Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 110
Filtrar
1.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003872, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States (US) Expanded Access Program (EAP) to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma was initiated in response to the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19. While randomized clinical trials were in various stages of development and enrollment, there was an urgent need for widespread access to potential therapeutic agents. The objective of this study is to report on the demographic, geographical, and chronological characteristics of patients in the EAP, and key safety metrics following transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mayo Clinic served as the central institutional review board for all participating facilities, and any US physician could participate as a local physician-principal investigator. Eligible patients were hospitalized, were aged 18 years or older, and had-or were at risk of progression to-severe or life-threatening COVID-19; eligible patients were enrolled through the EAP central website. Blood collection facilities rapidly implemented programs to collect convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Demographic and clinical characteristics of all enrolled patients in the EAP were summarized. Temporal patterns in access to COVID-19 convalescent plasma were investigated by comparing daily and weekly changes in EAP enrollment in response to changes in infection rate at the state level. Geographical analyses on access to convalescent plasma included assessing EAP enrollment in all national hospital referral regions, as well as assessing enrollment in metropolitan areas and less populated areas that did not have access to COVID-19 clinical trials. From April 3 to August 23, 2020, 105,717 hospitalized patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19 were enrolled in the EAP. The majority of patients were 60 years of age or older (57.8%), were male (58.4%), and had overweight or obesity (83.8%). There was substantial inclusion of minorities and underserved populations: 46.4% of patients were of a race other than white, and 37.2% of patients were of Hispanic ethnicity. Chronologically and geographically, increases in the number of both enrollments and transfusions in the EAP closely followed confirmed infections across all 50 states. Nearly all national hospital referral regions enrolled and transfused patients in the EAP, including both in metropolitan and in less populated areas. The incidence of serious adverse events was objectively low (<1%), and the overall crude 30-day mortality rate was 25.2% (95% CI, 25.0% to 25.5%). This registry study was limited by the observational and pragmatic study design that did not include a control or comparator group; thus, the data should not be used to infer definitive treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the EAP provided widespread access to COVID-19 convalescent plasma in all 50 states, including for underserved racial and ethnic minority populations. The study design of the EAP may serve as a model for future efforts when broad access to a treatment is needed in response to an emerging infectious disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT#: NCT04338360.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651656

RESUMO

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America. Prevalence rates are increasing steadily and new endemic areas of Coccidioides are emerging. Standard treatment is often administered for months to decades, and intolerance to medications and treatment failures are common. No new treatments for coccidioidomycosis have been approved in the U.S. in nearly 40 years. On August 5, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration convened experts in coccidioidomycosis from academia, industry, patient groups and other government agencies to discuss the disease landscape and strategies to facilitate product development for treatment of coccidioidomycosis. This paper summarizes the key topics concerning drug development for coccidioidomycosis presented by speakers and panelists during the workshop, such as unmet need, trial designs, endpoints, incentives, research and development support, and collaborations to facilitate antifungal drug development.

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab344, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337097

RESUMO

Background: Coccidioidomycosis is often diagnosed with a collection of tests that rely on the patient's ability to mount an immune response to the fungus (antibody-based diagnostics), making diagnosis of this infection challenging. Here we present an antigen-based assay that detects and quantifies coccidioidal chitinase-1 (CTS1) in human serum. Methods: An inhibition-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed that utilizes a monoclonal antibody specific for coccidioidal CTS1. CTS1 was quantified in commercial antigen preparations using recombinant CTS1 as a standard. Sera from 192 individuals from an endemic area were tested, which included 78 patients (40.6%) with proven or probable coccidioidomycosis. Results: The quantity of CTS1 in diagnostic commercial antigen preparations from different suppliers varied. CTS1 antigenemia was detected in 87.2% of patients with proven or probable coccidioidomycosis. Specificity was determined to be 96.94% using serum from individuals who reside in the Phoenix, Arizona area who did not have coccidioidomycosis. Levels of CTS1 correlated with low- and high-titer serology from patients with a coccidioidomycosis diagnosis. Conclusions: Since the CTS1 inhibition ELISA described in this report does not depend on the host immune response, it is a promising diagnostic tool to aid in diagnosis and disease monitoring of coccidioidomycosis.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4864, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381030

RESUMO

Successful therapeutics and vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have harnessed the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Evidence that SARS-CoV-2 exists as locally evolving variants suggests that immunological differences may impact the effectiveness of antibody-based treatments such as convalescent plasma and vaccines. Considering that near-sourced convalescent plasma likely reflects the antigenic composition of local viral strains, we hypothesize that convalescent plasma has a higher efficacy, as defined by death within 30 days of transfusion, when the convalescent plasma donor and treated patient were in close geographic proximity. Results of a series of modeling techniques applied to approximately 28,000 patients from the Expanded Access to Convalescent Plasma program (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04338360) support this hypothesis. This work has implications for the interpretation of clinical studies, the ability to develop effective COVID-19 treatments, and, potentially, for the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines as additional locally-evolving variants continue to emerge.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Plasma/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Variação Antigênica , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26371, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128896

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Most patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have mild to moderate illness not requiring hospitalization. However, no study has detailed the evolution of symptoms in the first month of illness.At our institution, we conducted remote (telephone and video) visits for all adult outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 within 24 h of a positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain test for SARS-CoV-2. We repeated regular video visits at 7, 14, and 28 days after the positive test, retrospectively reviewed the prospective data collected in the remote visits, and constructed a week by week profile of clinical illness, through week 4 of illness.We reviewed the courses of 458 symptomatic patients diagnosed between March 12, 2020, and June 22, 2020, and characterized their weekly courses. Common initial symptoms included fever, headache, cough, and chest pain, which frequently persisted through week 3 or longer. Upper respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms were much shorter lived, present primarily in week 1. Anosmia/ageusia peaked in weeks 2 to 3. Emergency department visits were frequent, with 128 visits in the 423 patients who were not hospitalized and 48 visits among the 35 outpatients (7.6%) who were eventually hospitalized (2 subsequently died). By the fourth week, 28.9% said their illness had completely resolved. After the 4-week follow up, 20 (4.7%) of the 423 nonhospitalized patients had further medical evaluation and management for subacute or chronic COVID-19 symptoms.Mild to moderate outpatient COVID-19 is a prolonged illness, with evolving symptoms commonly lasting into the fourth week of illness.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anosmia/etiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Neurol ; 12: 624968, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927679

RESUMO

Objective: To report a case series of dysautonomia associated with COVID-19 infection. Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients evaluated in the autonomic clinic at our institution with suspected signs and symptoms of dysautonomia who underwent formal evaluation, including autonomic testing. Results: Six patients were identified with signs and symptoms suggestive of dysautonomia who underwent autonomic testing. All patients had symptoms typical of COVID-19 infection, though none were hospitalized for these or other symptoms. All patients reported symptoms of postural lightheadedness and near-syncope, fatigue, and activity intolerance. Five patients reported the onset of autonomic symptoms concomitant with other COVID-19 symptoms, with the other patient reporting symptom onset 6 weeks following initial COVID-19 symptoms. Autonomic testing demonstrated an excessive postural tachycardia in 4 patients, a hypertensive response with head-up tilt in 3 patients, orthostatic hypotension in 1 patient, and sudomotor impairment in 1 of the patients with excessive postural tachycardia. Conclusions: We present clinical features and results of autonomic testing in 6 patients with a history COVID-19 infection. While all patients reported typical features of orthostatic intolerance, fatigue, and activity intolerance, the results of autonomic testing were heterogenous, with orthostatic hypotension in 1 patient, excessive postural tachycardia typical of postural tachycardia syndrome in 4 patients, and postural hypertension in 3 patients.

7.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(5)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925759

RESUMO

Coccidioides is an endemic fungus of the Southwest United States that causes the disease coccidioidomycosis. Immunocompromised persons are at increased risk for severe infection and dissemination. One such population is allogeneic bone marrow transplant (allo-HCT) recipients, but accounts of coccidioidal infection in these patients have rarely been documented. We present two cases of Coccidioides in allo-HCT recipients with good outcomes: one patient who developed pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in the late post-engraftment phase and another with known controlled disseminated infection at the time of transplant. A review of the literature identified 19 allo-HCT recipients with coccidioidomycosis. Due to the limited published literature, no guidelines have yet been established regarding optimal prophylaxis and treatment of Coccidioides infection in allo-HCT recipients. Candidates for transplantation should undergo a rigorous pre-transplant assessment to identify evidence of prior or active coccidioidomycosis. In our experience, patients who visit or live in Coccidioides-endemic areas should receive primary prophylaxis for at least the first 100 days post-transplant, and duration should be extended as long as the patient remains on immunosuppression. Those with prior infection should receive secondary prophylaxis while immunosuppressed. Patients with active infection should have treatment and stabilization of infection and continue anti-fungal treatment through immunosuppression.

8.
medRxiv ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851175

RESUMO

Background: The United States (US) Expanded Access Program (EAP) to COVID-19 convalescent plasma was initiated in response to the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). While randomized clinical trials were in various stages of development and enrollment, there was an urgent need for widespread access to potential therapeutic agents particularly for vulnerable racial and ethnic minority populations who were disproportionately affected by the pandemic. The objective of this study is to report on the demographic, geographic, and chronological access to COVID-19 convalescent plasma in the US via the EAP. Methods and findings: Mayo Clinic served as the central IRB for all participating facilities and any US physician could participate as local physician-principal investigator. Registration occurred through the EAP central website. Blood banks rapidly developed logistics to provide convalescent plasma to hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Demographic and clinical characteristics of all enrolled patients in the EAP were summarized. Temporal trends in access to COVID-19 convalescent plasma were investigated by comparing daily and weekly changes in EAP enrollment in response to changes in infection rate on a state level. Geographical analyses on access to convalescent plasma included assessing EAP enrollment in all national hospital referral regions as well as assessing enrollment in metropolitan and less populated areas which did not have access to COVID-19 clinical trials.From April 3 to August 23, 2020, 105,717 hospitalized patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19 were enrolled in the EAP. A majority of patients were older than 60 years of age (57.8%), male (58.4%), and overweight or obese (83.8%). There was substantial inclusion of minorities and underserved populations, including 46.4% of patients with a race other than White, and 37.2% of patients were of Hispanic ethnicity. Severe or life-threatening COVID-19 was present in 61.8% of patients and 18.9% of patients were mechanically ventilated at time of convalescent plasma infusion. Chronologically and geographically, increases in enrollment in the EAP closely followed confirmed infections across all 50 states. Nearly all national hospital referral regions enrolled patients in the EAP, including both in metropolitan and less populated areas. Conclusions: The EAP successfully provided widespread access to COVID-19 convalescent plasma in all 50 states, including for underserved racial and ethnic minority populations. The efficient study design of the EAP may serve as an example framework for future efforts when broad access to a treatment is needed in response to a dynamic disease affecting demographic groups and areas historically underrepresented in clinical studies.

9.
Med Mycol ; 59(8): 834-841, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724424

RESUMO

Approximately 5 to 15% of patients with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis subsequently develop pulmonary cavities. These cavities may resolve spontaneously over a number of years; however, some cavities never close, and a small proportion causes complications such as hemorrhage, pneumothorax or empyema. The impact of azole antifungal treatment on coccidioidal cavities has not been studied. Because azoles are a common treatment for symptomatic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, we aimed to assess the impact of azole therapy on cavity closure. From January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, we retrospectively identified 313 patients with cavitary coccidioidomycosis and excluded 42 who had the cavity removed surgically, leaving 271 data sets available for study. Of the 271 patients, 221 (81.5%) received azole therapy during 5-year follow-up; 50 patients did not receive antifungal treatment. Among the 271 patients, cavities closed in 38 (14.0%). Statistical modeling showed that cavities were more likely to close in patients in the treated group than in the nontreated group (hazard ratio, 2.14 [95% CI: 1.45-5.66]). Cavities were less likely to close in active smokers than nonsmokers (11/41 [26.8%] vs 97/182 [53.3%]; P = 0.002) or in persons with than without diabetes (27/74 [36.5%] vs 81/149 [54.4%]; P = 0.01).We did not find an association between cavity size and closure. Our findings provide rationale for further study of treatment protocols in this subset of patients with coccidioidomycosis. LAY SUMMARY: Coccidioidomycosis, known as valley fever, is a fungal infection that infrequently causes cavities to form in the lungs, which potentially results in long-term lung symptoms. We learned that cavities closed more often in persons who received antifungal drugs, but most cavities never closed completely.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 384(11): 1015-1027, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma has been widely used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) under the presumption that such plasma contains potentially therapeutic antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that can be passively transferred to the plasma recipient. Whether convalescent plasma with high antibody levels rather than low antibody levels is associated with a lower risk of death is unknown. METHODS: In a retrospective study based on a U.S. national registry, we determined the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels in convalescent plasma used to treat hospitalized adults with Covid-19. The primary outcome was death within 30 days after plasma transfusion. Patients who were enrolled through July 4, 2020, and for whom data on anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in plasma transfusions and on 30-day mortality were available were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Of the 3082 patients included in this analysis, death within 30 days after plasma transfusion occurred in 115 of 515 patients (22.3%) in the high-titer group, 549 of 2006 patients (27.4%) in the medium-titer group, and 166 of 561 patients (29.6%) in the low-titer group. The association of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels with the risk of death from Covid-19 was moderated by mechanical ventilation status. A lower risk of death within 30 days in the high-titer group than in the low-titer group was observed among patients who had not received mechanical ventilation before transfusion (relative risk, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.91), and no effect on the risk of death was observed among patients who had received mechanical ventilation (relative risk, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.32). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized with Covid-19 who were not receiving mechanical ventilation, transfusion of plasma with higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels was associated with a lower risk of death than transfusion of plasma with lower antibody levels. (Funded by the Department of Health and Human Services and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04338360.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tempo para o Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Med Mycol ; 59(7): 720-727, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418569

RESUMO

Coccidioides fungi are found primarily in the southwestern United States and are the cause of coccidioidomycosis. Tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFIs) are therapies for autoimmune and inflammatory conditions; their association with coccidioidomycosis is not well characterized. We aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of coccidioidomycosis among TNFI recipients with different inflammatory disorders at a tertiary care center. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic health records of patients at our institution from April 4, 2010 to December 17, 2017, who received TNFIs (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, or golimumab) and had positive culture, pathologic, and/or serologic results for coccidioidomycosis. Among 1770 patients identified who received TNFIs, 49 (2.8%) had proven or probable coccidioidomycosis. Of these 49, 28 (57%) were men, 47 (96%) were White, and 42 (86%) had pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. The most common TNFIs used were adalimumab, infliximab, and etanercept. Coccidioidomycosis was identified in 25 of 794 patients with rheumatologic disorders (3.1%), 18 of 783 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (2.3%), and six of 193 patients with dermatologic disorders (3.1%) (P = .34). There was no difference in coccidioidal infections among recipients of any particular TNFI agents. A minority of patients (7/49, 14%) had an extrapulmonary infection, and the majority of these (6/7) had IBD. Our study shows a low prevalence of coccidioidomycosis in TNFI recipients, even within the Coccidioides-endemic area. Persons with IBD were disproportionately represented among those with extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Treatment with azoles was effective. LAY SUMMARY: Among 1770 patients who received tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors, 49 (2.8%) had newly acquired coccidioidomycosis over a 7-year period. Dissemination occurred in 14.3%, but disproportionately among those with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. All patients recovered with medical management.


Assuntos
Coccidioidomicose/epidemiologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Coccidioides/patogenicidade , Coccidioidomicose/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/classificação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/classificação , Adulto Jovem
12.
medRxiv ; 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of polyclonal high titer convalescent plasma to prevent serious complications of COVID-19 in outpatients with recent onset of illness is uncertain. METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 high titer convalescent plasma to placebo control plasma in symptomatic adults ≥18 years positive for SARS-CoV-2 regardless of risk factors for disease progression or vaccine status. Participants with symptom onset within 8 days were enrolled, then transfused within the subsequent day. The measured primary outcome was COVID-19-related hospitalization within 28 days of plasma transfusion. The enrollment period was June 3, 2020 to October 1, 2021. RESULTS: A total of 1225 participants were randomized and 1181 transfused. In the pre-specified modified intention-to-treat analysis that excluded those not transfused, the primary endpoint occurred in 37 of 589 (6.3%) who received placebo control plasma and in 17 of 592 (2.9%) participants who received convalescent plasma (relative risk, 0.46; one-sided 95% upper bound confidence interval 0.733; P=0.004) corresponding to a 54% risk reduction. Examination with a model adjusting for covariates related to the outcome did not change the conclusions. CONCLUSION: Early administration of high titer SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma reduced outpatient hospitalizations by more than 50%. High titer convalescent plasma is an effective early outpatient COVID-19 treatment with the advantages of low cost, wide availability, and rapid resilience to variant emergence from viral genetic drift in the face of a changing pandemic. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04373460 .

13.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817978

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Passive antibody transfer is a longstanding treatment strategy for infectious diseases that involve the respiratory system. In this context, human convalescent plasma has been used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the efficacy remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential signals of efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma. DESIGN: Open-label, Expanded Access Program (EAP) for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with human convalescent plasma. SETTING: Multicenter, including 2,807 acute care facilities in the US and territories. PARTICIPANTS: Adult participants enrolled and transfused under the purview of the US Convalescent Plasma EAP program between April 4 and July 4, 2020 who were hospitalized with (or at risk of) severe or life threatening acute COVID-19 respiratory syndrome. INTERVENTION: Transfusion of at least one unit of human COVID-19 convalescent plasma using standard transfusion guidelines at any time during hospitalization. Convalescent plasma was donated by recently-recovered COVID-19 survivors, and the antibody levels in the units collected were unknown at the time of transfusion. Main Outcomes and Measures: Seven and thirty-day mortality. RESULTS: The 35,322 transfused patients had heterogeneous demographic and clinical characteristics. This cohort included a high proportion of critically-ill patients, with 52.3% in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 27.5% receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of plasma transfusion. The seven-day mortality rate was 8.7% [95% CI 8.3%-9.2%] in patients transfused within 3 days of COVID-19 diagnosis but 11.9% [11.4%-12.2%] in patients transfused 4 or more days after diagnosis (p<0.001). Similar findings were observed in 30-day mortality (21.6% vs. 26.7%, p<0.0001). Importantly, a gradient of mortality was seen in relation to IgG antibody levels in the transfused plasma. For patients who received high IgG plasma (>18.45 S/Co), seven-day mortality was 8.9% (6.8%, 11.7%); for recipients of medium IgG plasma (4.62 to 18.45 S/Co) mortality was 11.6% (10.3%, 13.1%); and for recipients of low IgG plasma (<4.62 S/Co) mortality was 13.7% (11.1%, 16.8%) (p=0.048). This unadjusted dose-response relationship with IgG was also observed in thirty-day mortality (p=0.021). The pooled relative risk of mortality among patients transfused with high antibody level plasma units was 0.65 [0.47-0.92] for 7 days and 0.77 [0.63-0.94] for 30 days compared to low antibody level plasma units. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The relationships between reduced mortality and both earlier time to transfusion and higher antibody levels provide signatures of efficacy for convalescent plasma in the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This information may be informative for the treatment of COVID-19 and design of randomized clinical trials involving convalescent plasma. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04338360.

14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(9): 1888-1897, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on key safety metrics after transfusion of convalescent plasma in hospitalized coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients, having previously demonstrated safety in 5000 hospitalized patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From April 3 to June 2, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access Program for COVID-19 convalescent plasma transfused a convenience sample of 20,000 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 convalescent plasma. RESULTS: The incidence of all serious adverse events was low; these included transfusion reactions (n=78; <1%), thromboembolic or thrombotic events (n=113; <1%), and cardiac events (n=677, ~3%). Notably, the vast majority of the thromboembolic or thrombotic events (n=75) and cardiac events (n=597) were judged to be unrelated to the plasma transfusion per se. The 7-day mortality rate was 13.0% (12.5%, 13.4%), and was higher among more critically ill patients relative to less ill counterparts, including patients admitted to the intensive care unit versus those not admitted (15.6 vs 9.3%), mechanically ventilated versus not ventilated (18.3% vs 9.9%), and with septic shock or multiple organ dysfunction/failure versus those without dysfunction/failure (21.7% vs 11.5%). CONCLUSION: These updated data provide robust evidence that transfusion of convalescent plasma is safe in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and support the notion that earlier administration of plasma within the clinical course of COVID-19 is more likely to reduce mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Invest ; 130(9): 4791-4797, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525844

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDConvalescent plasma is the only antibody-based therapy currently available for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has robust historical precedence and sound biological plausibility. Although promising, convalescent plasma has not yet been shown to be safe as a treatment for COVID-19.METHODSThus, we analyzed key safety metrics after transfusion of ABO-compatible human COVID-19 convalescent plasma in 5000 hospitalized adults with severe or life-threatening COVID-19, with 66% in the intensive care unit, as part of the US FDA expanded access program for COVID-19 convalescent plasma.RESULTSThe incidence of all serious adverse events (SAEs), including mortality rate (0.3%), in the first 4 hours after transfusion was <1%. Of the 36 reported SAEs, there were 25 reported incidences of related SAEs, including mortality (n = 4), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (n = 7), transfusion-related acute lung injury (n = 11), and severe allergic transfusion reactions (n = 3). However, only 2 of 36 SAEs were judged as definitely related to the convalescent plasma transfusion by the treating physician. The 7-day mortality rate was 14.9%.CONCLUSIONGiven the deadly nature of COVID-19 and the large population of critically ill patients included in these analyses, the mortality rate does not appear excessive. These early indicators suggest that transfusion of convalescent plasma is safe in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT04338360.FUNDINGMayo Clinic, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (75A50120C00096), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1TR002377), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (5R35HL139854 and R01 HL059842), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (5T32DK07352), Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (PDF-532926-2019), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (R21 AI145356, R21 AI152318, and AI152078), Schwab Charitable Fund, United Health Group, National Basketball Association, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, and Octapharma USA Inc.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/efeitos adversos , Imunização Passiva/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Segurança , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Reação Transfusional/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda Relacionada à Transfusão/epidemiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda Relacionada à Transfusão/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adulto Jovem
16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(6): ofaa167, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548203

RESUMO

We report 8 cases of coccidioidomycosis associated with ruxolitinib treatment. Among 135 patients living in the coccidioidal-endemic region receiving ruxolitinib, 5 cases were diagnosed after starting and 4 had extrathoracic dissemination. Periodic serological screening while on ruxolitinib is warranted for patients residing in the coccidioidal-endemic region.

17.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 41(1): 42-52, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000283

RESUMO

Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by the geographically restricted dimorphic fungus, Coccidioides. Coccidioidomycosis occurs endemically in the southwestern and western United States, mainly in focused regions of Arizona and California where the incidence is highest, and in Central and South America. Patients with impaired immunity, especially those with impaired cellular immunity, are at higher risk of severe and disseminated disease. In this review, we describe the fungal ecology and mycology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and normal immune defenses to Coccidioides as well as address current concepts in diagnosis, treatment, and continued care of patients with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. We also present and answer our most frequently asked questions regarding patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.


Assuntos
Coccidioides/isolamento & purificação , Coccidioidomicose/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Coccidioidomicose/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/complicações , Estados Unidos
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(9): 2008-2012, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544210

RESUMO

The care of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis remains challenging. Such infections produce a variety of signs, symptoms, and serologic responses that cause morbidity in patients and concern in treating clinicians for the possibility of extrapulmonary dissemination. Illness may be due to ongoing fungal growth that produces acute inflammatory responses, resulting in tissue damage and necrosis, and for this, administering an antifungal drug may be of benefit. In contrast, convalescence may be prolonged by other immunologic reactions to infection, even after fungal replication has been arrested, and in those situations, antifungal therapy is unlikely to yield clinical improvement. In this presentation, we discuss what findings are clinical indicators of fungal growth and what other sequelae are not. Understanding these differences provides a rational management strategy for deciding when to continue, discontinue, or reinstitute antifungal treatments.


Assuntos
Coccidioidomicose , Dermatopatias , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Coccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Med Mycol ; 58(5): 626-631, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578560

RESUMO

Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal infection of the desert southwestern United States. Intact cellular immunity is critical to the control of this infection. A recently released reformulated spherulin antigen (Spherusol; Nielsen BioSciences, Inc.) was approved to detect delayed-type hypersensitivity, which implies the presence of cellular immunity, to Coccidioides species. We aimed to summarize our experience with this test in patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data for all patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis who had a Coccidioides (spherulin) skin test (CST) placed at our institution between January 1, 2015, and August 31, 2017. During the study period, 172 patients had a CST placed, and 122 met our inclusion criteria for proven or probable pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Of these 122, 88 (72.1%) had a positive CST result and 34 (27.9%) had a negative result. In the positive CST group, 74 of the 79 treated patients (93.7%) had antifungal treatment stopped, 1 of whom (1.4%) had relapsed infection. In contrast, 27 of the 33 treated patients in the negative CST group (81.8%) had their antifungal treatment stopped, and none had a relapse. Seven patients overall (5.7%), all of whom had a positive CST, experienced mild local adverse reactions to the CST. Although previous controlled studies of CST showed sensitivity and specificity greater than 98%, our real-world experience with the CST showed lower rates of positivity. Negative CST results did not predict relapse with antifungal agent withdrawal.


Assuntos
Coccidioides , Coccidioidomicose/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Coccidioidina , Coccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Cutâneos/métodos , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...