjects with variants in CTCF. We performed transcriptome analysis on RNA from blood samples and utilized Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of Ctcf dosage alteration on nervous system development and function. RESULTS: The individuals in our cohort carried 2 deletions, 8 likely gene-disruptive, 2 splice-site, and 20 different missense variants, most of them de novo. Two cases were familial. The associated phenotype was of variable severity extending from mild developmental delay or normal IQ to severe intellectual disability. Feeding difficulties and behavioral abnormalities were common, and variable other findings including growth restriction and cardiac defects were observed. RNA-sequencing in five individuals identified 3828 deregulated genes enriched for known NDD genes and biological processes such as transcriptional regulation. Ctcf dosage alteration in Drosophila resulted in impaired gross neurological functioning and learning and memory deficits. CONCLUSION: We significantly broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum of CTCF-associated NDDs. Our data shed light onto the functional role of CTCF by identifying deregulated genes and show that Ctcf alterations result in nervous system defects in Drosophila.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(9): 1379-1388, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053785

RESUMO

Microphthalmia with brain and digital anomalies (MCOPS6, MIM# 607932) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by loss-of-function variants or large deletions involving BMP4, which encodes bone morphogenetic protein 4, a member of the TGF-ß protein superfamily. BMP4 has a number of roles in embryonic development including neurogenesis, lens induction, development of cartilage and bone, urogenital development, limb and digit patterning, hair follicle regeneration, as well as tooth formation. In addition to syndromic microphthalmia, BMP4 variants have been implicated in non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and congenital healed cleft lip indicating different allelic presentations. MCOPS6 subjects may also lack some of the major phenotypic hallmarks of the disorder, including microphthalmia, indicating variable expressivity. As only a handful of individuals with MCOPS6 have been described, we review the clinical findings in previously reported cases with either deletions or loss-of-function variants in BMP4. We describe three new cases, including two subjects with novel deletions and one subject with a likely pathogenic de novo nonsense variant [c.1052C>G, p.(S351*)] in BMP4. One of the subjects had dual molecular diagnoses including a co-occurring microdeletion at 17q21.31 associated with Koolen de Vries syndrome, which has a partially overlapping disease phenotype. None of these individuals had clinically apparent microphthalmia or anopthalmia, which have been reported in a majority of previously described cases. One subject had exophthalmia and strabismus, while another had bilateral Peters anomaly and sclerocornea, thus expanding the phenotype associated with BMP4 loss-of-function variants.

7.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(5): 460-466, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990878

RESUMO

Pathogenic hemizygous variants in the SH2D1A gene cause X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome, a rare primary immunodeficiency usually associated with fatal Epstein-Barr virus infection. Disease onset is typically in early childhood, and the average life expectancy of affected males is ∼11 years. We describe clinical, radiographic, neuropathologic, and genetic features of a 49-year-old man presenting with central nervous system vasculitis that was reminiscent of adult primary angiitis but which was unresponsive to treatment. The patient had 2 brothers; 1 died of aplastic anemia at age 13 and another died of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in his sixties. Exome sequencing of the patient and his older brother identified a novel hemizygous variant in SH2D1A (c.35G>T, p.Ser12Ile), which encodes the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). Molecular modeling and functional analysis showed that this variant had decreased protein stability, similar to other pathogenic missense variants in SH2D1A. The family described in this report highlights the broadly heterogeneous clinical presentations of XLP and the accompanying diagnostic challenges in individuals presenting in adulthood. In addition, this report raises the possibility of a biphasic distribution of XLP cases, some of which may be mistaken for age-related malignancies and autoimmune conditions.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.

9.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(8): 589-594, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767316

RESUMO

Primary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign multiloculated cystic lesion of bone that is defined cytogenetically by USP6 gene rearrangements. Rearrangements involving USP6 are promoter swaps, usually generated by fusion of the noncoding upstream exons of different partner genes with exon 1 or 2 of USP6, thus leading to transcriptional upregulation of full-length USP6 coding sequence. Testing for USP6 rearrangements is used diagnostically to distinguish it from secondary ABC and other giant cell-rich primary bone tumors. In this report, we present a case of a 16-year-old male with a primary ABC of the left distal femur. USP6 break apart fluorescence in situ hybridization was positive for a rearrangement and conventional chromosome analysis identified a reciprocal X;17 translocation. In order to identify the putative USP6 fusion partner, we performed RNA sequencing and uncovered a novel USP9X-USP6 promoter swap fusion. This result was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by mate pair sequencing thus showing the utility of these alternative methodologies in identifying novel fusion candidates. Ubiquitin-specific protease 9X (USP9X), like USP6, encodes a highly conserved substrate-specific deubiquitylating enzyme. USP9X is highly expressed in a number of tissue types and acts as both an oncogene and tumor suppressor in several human cancers. We conclude that oncogenic activation of USP6 via USP9X promoter exchange represents a novel driver of primary ABC formation.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 570-578, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734472

RESUMO

DDX3X (Xp11.4) encodes a DEAD-box RNA helicase that escapes X chromosome inactivation. Pathogenic variants in DDX3X have been shown to cause X-linked intellectual disability (ID) (MRX102, MIM: 300958). The phenotypes associated with DDX3X variants are heterogeneous and include brain and behavioral abnormalities, microcephaly, hypotonia, and movement disorders and/or spasticity. The majority of DDX3X variants described are de novo mutations in females with ID. In contrast, most male DDX3X variants are inherited from an unaffected mother, with one documented exception being a recently identified de novo splice site variant. It has been suggested, therefore, that DDX3X exerts its effects through haploinsufficiency in females, and that affected males carry hypomorphic alleles that retain partial function. Given the lack of male de novo DDX3X variants, loss-of-function variants in this gene are suspected to be male lethal. Through whole-exome sequencing, we identified three unrelated males with hemizygous missense DDX3X variants and ID. All three variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, with two established as de novo. In silico analyses were supportive of pathogenicity. We report the male phenotypes and compare them to phenotypes observed in previously reported male and female patients. In conclusion, we propose that de novo DDX3X variants are not necessarily male lethal and should be considered as a cause of syndromic ID in both males and females.

11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(3): e00560, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe a patient presenting with pachygyria, epilepsy, developmental delay, short stature, failure to thrive, facial dysmorphisms, and multiple osteochondromas. METHODS: The patient underwent extensive genetic testing and analysis in an attempt to diagnose the cause of his condition. Clinical testing included metaphase karyotyping, array comparative genomic hybridization, direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and trio-based exome sequencing. Subsequently, research-based whole transcriptome sequencing was conducted to determine whether it might shed light on the undiagnosed phenotype. RESULTS: Clinical exome sequencing of patient and parent samples revealed a maternally inherited splice-site variant in the doublecortin (DCX) gene that was classified as likely pathogenic and diagnostic of the patient's neurological phenotype. Clinical array comparative genome hybridization analysis revealed a 16p13.3 deletion that could not be linked to the patient phenotype based on affected genes. Further clinical testing to determine the cause of the patient's multiple osteochondromas was unrevealing despite extensive profiling of the most likely causative genes, EXT1 and EXT2, including mutation screening by direct sequence analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Whole transcriptome sequencing identified a SAMD12-EXT1 fusion transcript that could have resulted from a chromosomal deletion, leading to the loss of EXT1 function. Re-review of the clinical array comparative genomic hybridization results indicated a possible unreported mosaic deletion affecting the SAMD12 and EXT1 genes that corresponded precisely to the introns predicted to be affected by a fusion-causing deletion. The existence of the mosaic deletion was subsequently confirmed clinically by an increased density copy number array and orthogonal methodologies CONCLUSIONS: While mosaic mutations and deletions of EXT1 and EXT2 have been reported in the context of multiple osteochondromas, to our knowledge, this is the first time that transcriptomics technologies have been used to diagnose a patient via fusion transcript analysis in the congenital disease setting.


Assuntos
Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/genética , Fusão Gênica , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Criança , Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/patologia , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Motivo Estéril alfa/genética
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450772

RESUMO

SOX2 is a transcription factor that is essential for maintenance of pluripotency and has several conserved roles in early embryonic development. Heterozygous loss-of-function variants in SOX2 are identified in approximately 40% of all cases of bilateral anophthalmia/micropthalmia (A/M). Increasingly SOX2 mutation-positive patients without major eye findings, but with a range of other developmental disorders including autism, mild to moderate intellectual disability with or without structural brain changes, esophageal atresia, urogenital anomalies, and endocrinopathy are being reported, suggesting that the clinical phenotype associated with SOX2 loss is much broader than previously appreciated. In this report we describe six new cases, four of which carry novel pathogenic SOX2 variants. Four cases presented with bilateral anophthalmia in addition to extraocular involvement. Another individual presented with only unilateral anophthalmia. One individual did not have any eye findings but presented with a suprasellar teratoma in infancy and was found to have the recurrent c.70del20 mutation in SOX2 (c.70_89del, p.Asn24Argfs*65). This is this first time this tumor type has been reported in the context of a de novo SOX2 mutation. Notably, individuals with hypothalamic hamartomas and slow-growing hypothalamo-pituitary tumors have been reported previously, but it is still unclear how SOX2 loss contributes to their formation.

14.
Neurology ; 91(23): e2170-e2181, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify novel genes involved in the etiology of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) or subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) using whole-exome sequencing. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in 13 individuals from 3 families with an autosomal dominant IA/SAH inheritance pattern to look for candidate genes for disease. In addition, we sequenced PCNT exon 38 in a further 161 idiopathic patients with IA/SAH to find additional carriers of potential pathogenic variants. RESULTS: We identified 2 different variants in exon 38 from the PCNT gene shared between affected members from 2 different families with either IA or SAH (p.R2728C and p.V2811L). One hundred sixty-four samples with either SAH or IA were Sanger sequenced for the PCNT exon 38. Five additional missense mutations were identified. We also found a second p.V2811L carrier in a family with a history of neurovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: The PCNT gene encodes a protein that is involved in the process of microtubule nucleation and organization in interphase and mitosis. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PCNT cause a form of primordial dwarfism (microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II), and ≈50% of these patients will develop neurovascular abnormalities, including IAs and SAHs. In addition, a complete Pcnt knockout mouse model (Pcnt -/-) published previously showed general vascular abnormalities, including intracranial hemorrhage. The variants in our families lie in the highly conserved PCNT protein-protein interaction domain, making PCNT a highly plausible candidate gene in cerebrovascular disease.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-galactosidase-1 (GLB1) is a lysosomal hydrolase that is responsible for breaking down specific glycoconjugates, particularly GM1 (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside). Pathogenic variants in GLB1 cause two different lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB. In GM1 gangliosidosis, decreased ß-galactosidase-1 enzymatic activity leads to the accumulation of GM1 gangliosides, predominantly within the CNS. We present a 22-month-old proband with GM1 gangliosidosis type II (late-infantile form) in whom a novel homozygous in-frame deletion (c.1468_1470delAAC, p.Asn490del) in GLB1 was detected. METHODS: We used an experimental protein structure of ß-galactosidase-1 to generate a model of the p.Asn490del mutant and performed molecular dynamic simulations to determine whether this mutation leads to altered ligand positioning compared to the wild-type protein. In addition, residual mutant enzyme activity in patient leukocytes was evaluated using a fluorometric assay. RESULTS: Molecular dynamics simulations showed the deletion to alter the catalytic site leading to misalignment of the catalytic residues and loss of collective motion within the model. We predict this misalignment will lead to impaired catalysis of ß-galactosidase-1 substrates. Enzyme assays confirmed diminished GLB1 enzymatic activity (~3% of normal activity) in the proband. CONCLUSIONS: We have described a novel, pathogenic in-frame deletion of GLB1 in a patient with GM1 gangliosidosis type II.

16.
Elife ; 72018 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192230

RESUMO

The TP53 tumor-suppressor gene is mutated in >50% of human tumors and Li-Fraumeni patients with germ line inactivation are predisposed to developing cancer. Here, we generated tp53 deleted zebrafish that spontaneously develop malignant peripheral nerve-sheath tumors, angiosarcomas, germ cell tumors, and an aggressive Natural Killer cell-like leukemia for which no animal model has been developed. Because the tp53 deletion was generated in syngeneic zebrafish, engraftment of fluorescent-labeled tumors could be dynamically visualized over time. Importantly, engrafted tumors shared gene expression signatures with predicted cells of origin in human tissue. Finally, we showed that tp53del/del enhanced invasion and metastasis in kRASG12D-induced embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS), but did not alter the overall frequency of cancer stem cells, suggesting novel pro-metastatic roles for TP53 loss-of-function in human muscle tumors. In summary, we have developed a Li-Fraumeni zebrafish model that is amenable to large-scale transplantation and direct visualization of tumor growth in live animals.

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1797-1809, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097616

RESUMO

Whole exome sequencing (WES) is utilized in diagnostic odyssey cases to identify the underlying genetic cause associated with complex phenotypes. Recent publications suggest that WES reveals the genetic cause in ~25% of these cases and is most successful when applied to children with neurological disease. The residual 75% of cases remain genetically elusive until more information becomes available in the literature or functional studies are pursued. WES performed on three families with presumed ciliopathy diagnoses, including orofaciodigital (OFD) syndrome, fetal encephalocele, or Joubert-related disorder, identified compound heterozygous variants in C2CD3. Biallelic variants in C2CD3 have previously been associated with ciliopathies, including OFD syndrome type 14 (OFD14; MIM: 615948). As three of the six identified variants were predicted to affect splicing, exon-skipping analysis using either RNA sequencing or PCR-based methods were completed to determine the pathogenicity of these variants, and showed that each of the splicing variants led to a frameshifted protein product. Using these studies in combination with the 2015 ACMG guidelines, each of the six identified variants were classified as either pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and are therefore likely responsible for our patients' phenotypes. Each of the families had a distinct clinical phenotype and severity of disease, extending from lethal to viable. These findings highlight that there is a broad phenotypic spectrum associated with C2CD3-mediated disease and not all patients present with the typical features of OFD14.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802153

RESUMO

Overgrowth syndromes are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by localized or generalized tissue overgrowth and varying degrees of developmental and intellectual disability. An expanding list of genes associated with overgrowth syndromes include the histone methyltransferase genes EZH2 and NSD1, which cause Weaver and Sotos syndrome, respectively, and the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT3A) gene that results in Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS). Here, we describe a 5-year-old female with a paternally inherited pathogenic mutation in EZH2 (c.2050C>T, p.Arg684Cys) and a maternally inherited 505-kb duplication of uncertain significance at 2p23.3 (encompassing five genes, including DNMT3A) who presented with intrauterine growth restriction, slow postnatal growth, short stature, hypotonia, developmental delay, and neuroblastoma diagnosed at the age of 8 mo. Her father had tall stature, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual disability consistent with Weaver syndrome, whereas her mother had short stature, cognitive delays, and chronic nonprogressive leukocytosis. It has been previously shown that EZH2 directly controls DNA methylation through physical association with DNMTs, including DNMT3A, with concomitant H3K27 methylation and CpG promoter methylation leading to repression of EZH2 target genes. Interestingly, NSD1 is involved in H3K36 methylation, a mark associated with transcriptional activation, and exhibits exquisite dosage sensitivity leading to overgrowth when deleted and severe undergrowth when duplicated in vivo. Although there is currently no evidence of dosage effects for DNMT3A, the co-occurrence of a duplication involving this gene and a pathogenic alteration in EZH2 in a patient with severe undergrowth is suggestive of a similar paradigm and further study is warranted.

19.
Case Rep Genet ; 2018: 6968395, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682366

RESUMO

Chronic urticaria is a common condition characterized by recurrent hives lasting several weeks or months and is usually idiopathic. Approximately half of the individuals with chronic urticaria will present with episodes of angioedema that can be severe and debilitating. In this report, we describe a 47-year-old Hispanic male who presented initially for an evaluation of chronic hives following hospitalization due to hive-induced anaphylaxis. The individual had a history significant for urticaria and angioedema beginning in his early 30s. Interestingly, both the individual's 41-year-old sister and 12-year-old daughter were also affected with chronic urticaria and severe angioedema. Whole exome sequencing of the proband and several family members revealed a heterozygous variant of uncertain significance in exon 2 of TNFAIP3, denoted as c.65G>A (p.R22Q), in all affected members. Variants in TNFAIP3 have been associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, susceptibility to allergy and asthma, and periodic fever syndromes, suggesting that this variant could potentially play a role in disease.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 307-319, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671115

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report a female infant identified by newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiencies (NBS SCID) with T cell lymphopenia (TCL). The patient had persistently elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) with IgA deficiency, and elevated IgM. Gene sequencing for a SCID panel was uninformative. We sought to determine the cause of the immunodeficiency in this infant. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on the patient and parents to identify a genetic diagnosis. Based on the WES result, we developed a novel flow cytometric panel for rapid assessment of DNA repair defects using blood samples. We also performed whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS) on fibroblast RNA from the patient and father for abnormal transcript analysis. RESULTS: WES revealed a pathogenic paternally inherited indel in ATM. We used the flow panel to assess several proteins in the DNA repair pathway in lymphocyte subsets. The patient had absent phosphorylation of ATM, resulting in absent or aberrant phosphorylation of downstream proteins, including γH2AX. However, ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive condition, and the abnormal functional data did not correspond with a single ATM variant. WTS revealed in-frame reciprocal fusion transcripts involving ATM and SLC35F2 indicating a chromosome 11 inversion within 11q22.3, of maternal origin. Inversion breakpoints were identified within ATM intron 16 and SLC35F2 intron 7. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel ATM-breaking chromosome 11 inversion in trans with a pathogenic indel (compound heterozygote) resulting in non-functional ATM protein, consistent with a diagnosis of AT. Utilization of several molecular and functional assays allowed successful resolution of this case.

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