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1.
Prostate ; 81(7): 398-406, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivorship care plans contain important information for patients and primary care physicians regarding appropriate care for cancer survivors after treatment. We describe the completeness of prostate cancer survivorship care plans and evaluate the concordance of follow-up recommendations with guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed 119 prostate cancer survivorship care plans from one academic and one community cancer center, abstracting demographics, cancer/treatment details, and follow-up recommendations. Follow-up recommendations were compared with the American Cancer Society (ACS), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. RESULTS: Content in >90% of plans included cancer TNM stage; prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis; radiation treatment details (98% of men received radiation); and PSA monitoring recommendations. Potential treatment-specific side effects were listed for 82% of men who had surgery, 86% who received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and 97% who underwent radiation. The presence of posttreatment symptoms was noted in 71% of plans. Regarding surveillance follow-up, all guidelines recommend an annual digital rectal exam (DRE). No plans specified DRE. However, all 71 plans at the community site recommended at least annual follow-up visits with urology, radiation oncology, and primary care. Only 2/48 plans at the academic site specified follow-up visits. All guidelines recommend PSA testing every 6-12 months for 5 years, then annually. For the first 5 years, 90% of plans were guideline-concordant, 8% suggested oversurveillance, and 2% were incomplete. In men receiving ADT, ACS and ASCO recommend bone density imaging and NCCN recommends testosterone levels. Of 77 men on ADT, 1% were recommended bone density imaging and 16% testosterone level testing. CONCLUSIONS: While care plan content is more complete for demographic and treatment summary information, both sites had gaps in reporting posttreatment symptoms and ADT-related testing recommendations. These findings highlight the need to improve the quality of information in care plans, which are important in communicating appropriate follow-up recommendations to patients and primary care physicians.

2.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 14, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579966

RESUMO

We examined the effects of a communication intervention to engage family care partners on patient portal (MyChart) use, illness understanding, satisfaction with cancer care, and symptoms of anxiety in a single-blind randomized trial of patients in treatment for breast cancer. Patient-family dyads were recruited and randomly assigned a self-administered checklist to clarify the care partner role, establish a shared visit agenda, and facilitate MyChart access (n = 63) or usual care (n = 55). Interviews administered at baseline, 3, 9 (primary endpoint), and 12 months assessed anxiety (GAD-2), mean FAMCARE satisfaction, and complete illness understanding (4 of 4 items correct). Time-stamped electronic interactions measured MyChart use. By 9 months, more intervention than control care partners registered for MyChart (77.8 % vs 1.8%; p < 0.001) and logged into the patient's account (61.2% vs 0% of those registered; p < 0.001), but few sent messages to clinicians (6.1% vs 0%; p = 0.247). More intervention than control patients viewed clinical notes (60.3% vs 32.7%; p = 0.003). No pre-post group differences in patient or care partner symptoms of anxiety, satisfaction, or complete illness understanding were found. Intervention patients whose care partners logged into MyChart were more likely to have complete illness understanding at 9 months (changed 70.0% to 80.0% vs 69.7% to 54.6%; p = 0.03); symptoms of anxiety were numerically lower (16.7% to 6.7% vs 15.2% to 15.2%; p = 0.24) and satisfaction numerically higher (15.8-16.2 vs 18.0-17.4; p = 0.25). A brief, scalable communication intervention led to greater care partner MyChart use and increased illness understanding among patients with more engaged care partners (NCT03283553).

3.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

4.
J Nucl Med ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608426

RESUMO

Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) with small molecules targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is being adopted as a clinical standard for prostate cancer (PCa) imaging. In this study, we evaluated changes in uptake on PSMA-targeted PET in men starting abiraterone or enzalutamide. Methods: This prospective, single-arm, two-center, exploratory clinical trial enrolled men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initiating abiraterone or enzalutamide. Each patient was imaged with 18F-DCFPyL at baseline and within 2-4 months after starting therapy. Patients were followed for up to 48 months from enrollment. A central review evaluated baseline and follow-up PET scans recording change in maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at all disease sites and classifying the pattern of change. Two parameters: the delta percent SUVmax (DPSM) of all lesions and the delta absolute SUVmax (DASM) of all lesions were derived. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate time to therapy change (TTTC) and overall survival (OS). Results: Sixteen evaluable patients were accrued to the study. Median TTTC was 9.6 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.9-14.2) and median OS was 28.6 months (95% CI 18.3-not available (N/A)). Patients with a mixed-but-predominantly-increased pattern of radiotracer uptake had shorter TTTC and OS. Men with low DPSM had median TTTC 12.2 months (95% CI 11.3-N/A) and median OS 37.2 months (95% CI 28.9-N/A), while those with high DPSM had median TTTC 6.5 months (95% CI 4.6-N/A, P = 0.0001) and median OS 17.8 months (95% CI 13.9-N/A, P = 0.02). Men with low DASM had median TTTC 12.2 months (95% CI 11.3-N/A) and median OS N/A (95% CI 37.2 months-N/A), while those with high DASM had median TTTC 6.9 months (95% CI 6.1-N/A, P = 0.003) and median OS 17.8 months (95% CI 13.9-N/A, P = 0.002). Conclusion: Findings on PSMA-targeted PET 2-4 months after initiation of abiraterone or enzalutamide are associated with TTTC and OS. Development of new lesions and/or increasing intensity of radiotracer uptake at sites of baseline disease are poor prognostic findings suggesting shorter TTTC and OS.

5.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; : 1-7, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients participating in phase I trials represent a population with advanced cancer and symptoms, with quality-of-life implications arising from both disease and treatment. Transitions to end-of-life care for these patients have received little attention. Good empirical data are needed to better understand the role of advance care planning and palliative care during phase I trial transitions. We investigated how physician-patient communication at the time of disease progression, patient characteristics, and patterns of care were associated with end-of-life care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with solid tumors enrolled in phase I trials at a comprehensive cancer center from January 2015 to December 2017. We captured physician-patient communication during disease progression. Among patients who died, we assessed palliative care referral, advance care planning, place of death, healthcare use in the final month of life, hospice enrollment, and hospice length of stay (LOS). Factors independently associated with a short hospice LOS (defined as ≤3 days) were estimated from a multivariable model building approach. RESULTS: Among 207 participants enrolled in phase I intervention studies at Johns Hopkins Hospital, the median age was 61 years (range, 31-91 years), 48% were women, 21% were members of racial minority groups, and 41.5% were referred from an outside institution. At the time of disease progression, 53% had goals of care documented, 47% were previously referred to palliative care, and 41% discussed hospice with their oncologist. A total of 82% of decedents died within 1 year of study enrollment, and 85% enrolled in hospice. Among the 147 participants who enrolled in hospice, 22 (15%) had a short LOS (≤3 days). Factors independently associated with an increased risk of short hospice LOS in the multivariable model included age >65 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.24; P=.04), whereas remaining at the same institution (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.80; P<.001) and referral to palliative care before progression (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.92; P<.001) were associated with a decreased risk of short hospice LOS. CONCLUSIONS: Reported data support the benefit of palliative care for patients in phase I trials and the risks associated with healthcare transitions for all patients, particularly older adults, regardless of care received. Leaving a clinical trial is a time when clear communication is paramount. Phase I studies will continue to be vital in advancing cancer treatment. It is equally important to advance the support provided to patients who transition off these trials.

6.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation may prevent falls in older persons, but evidence is inconsistent, possibly because of dosage differences. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 4 doses of vitamin D3 supplements on falls. DESIGN: 2-stage Bayesian, response-adaptive, randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02166333). SETTING: 2 community-based research units. PARTICIPANTS: 688 participants, aged 70 years and older, with elevated fall risk and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] level of 25 to 72.5 nmol/L. INTERVENTION: 200 (control), 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU of vitamin D3 per day. During the dose-finding stage, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 vitamin D3 doses, and the best noncontrol dose for preventing falls was determined. After dose finding, participants previously assigned to receive noncontrol doses received the best dose, and new enrollees were randomly assigned to receive 200 IU/d or the best dose. MEASUREMENTS: Time to first fall or death over 2 years (primary outcome). RESULTS: During the dose-finding stage, the primary outcome rates were higher for the 2000- and 4000-IU/d doses than for the 1000-IU/d dose, which was selected as the best dose (posterior probability of being best, 0.90). In the confirmatory stage, event rates were not significantly different between participants with experience receiving the best dose (events and observation time limited to the period they were receiving 1000 IU/d; n = 308) and those randomly assigned to receive 200 IU/d (n = 339) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.76 to 1.15]; P = 0.54). Analysis of falls with adverse outcomes suggested greater risk in the experience-with-best-dose group versus the 200-IU/d group (serious fall: HR, 1.87 [CI, 1.03 to 3.41]; fall with hospitalization: HR, 2.48 [CI, 1.13 to 5.46]). LIMITATIONS: The control group received 200 IU of vitamin D3 per day, not a placebo. Dose finding ended before the prespecified thresholds for dose suspension and dose selection were reached. CONCLUSION: In older persons with elevated fall risk and low serum 25-(OH)D levels, vitamin D3 supplementation at doses of 1000 IU/d or higher did not prevent falls compared with 200 IU/d. Several analyses raised safety concerns about vitamin D3 doses of 1000 IU/d or higher. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute on Aging.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 182(3): 623-629, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507956

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A delay in breast cancer treatment is associated with inferior survival outcomes; however, no clear guidelines exist defining the appropriate time frame from diagnosis to definitive treatment of breast cancer. A multidisciplinary approach for breast cancer treatment can minimize the time from diagnosis to first treatment. We hypothesized single-day multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) may accelerate the time to first treatment on complex breast cancer cases at our institution. METHODS: We identified patients who were treated at Johns Hopkins for stage II or III breast cancer, who were at least 18 years of age, and were seen in a new single-day MDC with coordination between two or three specialties or by specialists from varying disciplines on different days (IDC). Patients who initiated treatment between May 2015 (initiation of MDC clinic) and December 2017 were included in our study. RESULTS: A total of 296 patient records were reviewed independently. The mean (SD) patient age was 55 (13) years. The median time to first neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) was significantly reduced for patients seen in the MDC (12.7 days), compared to those seen at the IDC (24.4 days, logrank p < 0.001). The median time to definitive surgery was similar between groups (31 and 32 days for the MDC and IDC cohorts, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A single-day MDC visit is associated with a reduced time from diagnosis to NACT. Further studies are needed to determine if a shorter interval can improve the management and the outcome of complex breast cancer cases.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(12): 3024-3034, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We initiated a clinical trial to determine the proportion of breast cancer survivors achieving ≥5% weight loss using a remotely delivered weight loss intervention (POWER-remote) or a self-directed approach, and to determine the effects of the intervention on biomarkers of cancer risk including metabolism, inflammation, and telomere length. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Women with stage 0-III breast cancer, who completed local therapy and chemotherapy, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 were randomized to a 12-month intervention (POWER-remote) versus a self-directed approach. The primary objective was to determine the number of women who achieved at least 5% weight loss at 6 months. We assessed baseline and 6-month change in a panel of adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, HGF, NGF, PAI1, TNFα, MCP1, IL1ß, IL6, and IL8), metabolic factors (insulin, glucose, lipids, hs-CRP), and telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2015, 96 women were enrolled, and 87 were evaluable for the primary analysis; 45 to POWER-remote and 42 to self-directed. At 6 months, 51% of women randomized to POWER-remote lost ≥5% of their baseline body weight, compared with 12% in the self-directed arm [OR, 7.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.6-23.9; P = 0.0003]; proportion were similar at 12 months (51% vs 17%, respectively, P = 0.003). Weight loss correlated with significant decreases in leptin, and favorable modulation of inflammatory cytokines and lipid profiles. There was no significant change in telomere length at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: A remotely delivered weight loss intervention resulted in significant weight loss in breast cancer survivors, and favorable effects on several biomarkers.

10.
Blood ; 135(22): 1946-1956, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076714

RESUMO

Short telomeres have been linked to cancer risk, yet other evidence supports them being tumor suppressive. Here, we report cancer outcomes in individuals with germline mutations in telomerase and other telomere-maintenance genes. Among 180 individuals evaluated in a hospital-based setting, 12.8% had cancer. Solid tumors were rare (2.8%); nearly all were young male DKC1 mutation carriers, and they were generally resectable with good short-term outcomes. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was most common, followed by acute myeloid leukemia (AML); they accounted for 75% of cancers. Age over 50 years was the biggest risk factor, and MDS/AML usually manifested with marrow hypoplasia and monosomy 7, but the somatic mutation landscape was indistinct from unselected patients. One- and 2-year survival were 61% and 39%, respectively, and two-thirds of MDS/AML patients died of pulmonary fibrosis and/or hepatopulmonary syndrome. In one-half of the cases, MDS/AML patients showed a recurrent peripheral blood pattern of acquired, granulocyte-specific telomere shortening. This attrition was absent in age-matched mutation carriers who did not have MDS/AML. We tested whether adult short telomere patients without MDS/AML also had evidence of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential-related mutations and found that 30% were affected. These patients also primarily suffered morbidity from pulmonary fibrosis during follow-up. Our data show that the Mendelian short telomere syndromes are associated with a relatively narrow cancer spectrum, primarily MDS and AML. They suggest that short telomere length is sufficient to drive premature age-related clonal hematopoiesis in these inherited disorders.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(11): 1162-1169, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid access to pancreatic imaging and regular pancreatic surveillance may help identify stage I pancreatic cancer. We investigated recent trends in the stage of newly diagnosed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDACs), age at diagnosis, and survival. METHODS: Trends in age-adjusted incidence of stage IA PDAC between 2004 and 2016 were determined from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. All tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The incidence of stage IA PDAC cases diagnosed increased statistically significantly from 2004 to 2016 (annual percent change = 14.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.4 to 17.7; P < .001). During the study period, average age at diagnosis for stage IA and IB casesAQ3 declined by 3.5 years (95% CI = 1.2 to 5.9; P = .004) and 5.5 years (95% CI = 3.4 to 7.6; P < .001), whereas average age increased for higher-stage cases (by 0.6 to 1.4 years). Among stage IA cases, the proportion of blacks was smaller (10.2% vs 12.5%), and the proportion of other non-Caucasians was higher compared with higher-stage cases (11.9% vs 8.4%; P < .001). Stage IA cases were more likely to carry insurance (vs Medicaid or none) than higher-stage cases (cases aged younger than 65 years; odds ratio = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.96 to 3.06; P < .001). The 5-year overall survival for stage IA PDAC improved from 44.7% (95% CI = 31.4 to 63.7) in 2004 to 83.7% (95% CI = 78.6% to 89.2%) in 2012; 10-year survival improved from 36.7% (95% CI = 24.1 to 55.8) in 2004 to 49.0% (95% CI = 37.2% to 64.6%) in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, the proportion of patients diagnosed with stage IA PDAC has increased, their average age at diagnosis has decreased, and their overall survival has improved. These trends may be the result of improved early diagnosis and early detection.

12.
Cancer ; 126(8): 1793-1803, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of survivors of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is increasing due to improved survival for individuals with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. Although elderly survivors of OPC are known to have a high burden of comorbidities, to the authors' knowledge it is unknown how this compares with a similar cohort without a history of cancer. METHODS: The current retrospective, cross-sectional study included individuals with a first incident primary diagnosis of OPC from 2004 through 2011 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare-linked databases and matched controls. The baseline prevalence and subsequent incidence of comorbid conditions were identified. The association between comorbidity and overall survival was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 2497 eligible patients with OPC were matched to 4994 noncancer controls. Baseline comorbidity was higher in cases (Charlson Comorbidity Index >0 for 48.5% of cases vs 35.8% of controls). At 5 years, cases were more likely than controls to develop comorbidities. Survivors of OPC were at high risk (≥20% cumulative prevalence by 5 years) of developing several comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tobacco abuse, and were at moderately high risk (10%-19% cumulative prevalence) of developing other conditions including carotid artery occlusive stroke, alcohol abuse, depression, and anxiety. In both cases and controls, the presence of the majority of comorbidities either at the time of diagnosis or during the follow-up period was associated with worse survival. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OPC have a higher comorbidity burden compared with matched controls, both at baseline and during survivorship, the majority of which are associated with decreased survival. Oncologic surveillance of survivors of OPC should include screening for highly prevalent conditions.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/etiologia , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/mortalidade , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER , Sobrevivência
13.
Leukemia ; 34(6): 1563-1576, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900407

RESUMO

An immunosuppressive microenvironment promoting leukemia cell immune escape plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AML. Through its interaction with cereblon, a substrate receptor for the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, pomalidomide leads to selective ubiquitination of transcription factors Aiolos and Ikaros thereby promoting immune modulation. In this phase I trial, 51 newly diagnosed non-favorable risk AML and high-risk MDS patients were enrolled and treated with AcDVP16 (cytarabine 667 mg/m2/day IV continuous infusion days 1-3, daunorubicin 45 mg/m2 IV days 1-3, etoposide 400 mg/m2 IV days 8-10) induction therapy followed by dose- and duration-escalation pomalidomide beginning at early lymphocyte recovery. Forty-three patients (AML: n = 39, MDS: n = 4) received pomalidomide. The maximum tolerated dose of pomalidomide was 4 mg for 21 consecutive days. The overall complete remission (CR + CRi) rate, median overall survival, and disease-free survival were 75%, 27.1 and 20.6 months, respectively. Subset analyses revealed 86% CR/CRi rate in AML patients with unfavorable-risk karyotype treated with pomalidomide. Pomalidomide significantly decreased Aiolos expression in both CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood and bone marrow T cells, promoted T cell differentiation, proliferation, and heightened their cytokine production. Finally, pomalidomide induced distinct gene expression changes in immune function-related ontologies in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hexosaminas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(2): 415-424, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650346

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Survivorship care plans (SCPs) provide key information about cancer treatment history and follow-up recommendations. We describe the completeness of breast cancer SCPs and evaluate guideline concordance of follow-up recommendations. METHODS: We analyzed 149 breast cancer SCPs from two sites, abstracting demographics, cancer/treatment details, surveillance plans, and health promotion advice. SCP recommendations and provided information were compared to American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. RESULTS: SCP information provided in > 90% of the plans included patient age; relevant providers; cancer stage; treatment details; and physical exam, mammogram, and health promotion recommendations. SCP components completed less frequently included post-treatment symptoms/side effects (67%). All SCPs at the community site were uniform but had the potential for oversurveillance if visits occurred every 3 months in years 1-2 or every 6 months in years 3-5 with multiple cancer providers. The academic site recommended three predominant patterns of follow-up: (1) primary care provider every 6-12 months; (2) cancer team every 3-6 months (year 1), every 6-12 months (years 4-5); and (3) alternating oncology providers every 3-6 months (years 1-2) then every 6 months. Compared to guidelines, these patterns recommend under- and oversurveillance at various times. Mammography recommendations showed guideline concordance (annual) for 84%, oversurveillance for 10%, and were incomplete for 6%. SCPs of only 12/79 (15%) women on aromatase inhibitors recommended guideline-concordant bone density testing. CONCLUSIONS: SCP content is more complete for demographic and treatment summary information but has follow-up recommendation gaps. Efforts to improve follow-up recommendations are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Assistência à Saúde , Sobrevivência , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
15.
J Palliat Care ; 35(1): 53-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) affects 30% to 40% of patients with cancer with long-lasting disability. Scrambler therapy (ST) appeared to benefit patients in uncontrolled trials, so we performed a randomized sham-controlled Phase II trial of ST. METHODS: The primary end point was "average pain" after 28 days on the Numeric Rating Scale. Each received ten 30-minute sessions of ST on the dermatomes above the painful areas, or sham treatment on the back, typically at L3-5 where the nerve roots would enter the spinal cord. Outcomes included the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-CIPN and the EORTC CIPN-20 scale. Patients were evaluated before treatment (day 0), day 10, and days 28, 60, and 90. RESULTS: Data regarding pain as a primary outcome were collected for 33 of the 35 patients. There were no significant differences between the sham and the "real" ST group at day 10, 28, 60, or 90, for average pain, the BPI, or EORTC CIPN-20. Individual responses were noted during the ST treatment on the real arm, but most dissipated by day 30. There was improvement in the sensory subscale of the CIPN-20 at 2 months in the "real" group (P = .14). All "real" patients wanted to continue treatment if available. DISCUSSION: We observed no difference between sham and real ST CIPN treatment. Potential reasons include at least the following: ST does not work; the sham treatment had some effect; small sample size with heterogeneous patients; misplaced electrodes on an area of nonpainful but damaged nerves; or a combination of these factors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/terapia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/terapia , Polineuropatia Paraneoplásica/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
JAMA ; 322(21): 2115-2124, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794624

RESUMO

Importance: Although neighborhoods are thought to be an important health determinant, evidence for the relationship between neighborhood poverty and health care use is limited, as prior studies have largely used observational data without an experimental design. Objective: To examine whether housing policies that reduce exposure to high-poverty neighborhoods were associated with differences in long-term hospital use among adults and children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration Program, a randomized social experiment conducted in 5 US cities. From 1994 to 1998, 4604 families in public housing were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: a control condition, a traditional Section 8 voucher toward rental costs in the private market, or a voucher that could only be used in low-poverty neighborhoods. Participants were linked to all-payer hospital discharge data (1995 through 2014 or 2015) and Medicaid data (1999 through 2009). The final follow-up date ranged from 11 to 21 years after randomization. Exposures: Receipt of a traditional or low-poverty voucher vs control group. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of hospitalizations and hospital days, and hospital spending. Results: Among 4602 eligible individuals randomized as adults, 4072 (88.5%) were linked to health data (mean age, 33 years [SD, 9.0 years]; 98% female; median follow-up, 11 years). There were no significant differences in primary outcomes among adults randomized to receive a voucher compared with the control group (unadjusted hospitalization rate, 14.0 vs 14.7 per 100 person-years, adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.95 [95% CI, 0.84-1.08; P = .45]; hospital days, 62.8 vs 67.0 per 100 person-years; IRR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.77-1.13; P = .46]; yearly spending, $2075 vs $1977; adjusted difference, -$129 [95% CI, -$497 to $239; P = .49]). Among 11 290 eligible individuals randomized as children, 9118 (80.8%) were linked to health data (mean age, 8 years [SD, 4.6 years]; 49% female; median follow-up, 11 years). Receipt of a housing voucher during childhood was significantly associated with lower hospitalization rates (6.3 vs 7.3 per 100 person-years; IRR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P = .03]) and yearly inpatient spending ($633 vs $785; adjusted difference, -$143 [95% CI, -$256 to -$31; P = .01]) and no significant difference in hospital days (25.7 vs 28.8 per 100 person-years; IRR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.77-1.11; P = .41]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized housing voucher intervention, adults who received a housing voucher did not experience significant differences in hospital use or spending. Receipt of a voucher during childhood was significantly associated with lower rates of hospitalization and less inpatient spending during long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/economia , Habitação Popular , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Habitação Popular/economia , Características de Residência , Estados Unidos
17.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(9): 1442-1450, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479355

RESUMO

Neighborhood environments are increasingly thought to affect emergency department (ED) use. However, because people decide where to live based on a range of factors, it can be challenging to identify the causal impact of living in higher-poverty neighborhoods on increased rates of ED visits. Our study leveraged the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration Program, a social experiment beginning in 1994 that randomly assigned approximately 4,600 households that received federal housing assistance to different neighborhood conditions. We linked program participants in four states with an average of twelve years of administrative data on ED use (up to twenty-one years after randomization). Contrary to our expectations, we did not find a consistently significant connection between neighborhood poverty and overall ED use during this follow-up period. This result was observed for both adults and people who were children at the time of randomization, as well as for various classifications of ED visits. The findings can help direct future research that seeks to clarify the relationship between neighborhood environments and health care use.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
18.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(12): 2431-2437, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394272

RESUMO

Inflammatory cytokines released by activated lymphocytes and innate cells in the context of cellular therapy can cause fever, vasodilatation, and end-organ damage, collectively known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). CRS can occur after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation, but is especially prevalent after HLA-haploidentical (haplo) peripheral blood transplantation (PBT). We reviewed charts of all patients who underwent haplo-PBT between October 1, 2013, and September 1, 2017 and graded CRS in these patients. A total of 146 consecutive patients who underwent related haplo-PBT were analyzed. CRS occurred in 130 patients (89%), with most cases of mild severity (grade 0 to 2). Severe CRS (grade 3 to 5) occurred in 25 patients (17%). In this group with severe CRS, 13 patients had encephalopathy, 12 required hemodialysis, and 11 were intubated. Death from the immediate complications of CRS occurred in 6 patients (24% of the severe CRS group and 4% of the entire haplo-PBT cohort). The cumulative probability of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 38% at 6 months for the patients with severe CRS and 8% (121 of 146) in patients without severe CRS. In conclusion, CRS occurs in nearly 90% of haplo-PBTs. Older haplo-PBT recipients (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], .83 to 6.75; P = .11) and those with a history of radiation therapy (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.32 to 11.24; P = .01) are at increased risk of developing severe CRS. Although most recipients of haplo-PBT develop CRS, <20% experience severe complications. The development of severe CRS is associated with a significantly increased risk of NRM.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Idoso , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/sangue , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Haploidêntico
19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 176(3): 617-624, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079282

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are associated with musculoskeletal symptoms and risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which can impair quality of life and prompt treatment discontinuation. The incidence of CTS and clinical utility of diagnostic tests such as 2-point discrimination (2-PD) have not been prospectively examined among women receiving AIs. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with stage 0-III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial investigating adjuvant AIs (Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetics, ELPh) underwent prospective evaluation of 2-PD with the Disc-criminator™ (sliding aesthesiometer) and completed a CTS questionnaire at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, following initiation of AI. Changes in mean 2-PD were analyzed with multivariable mixed effects modelling. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 100 women who underwent baseline 2-PD testing, CTS was identified by questionnaire in 11% at baseline prior to AI initiation. Prevalence of CTS at any time in the first year was 26%. A significant increase in worst 2-PD score was observed from baseline to 3 months (3.7 mm to 3.9 mm, respectively, p = 0.03) when adjusted for age, prior chemotherapy, randomized treatment assignment, and diabetes. There were no significant differences in treatment discontinuation due to CTS between the arms. CONCLUSION: For women receiving adjuvant AI, 2-PD scores were significantly worse at 3 months compared to baseline. Studies are required to assess whether change in 2-PD is an adequate objective assessment for CTS with AI therapy. Early diagnosis of CTS may expedite management, improve AI adherence, and enhance breast cancer outcomes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/etiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Neuromusculares/etiologia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pós-Menopausa , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Avaliação de Sintomas
20.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(7): 985-992, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046104

RESUMO

Importance: Detection of persistent oral human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA may be associated with recurrence of HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Objective: To evaluate the dynamics of oral HPV DNA detection and associations with disease outcomes in patients with HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, 2-institution, tertiary referral center study of 396 patients with newly diagnosed oral cavity or oropharyngeal HNSCC was performed from July 11, 2011, to May 7, 2016. Oral rinse samples were prospectively collected at diagnosis and at completion of primary therapy. Weekly oral rinse samples were collected during radiotherapy. Purified tumor and oral rinse sample DNA were evaluated for 37 HPV types, and viral load was quantified by type-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cancers were stratified by tumor HPV status, and HPV was classified as tumor type if identical to that detected in the tumor or nontumor type. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of HPV DNA before, during, and after therapy. Associations between tumor-type and nontumor-type oral HPV DNA detection and recurrence-free and overall survival were evaluated. Results: Of the 396 patients (median age, 59 years [range, 19-96 years]; 295 [74.5%] men; and 354 [89.4%] white race/ethnicity), 217 had oropharyngeal cancer; 170, oral cavity cancer; and 9, unknown primary HNSCC. The prevalence of oral HPV detection at diagnosis was higher among patients with HPV-positive compared with HPV-negative HNSCC (24 of 194 [84.2%] vs 170 of 202 [12.4%]; P < .001). Oral HPV-16 DNA had an 81% sensitivity and 100% specificity for HPV-16-positive HNSCC. The prevalence and load of tumor-type HPV decreased significantly during primary therapy with odds ratio for probability of infection with each increasing month after diagnosis (0.41; 95% CI, 0.33-0.52; P < .001), whereas those of nontumor types did not (1.01; 95% CI, 0.97-1.06; P = .62). Current smoking was significantly associated with a reduced clearance of tumor-type HPV DNA (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.93). Two-year overall survival was significantly lower among the HPV-positive patients with persistent detection of tumor-type HPV after therapy than among those without detectable tumor-type DNA after therapy (68% vs 95%; adjusted HR, 6.61; 95% CI, 1.86-23.44; P = .003), as was recurrence-free survival (55% vs 88%; adjusted HR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.71-8.09; P < .001). No associations were observed for nontumor type HPV DNA among patients with HPV-positive or HPV-negative HNSCC. Conclusions and Relevance: Prevalence and viral load of tumor-type HPV DNA decreased rapidly with therapy, and persistent detection was associated with increased risk of recurrence and death. Analysis of tumor type HPV DNA has considerable promise as a biomarker for treatment response and risk of progression.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Neoplasias Bucais/virologia , Boca/virologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/virologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , DNA Viral/análise , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
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