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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363758

RESUMO

Reversible detyrosination of tubulin, the building block of microtubules, is crucial for neuronal physiology. Enzymes responsible for detyrosination were recently identified as complexes of vasohibins 1 or 2 with small vasohibin-binding protein (SVBP). Here we report three consanguineous families, each containing multiple individuals with biallelic inactivation of SVBP caused by truncating variants (p.Q28* and p.K13Nfs*18). Affected individuals show brain abnormalities with microcephaly, intellectual disability and delayed gross motor and speech development. Immunoblot testing in cells with pathogenic SVBP variants demonstrated that the encoded proteins were unstable and non-functional, resulting in a complete loss of vasohibin detyrosination activity. Svbp knockout mice exhibit drastic accumulation of tyrosinated tubulin and a reduction of detyrosinated tubulin in brain tissue. Similar alterations in tubulin tyrosination levels were observed in cultured neurons and associated with defects in axonal differentiation and architecture. Morphological analysis of the Svbp knockout mouse brains by anatomical MRI showed a broad impact of SVBP loss, with a 7% brain volume decrease, numerous structural defects and a 30% reduction of some white matter tracts. Svbp knockout mice display behavioral defects, including mild hyperactivity, lower anxiety and impaired social behavior. They do not, however, show prominent memory defects. Thus, SVBP deficient mice recapitulate several features observed in human patients. Altogether, our data demonstrate that deleterious variants in SVBP cause this neurodevelopmental pathology, by leading to a major change in brain tubulin tyrosination and alteration of microtubule dynamics and neuron physiology.

3.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 46, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multi-disciplinary approach to promote engagement, inform decision-making and support clinicians and patients is increasingly advocated to realise the potential of genome-scale sequencing in the clinic for patient benefit. Here we describe the results of establishing a genomic medicine multi-disciplinary team (GM-MDT) for case selection, processing, interpretation and return of results. METHODS: We report a consecutive case series of 132 patients (involving 10 medical specialties with 43.2% cases having a neurological disorder) undergoing exome sequencing over a 10-month period following the establishment of the GM-MDT in a UK NHS tertiary referral hospital. The costs of running the MDT are also reported. RESULTS: In total 76 cases underwent exome sequencing following triage by the GM-MDT with a clinically reportable molecular diagnosis in 24 (31.6%). GM-MDT composition, operation and rationale for whether to proceed to sequencing are described, together with the health economics (cost per case for the GM-MDT was £399.61), the utility and informativeness of exome sequencing for molecular diagnosis in a range of traits, the impact of choice of sequencing strategy on molecular diagnostic rates and challenge of defining pathogenic variants. In 5 cases (6.6%), an alternative clinical diagnosis was indicated by sequencing results. Examples were also found where findings from initial genetic testing were reconsidered in the light of exome sequencing including TP63 and PRKAG2 (detection of a partial exon deletion and a mosaic missense pathogenic variant respectively); together with tissue-specific mosaicism involving a cytogenetic abnormality following a normal prenatal array comparative genomic hybridization. CONCLUSIONS: This consecutive case series describes the results and experience of a multidisciplinary team format that was found to promote engagement across specialties and facilitate return of results to the responsible clinicians.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder manifesting joint contractures, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, and kyphoscoliosis as main features. Due to its rarity, rather aspecific clinical presentation, and overlap with other conditions including Marfan syndrome, the diagnosis is challenging, but important for prognosis and clinical management. CCA is caused by pathogenic variants in FBN2, encoding fibrillin-2, but locus heterogeneity has been suggested. We designed a clinical scoring system and diagnostic criteria to support the diagnostic process and guide molecular genetic testing. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we assessed 167 probands referred for FBN2 analysis and classified them into a FBN2-positive (n = 44) and FBN2-negative group (n = 123) following molecular analysis. We developed a 20-point weighted clinical scoring system based on the prevalence of ten main clinical characteristics of CCA in both groups. RESULTS: The total score was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.001) and was indicative for classifying patients into unlikely CCA (total score <7) and likely CCA (total score ≥7) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical score is helpful for clinical guidance for patients suspected to have CCA, and provides a quantitative tool for phenotyping in research settings.

5.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(7): 1263-1272, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical phenotypes associated with KCNC1 variants other than the Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy-causing variant p.Arg320His, determine the electrophysiological functional impact of identified variants and explore genotype-phenotype-physiological correlations. METHODS: Ten cases with putative pathogenic variants in KCNC1 were studied. Variants had been identified via whole-exome sequencing or gene panel testing. Clinical phenotypic data were analyzed. To determine functional impact of variants detected in the Kv 3.1 channel encoded by KCNC1, Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system and automated two-electrode voltage clamping were used. RESULTS: Six unrelated patients had a Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy and a recurrent de novo variant p.Ala421Val (c.1262C > T). Functional analysis of p.Ala421Val revealed loss of function through a significant reduction in whole-cell current, but no dominant-negative effect. Three patients had a contrasting phenotype of Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures and different KCNC1 variants, all of which caused loss of function with reduced whole-cell currents. Evaluation of the variant p.Ala513Val (c.1538C > T) in the tenth case, suggested it was a variant of uncertain significance. INTERPRETATION: These are the first reported cases of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy due to KCNC1 mutation. The spectrum of phenotypes associated with KCNC1 is now broadened to include not only a Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy, but an infantile onset Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy, as well as Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures. Loss of function is a key feature, but definitive electrophysiological separation of these phenotypes has not yet emerged.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(11): 1639-1648, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186546

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are moving from research into clinical practice. However, the optimal NGS approach in well-defined adult-onset familial diseases, such as inherited cardiovascular disease, remains unclear. We aimed to determine which attributes encouraged or discouraged the uptake of genomic tests in this context, and whether this differed by test type. We conducted a web-based discrete choice experiment in health professionals in the UK who order NGS tests for inherited cardiovascular disease. Respondents completed 12 hypothetical choice tasks in which they selected a preferred test from four alternatives: whole genome sequencing, whole exome sequencing, panel testing and genetic testing not indicated. Tests were specified in terms of five attributes: diagnostic yield, detection rate for variants of unknown significance, cost, quantity of counselling received and disclosure of secondary findings. Mixed logit regression analysis was used to analyse the choice data. We found that uptake of NGS increases if tests identify more pathogenic mutations, identify fewer variants of unknown significance, or cost less. Respondents were willing to pay £117 for every 1% increase in diagnostic yield. Considerable heterogeneity was observed around preferences for several test attributes. Overall, panel testing had the highest predicted uptake rate. Our results indicate that NGS tests are valued by health professionals for well-defined adult-onset familial diseases, however, these professionals have strong preferences for panel testing rather than whole genome sequencing and whole exome sequencing. This finding suggests that different uptake rates should be explicitly modelled when designing and evaluating future genomic testing services.

7.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(5): 633-645, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843084

RESUMO

Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare genetic disorder due to mutations in VPS13B gene. Among various clinical and biological features, CS patients suffer from inconsistent neutropenia, which is associated with recurrent but minor infections. We demonstrate here that this neutropenia results from an exaggerate rate of neutrophil apoptosis. Besides this increased cell death, which occurs in the absence of any endoplasmic reticulum stress or defect in neutrophil elastase (ELANE) expression or localization, all neutrophil functions appeared to be normal. We showed a disorganization of the Golgi apparatus in CS neutrophils precursors, that correlates with an altered glycosylation of ICAM-1 in these cells, as evidenced by a migration shift of the protein. Furthermore, a striking decrease in the expression of SERPINB1 gene, which encodes a critical component of neutrophil survival, was detected in CS neutrophils. These abnormalities may account for the excessive apoptosis of neutrophils leading to neutropenia in CS. KEY MESSAGES: Cohen syndrome patients' neutrophils display normal morphology and functions. Cohen syndrome patients' neutrophils have an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis compared to healthy donors' neutrophils. No ER stress or defective ELA2 expression or glycosylation was observed in Cohen syndrome patients' neutrophils. SerpinB1 expression is significantly decreased in Cohen syndrome neutrophils as well as in VPS13B-deficient cells.

8.
Clin Genet ; 95(6): 693-703, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859559

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterised by distinctive facial features, heart defects, variable degrees of intellectual disability and other phenotypic manifestations. Although the mode of inheritance is typically dominant, recent studies indicate LZTR1 may be associated with both dominant and recessive forms. Seeking to describe the phenotypic characteristics of LZTR1-associated NS, we searched for likely pathogenic variants using two approaches. First, scrutiny of exomes from 9624 patients recruited by the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDDs) study uncovered six dominantly-acting mutations (p.R97L; p.Y136C; p.Y136H, p.N145I, p.S244C; p.G248R) of which five arose de novo, and three patients with compound-heterozygous variants (p.R210*/p.V579M; p.R210*/p.D531N; c.1149+1G>T/p.R688C). One patient also had biallelic loss-of-function mutations in NEB, consistent with a composite phenotype. After removing this complex case, analysis of human phenotype ontology terms indicated significant phenotypic similarities (P = 0.0005), supporting a causal role for LZTR1. Second, targeted sequencing of eight unsolved NS-like cases identified biallelic LZTR1 variants in three further subjects (p.W469*/p.Y749C, p.W437*/c.-38T>A and p.A461D/p.I462T). Our study strengthens the association of LZTR1 with NS, with de novo mutations clustering around the KT1-4 domains. Although LZTR1 variants explain ~0.1% of cases across the DDD cohort, the gene is a relatively common cause of unsolved NS cases where recessive inheritance is suspected.

9.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1576-1584, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increasing numbers of genes are being implicated in Mendelian disorders and incorporated into clinical test panels. However, lack of evidence supporting the gene-disease relationship can hinder interpretation. We explored the utility of testing 51 additional genes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), one of the most commonly tested Mendelian disorders. METHODS: Using genome sequencing data from 240 sarcomere gene negative HCM cases and 6229 controls, we undertook case-control and individual variant analyses to assess 51 genes that have been proposed for HCM testing. RESULTS: We found no evidence to suggest that rare variants in these genes are prevalent causes of HCM. One variant, in a single case, was categorized as likely to be pathogenic. Over 99% of variants were classified as a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) and 54% of cases had one or more VUS. CONCLUSION: For almost all genes, the gene-disease relationship could not be validated and lack of evidence precluded variant interpretation. Thus, the incremental diagnostic yield of extending testing was negligible, and would, we propose, be outweighed by problems that arise with a high rate of uninterpretable findings. These findings highlight the need for rigorous, evidence-based selection of genes for clinical test panels.

10.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. METHODS: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. RESULTS: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1611-1622, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006632

RESUMO

Acrodysostosis (MIM 101800) is a dominantly inherited condition associating (1) skeletal features (short stature, facial dysostosis, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses), (2) resistance to hormones and (3) possible intellectual disability. Acroscyphodysplasia (MIM 250215) is characterized by growth retardation, brachydactyly, and knee epiphyses embedded in cup-shaped metaphyses. We and others have identified PDE4D or PRKAR1A variants in acrodysostosis; PDE4D variants have been reported in three cases of acroscyphodysplasia. Our study aimed at reviewing the clinical and molecular findings in a cohort of 27 acrodysostosis and 5 acroscyphodysplasia cases. Among the acrodysostosis cases, we identified 9 heterozygous de novo PRKAR1A variants and 11 heterozygous PDE4D variants. The 7 patients without variants presented with symptoms of acrodysostosis (brachydactyly and cone-shaped epiphyses), but none had the characteristic facial dysostosis. In the acroscyphodysplasia cases, we identified 2 PDE4D variants. For 2 of the 3 negative cases, medical records revealed early severe infection, which has been described in some reports of acroscyphodysplasia. Subdividing our series of acrodysostosis based on the disease-causing gene, we confirmed genotype-phenotype correlations. Hormone resistance was consistently observed in patients carrying PRKAR1A variants, whereas no hormone resistance was observed in 9 patients with PDE4D variants. All patients with PDE4D variants shared characteristic facial features (midface hypoplasia with nasal hypoplasia) and some degree of intellectual disability. Our findings of PDE4D variants in two cases of acroscyphodysplasia support that PDE4D may be responsible for this severe skeletal dysplasia. We eventually emphasize the importance of some specific assessments in the long-term follow up, including cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk factors.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

13.
Per Med ; 15(1): 45-56, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714118

RESUMO

Targeted therapies continue to be key components of cancer treatment. New approaches to detection of acquired resistance at the genomic level, in combination with new therapies, help to overcome the challenges that are seen frequently, rapidly and broadly across tumor pathologies, and provide opportunities for cancer management. In the last several years, a new breed of modalities called immune checkpoint inhibitors have come to the forefront of clinically effective treatments. A plethora of rapid approvals and early access initiatives have seen anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4, and particularly anti-programmed death receptor-1 therapies, deployed in a number of tumor indications of high unmet need. With the rise of immune checkpoint inhibition, and the broader resurgence in the immuno-oncology field, we are facing challenges in the prediction of response.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(5): 652-659, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440777

RESUMO

With large-scale genome sequencing initiatives underway, vast amounts of genomic data are being generated. Results-including secondary findings (SF)-are being returned, although policies around generation and management remain inconsistent. In order to inform relevant policy, it is essential that the views of stakeholders be considered-including participants who have made decisions about SF since the wider debate began. We conducted semi-structured interviews with sixteen rare disease patients and parents enroled in genome sequencing to explore views towards SF. Informed by extensive contact with the healthcare system, interviewees demonstrated high levels of understanding of genetic testing and held pragmatic views: many are content not knowing SF. Interviewees expressed trust in the system and healthcare providers, as well as an appreciation of limited resources; acknowledging existing disease burden, many preferred to focus on their primary condition. Many demonstrated an expectation for recontact and assumed the possibility of later access to initially declined SF. In the absence of such an infrastructure, it is important that responsibilities for recontact are delineated, expectations are addressed, and the long-term impact of decisions is made clear during consent. In addition, some interviewees demonstrated fluid views towards SF, and suggestions were made that perceptions may be influenced by family history. Further research into the changing desirability of SF and behavioural impact of disclosure are needed, and the development and introduction of mechanisms to respond to changes in patient views should be considered.

15.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1175-1185, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the molecular genetics of autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome. METHODS: Families underwent phenotyping for features of Noonan syndrome in children and their parents. Two multiplex families underwent linkage analysis. Exome, genome, or multigene panel sequencing was used to identify variants. The molecular consequences of observed splice variants were evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Twelve families with a total of 23 affected children with features of Noonan syndrome were evaluated. The phenotypic range included mildly affected patients, but it was lethal in some, with cardiac disease and leukemia. All of the parents were unaffected. Linkage analysis using a recessive model supported a candidate region in chromosome 22q11, which includes LZTR1, previously shown to harbor mutations in patients with Noonan syndrome inherited in a dominant pattern. Sequencing analyses of 21 live-born patients and a stillbirth identified biallelic pathogenic variants in LZTR1, including putative loss-of-function, missense, and canonical and noncanonical splicing variants in the affected children, with heterozygous, clinically unaffected parents and heterozygous or normal genotypes in unaffected siblings. CONCLUSION: These clinical and genetic data confirm the existence of a form of Noonan syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and identify biallelic mutations in LZTR1.

16.
Genet Med ; 20(3): 320-328, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261176

RESUMO

PurposeApproaches to secondary findings in genome sequencing (GS) are unresolved. In the United Kingdom, GS is now routinely available through the 100,000 Genomes Project, which offers participants feedback of limited secondary findings.MethodsIn Oxford, a Genomic Medicine Multidisciplinary Team (GM-MDT) governs local access to GS, and reviews findings. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 19 GM-MDT members to explore perspectives on secondary findings.ResultsWhile enthusiastic about GS for diagnosing rare disease, members question the rationale for genome screening largely because of lack of evidence for clinical utility and limited justification for use of resources. Members' views are drawn from diverse experiences; they feel a strong sense of responsibility to act in participants' best interests. The capacity to return limited secondary findings should be enabled, but members favor a cautious approach that is responsive to accumulating evidence. Informed participant choice is considered critical, yet challenging. Discrimination of variants is considered essential, and requiring of specialist input and consensus. Multiple areas requiring enhanced engagement and education are identified, i.e., for patients, the public, and health-care professionals; at present, mainstreaming of genomics may be premature.ConclusionUK experts believe that evidence to inform policy toward secondary findings is lacking, arguing for caution.


Assuntos
Genética Médica , Genômica , Pessoal de Saúde , Achados Incidentais , Revelação , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 664-685, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100083

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) is a group of conditions characterized by the co-occurrence of epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID), typically with developmental plateauing or regression associated with frequent epileptiform activity. The cause of DEE remains unknown in the majority of cases. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 197 individuals with unexplained DEE and pharmaco-resistant seizures and in their unaffected parents. We focused our attention on de novo mutations (DNMs) and identified candidate genes containing such variants. We sought to identify additional subjects with DNMs in these genes by performing targeted sequencing in another series of individuals with DEE and by mining various sequencing datasets. We also performed meta-analyses to document enrichment of DNMs in candidate genes by leveraging our WGS dataset with those of several DEE and ID series. By combining these strategies, we were able to provide a causal link between DEE and the following genes: NTRK2, GABRB2, CLTC, DHDDS, NUS1, RAB11A, GABBR2, and SNAP25. Overall, we established a molecular diagnosis in 63/197 (32%) individuals in our WGS series. The main cause of DEE in these individuals was de novo point mutations (53/63 solved cases), followed by inherited mutations (6/63 solved cases) and de novo CNVs (4/63 solved cases). De novo missense variants explained a larger proportion of individuals in our series than in other series that were primarily ascertained because of ID. Moreover, these DNMs were more frequently recurrent than those identified in ID series. These observations indicate that the genetic landscape of DEE might be different from that of ID without epilepsy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Recidiva , Convulsões/genética
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 3869-3882, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016847

RESUMO

The discovery of genetic variants influencing sleep patterns can shed light on the physiological processes underlying sleep. As part of a large clinical sequencing project, WGS500, we sequenced a family in which the two male children had severe developmental delay and a dramatically disturbed sleep-wake cycle, with very long wake and sleep durations, reaching up to 106-h awake and 48-h asleep. The most likely causal variant identified was a novel missense variant in the X-linked GRIA3 gene, which has been implicated in intellectual disability. GRIA3 encodes GluA3, a subunit of AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs). The mutation (A653T) falls within the highly conserved transmembrane domain of the ion channel gate, immediately adjacent to the analogous residue in the Grid2 (glutamate receptor) gene, which is mutated in the mouse neurobehavioral mutant, Lurcher. In vitro, the GRIA3(A653T) mutation stabilizes the channel in a closed conformation, in contrast to Lurcher. We introduced the orthologous mutation into a mouse strain by CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis and found that hemizygous mutants displayed significant differences in the structure of their activity and sleep compared to wild-type littermates. Typically, mice are polyphasic, exhibiting multiple sleep bouts of sleep several minutes long within a 24-h period. The Gria3A653T mouse showed significantly fewer brief bouts of activity and sleep than the wild-types. Furthermore, Gria3A653T mice showed enhanced period lengthening under constant light compared to wild-type mice, suggesting an increased sensitivity to light. Our results suggest a role for GluA3 channel activity in the regulation of sleep behavior in both mice and humans.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação Puntual , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
Pediatr Radiol ; 47(8): 1016-1021, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28493010

RESUMO

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II is a rare genetic disorder with the few published case reports mainly reporting the radiographic skeletal manifestations. There are no published imaging reports of long bone cysts involving multiple bones in this condition. We report a unique case of bone cysts involving multiple long bones detected with MRI in a patient with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II complicated by a subsequent pathological fracture. It is possible that the bone cysts are a previously undescribed feature of this syndrome; however, the evidence is insufficient to establish a definite association. Chromosomal abnormality identified in this patient is consistent with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II with no unusual features. Although the nature of these bone cysts is unclear, they are one of the causes of the known increased fracture risk observed in this syndrome.


Assuntos
Cistos Ósseos/diagnóstico por imagem , Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Espontâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Langer-Giedion/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(6): 680-686, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327571

RESUMO

Whole-exome/whole-genome sequencing (WES/WGS) has the potential to enhance genetic diagnosis of rare disease, and is increasingly becoming part of routine clinical care in mainstream medicine. Effective translation will require ongoing efforts in a number of areas including: selection of appropriate patients, provision of effective consent, pre- and post-test genetic counselling, improving variant interpretation algorithms and practices, and management of secondary findings including those found incidentally and those actively sought. Allied to this is the need for an effective education programme for all members of clinical teams involved in care of patients with rare disease, as well as to maintain public confidence in the use of these technologies. We established a Genomic Medicine Multidisciplinary Team (GM-MDT) in 2014 to build on the experiences of earlier successful research-based WES/WGS studies, to address these needs and to review results including pertinent and secondary findings. Here we report on a qualitative study of decision-making in the GM-MDT combined with analysis of semi-structured interviews with GM-MDT members. Study findings show that members appreciate the clinical and scientific diversity of the GM-MDT and value it for education and oversight. To date, discussions have focussed on case selection including the extent and interpretation of clinical and family history information required to establish likely monogenic aetiology and inheritance model. Achieving a balance between effective use of WES/WGS - prioritising cases in a diverse and highly complex patient population where WES/WGS will be tractable - and meeting the recruitment targets of a large project is considered challenging.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Testes Genéticos/normas , Genética Médica/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Doenças Raras/genética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Genética Médica/organização & administração , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas
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