Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 166
Filtrar
1.
Occup Environ Med ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We previously showed increased coal mining-associated risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using additional survey data, we sought to delineate this risk further. METHODS: We used data from two cross-sectional, random-digit-dial, population-based surveys (males;≥50 years) in selected counties in the Appalachian region of the inland, mid-Atlantic USA with elevated pneumoconiosis mortality. Surveys ascertained age, smoking, coal mining and non-coal silica exposure jobs. In a subset, we surveyed ergonomic exposures, scored by intensity. We queried diagnosis of RA, corticosteroid use, and, in a subset, use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Multivariable logistic regression modelled RA risk (defined by glucocorticoid or DMARDs use) associated with coal mining employment, other silica exposure, smoking status, and age and ergonomic exposures. RESULTS: We analysed data for 2981 survey respondents (mean age 66.6 years; 15% current, 44% ex-smokers). The prevalence of glucocorticoid-treated and DMARD-treated RA was 11% and 4%, respectively. Glucocorticoid-treated RA was associated with coal mining (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.5 to 4.9) and non-coal mining silica exposure (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4). For DMARD-treated RA, the odds associated with coal mining and other silica remained elevated: OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.18, 4.5) and OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.51, 5.0), respectively. In the same model, the highest intensity ergonomic exposure also was associated with increased odds of RA (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.96 to 9.6). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a strong association between coal mining and other silica-exposing dusty trades and RA. Clinicians and insurers should consider occupational histories in the aetiology of RA.

2.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with SARS- CoV- 2 in health care workers (HCWs) challenges employee health services. METHODS: We analyzed telephone COVID-19 hotline data over eight weeks in 2021 during SARS- CoV- 2 Delta variant surge. We calculated COVID-19 case rates among persons-under-investigation (PUIs) for illness at two health care centers (HCs). RESULTS: There were 41 COVID-19 cases among the 285 PUIs (14.4%) at the study HC and 549 (16.9%) of 3244 at the comparison HC. At the study HC, 11.7% of vaccinated PUIs vs. 36.6% of unvaccinated PUIs were COVID-19 positive. The COVID-19 positivity rates among vaccinated and unvaccinated PUIs at the comparison HC were 16.1% and 33.3%, respectively. DISCUSSION: In the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant surge, COVID-19 test positivity rates among unvaccinated symptomatic HCWs are dramatically elevated. Aggressive testing of HCW PUIs is particularly critical during periods of disease upsurge.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Secondary metalworking carries exposure to relatively heavy levels of respirable particulate. We investigated the extent to which metalworking is associated with increased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), an established inflammatory biomarker. METHODS: We studied 80 metalworking factory employees in Kazakhstan. Informed by industrial hygiene data, we categorized them into three groups: (1) machine operators (41%); (2) welders or assemblers (33%); and (3) all others, including administrative and ancillary staff (26%). Participants completed questionnaires covering occupational history, smoking, home particulate sources, respiratory symptoms, and comorbidities. We measured exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FeNO), and spirometric function. We used mixed-effects modeling to test the associations of occupational group with FeNO, adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: The median age was 51.5 (interquartile range 20.5) years; 7% were women. Occupational group (p < 0.01), daily current cigarette smoking intensity (p < 0.05), and age (p < 0.05), each was statistically associated with FeNO. Welders, or assemblers (Group 2), who had intermediate particulate exposure, manifested significantly higher exhaled FeNO compared to machinists (Group 1, with the highest particulate exposure) and all others (Groups 3, the lowest particulate): adjusted Group 2 mean 44.8 ppb (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.8-55.9) vs. Group 1 24.6 ppb (95% 20.5-28.7) and Group 3, 24.3 ppb (95% CI 17.7-30.9). Secondhand smoking and height were not associated with FeNO. CONCLUSION: In a metalworking industrial cohort, welders/assemblers manifested significantly higher levels of FeNO. This may reflect respiratory tract inflammation associated with airborne exposures specific to this group.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21219, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707188

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to characterize personal exposure of workers to respirable particulate matter (PM) generated in cutting and other fabrication activities when fabricating acryl polymer/aluminium trihydroxide synthetic countertops. We collected 29 personal full-day samples of respirable PM from three workers in a small private workshop. We tested differences between- and within-worker variances of mass concentrations using the Kruskall-Wallis test. We used segmented regression to test the means and medians 15-min interval concentrations changes over time and to identify a breakpoint. Respirable PM concentrations ranged nearly 100-fold, from 0.280 to 25.4 mg/m3 with a median of 2.0 mg/m3 (1-min concentrations from 13,920 data points). There were no statistical difference in daily median or geometric mean concentrations among workers, whereas the concentrations were significantly higher on days with three versus two workers present. The 15-min median concentrations (n = 974 measures) increased until 2.35 h (beta 0.177; p < 0.05), representing a 0.70 mg increase in exposure per hour. This was followed by a plateau in concentrations. The high levels of respirable PM we observed among workers fabricating aluminium trihydroxide-containing synthetic countertops highlight an unmet early prevention need.

6.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 16(1): 29, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Household SARS-COV-2 contact constitutes a high-risk exposure for health care workers (HCWs). Cycle threshold (Ct) of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing provides an estimate of COVID-19 viral load, which can inform clinical and workplace management. We assessed whether Ct values differed between HCWs with COVID-19 with and without household exposure. METHODS: We analyzed HCW COVID-19 cases whose Ct data could be compared. We defined low Ct at a cut-point approximating a viral load of 4.6 × 106 copies per ml. Logistic regression tested the association of household exposure and symptoms at diagnosis with a low Ct value. RESULTS: Of 77 HCWs with COVID-19, 20 were household exposures cases and 34 were symptomatic at testing (7 were both household-exposed and symptomatic at testing). Among household exposures, 9 of 20 (45%) manifested lower Ct values compared to 14 of 57 (25%) for all others. In a bivariate model, household exposure was not statistically associated with lower Ct (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.20; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.97-1.51). In multivariable modelling both household exposure (OR] 1.3; 95% CI 1.03-1.6) and symptoms at diagnosis (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.15-1.7) were associated with a low Ct value. DISCUSSION: Household exposure in HCWs with newly diagnosed COVID-19 was associated with lower Ct values, consistent with a higher viral load, supporting the hypothesis that contracting COVID-19 in that manner leads to a greater viral inoculum.

8.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 3(7): 466-474, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune (AI) conditions are associated with inorganic dust exposure. Many military activities are likely to entail inorganic dust exposures. We wished to identify associations between prior military dust exposure and RA and other AI conditions. METHODS: We studied persons from a roster of Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps personnel who had served in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn. We linked military occupational codes to a job exposure matrix assigning dust exposure likelihood. We used the Veterans Affairs Health Care System (VAHCS) electronic health care records to identify cases of RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), vasculitis, and inflammatory myositis. Generalized estimating equations modeled risk of RA and other AI conditions associated with dust exposure, taking into account military service branch, age at first VAHCS encounter, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and years of military service. RESULTS: Of 438 086 veterans (68% ever-smokers), 44% were classified with likely or somewhat likely dust exposure. Cases included 1139 cases with RA, 467 cases with SLE, and 180 cases with other AI diseases (SSc, vasculitis, or inflammatory myositis). Military dust exposure was associated with increased odds of RA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.003-1.20) and increased odds of SSc, vasculitis, or inflammatory myositis (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.14-1.34) but was protective for SLE (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.76-0.88). CONCLUSION: Dust exposure during past military service comprises an occupational and environmental risk factor for RA and other AI diseases. This is potentially relevant for prevention activities.

9.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(6): 528-531, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) experience increased occupational risk of contracting COVID-19, with temporal trends that might inform surveillance. METHODS: We analyzed data from a Veterans Affairs hospital-based COVID-19 worker telephone hotline collected over 40 weeks (2020). We calculated the proportion of COVID-19+ cases among persons-under-investigation (PUIs) for illness compared to rates from a nearby large university-based health care institution. RESULTS: We observed 740 PUIs, 65 (8.8%) COVID-19+. Time trends were similar at the study and comparison hospitals; only for the first of 10 four-week observation periods was the ratio for observed to expected COVID-19+ significant (P < 0.001). DISCUSSION: These data suggest that employee health COVID-19+ to PUI ratios could be utilized as a barometer of community trends. Pooling experience among heath care facilities may yield insights into occupational infectious disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Hospitais Universitários , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
10.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(6): 453-461, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768567

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We sought to determine if radiographic pneumoconiosis predicts abnormal gas exchange during exercise in coal mine workers with preserved resting lung function. METHODS: We analyzed data from former coal miners seen between 2006 and 2014 in a single clinic specializing in black lung evaluations. We limited the analysis to those with normal resting spirometry and an A-a gradient at peak exercise ≥10 mmHg. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate predictors of A-a gradient widened to >150% of the reference value. We focused on chest radiographs consistent with pneumoconiosis, taking into account higher silica exposure mining activities and years underground, and adjusting for cigarette smoking, obesity, and coronary artery disease. RESULTS: Of 5507 miners, we analyzed data for 742 subjects with normal spirometry and all key clinical variables available, of whom 372 (50.1%) had radiographic evidence of pneumoconiosis. All but 21 had small opacity profusion of less than 2/1. The median A-a gradient at peak exercise was 108% of reference value (interquartile range, 81%-141%). In the multivariable analysis, radiographic pneumoconiosis was associated with increased odds of widened A-a gradient (odds ratio [OR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.7). Limited to 660 subjects with normal diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, the odds were similarly increased (OR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.5-3.6). DISCUSSION: Among coal miners with preserved resting lung function, radiographic evidence of early pneumoconiosis more than doubled the odds of abnormal exercise physiology. Impairment in pneumoconiosis occurs in early disease and may only be evident on exercise testing.


Assuntos
Antracose/fisiopatologia , Minas de Carvão , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Radiografia , Idoso , Antracose/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Valores de Referência , Descanso/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espirometria
11.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(4): 251-257, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking and occupational exposures each have been reported to increase the risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a disease previously considered of unknown origin. We investigated the risk of IPF mortality associated with combined smoking and occupational exposures. METHODS: A registry study of Swedish construction workers (N = 389,132), linked baseline smoking and occupational data with registry data on cause of death and hospital care diagnoses. Occupation was classified by the likelihood of exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, or fumes using a job-exposure matrix. Those likely exposed to asbestos or silica were excluded from the analysis. Age-adjusted relative risks [RRs] were calculated using Poisson regression. Follow-up observation began at age 40 and ended at age 89. RESULTS: Heavy smokers at baseline who were exposed to inorganic dusts during their working life had an increased risk of IPF mortality (RR 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.60), while there was no statistically increased risk in the other exposure groups. There were dose-response relationships between smoking at baseline and IPF mortality among both unexposed and dust exposed workers, with similar risk for dust exposed and unexposed, except among baseline heavy smokers, where workers exposed to inorganic dust manifested the highest risk (RR 4.22; 95% CI 2.69-6.60). Excluding workers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema did not affect the results substantively. CONCLUSION: A clear dose-response relationship was seen between smoking at baseline and IPF, supporting a causal relationship. Occupational exposure to inorganic dusts, excluding silica and asbestos, was associated with increased risk of IPF in baseline heavy current smokers.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Indústria da Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia
12.
Am J Transplant ; 21(2): 815-824, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794295

RESUMO

Disability, depressive symptoms, and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL) are common among patients with life-threatening respiratory compromise. We sought to determine if primary graft dysfunction (PGD), a syndrome of acute lung injury, attenuates improvements in patient-reported outcomes after transplantation. In a single-center prospective cohort, we assessed disability, depressive symptoms, and HRQL before and at 3- to 6-month intervals after lung transplantation. We estimated the magnitude of change in disability, depressive symptoms, and HRQL with hierarchical segmented linear mixed-effects models. Among 251 lung transplant recipients, 50 developed PGD Grade 3. Regardless of PGD severity, participants had improvements in disability and depressive symptoms, as well as generic-physical, generic-mental, respiratory-specific, and health-utility HRQL, exceeding 1- to 4-fold the minimally clinically important difference across all instruments. Participants with PGD Grade 3 had a lower magnitude of improvement in generic-physical HRQL and health-utility than in all other participants. Among participants with PGD Grade 3, prolonged mechanical ventilation was associated with greater attenuation of improvements. PGD remains a threat to the 2 primary aims of lung transplantation, extending survival and improving HRQL. Attenuation of improvement persists long after hospital discharge. Future studies should assess if interventions can mitigate the impact of PGD on patient-reported outcomes.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(2): 238-246, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090904

RESUMO

Rationale: Few longitudinal studies have assessed the relationship between occupational exposures and lung-function decline in the general population with a sufficiently long follow-up.Objectives: To examine the potential association in two large cohorts: the ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and the SAPALDIA (Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults).Methods: General-population samples of individuals aged 18 to 62 were randomly selected in 1991-1993 and followed up approximately 10 and 20 years later. Spirometry (without bronchodilation) was performed at each visit. Coded complete job histories during follow-up visits were linked to a job-exposure matrix, generating cumulative exposure estimates for 12 occupational exposures. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were jointly modeled in linear mixed-effects models, fitted in a Bayesian framework, taking into account age and smoking.Results: A total of 40,024 lung-function measurements from 17,833 study participants were analyzed. We found accelerated declines in FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and metals (FEV1 = -15.1 ml, -14.4 ml, and -18.7 ml, respectively; and FEV1/FVC ratio = -0.52%, -0.43%, and -0.36%, respectively; per 25 intensity-years of exposure). These declines were comparable in magnitude with those associated with long-term smoking. No effect modification by sex or smoking status was identified. Findings were similar between the ECRHS and the SAPALDIA cohorts.Conclusions: Our results greatly strengthen the evidence base implicating occupation, independent of smoking, as a risk factor for lung-function decline. This highlights the need to prevent or control these exposures in the workplace.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital
14.
J Anal Toxicol ; 45(3): 322-324, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672803

RESUMO

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is misused as an intoxicant, either alone or concurrently with other substances. Because GHB is illegal, the precursor chemicals 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone are also misused for the same effect, either through pre-ingestion alteration or endogenous metabolism to GHB. We describe a case of a 50-year-old man with a history of polysubstance misuse who experienced an overdose of GHB from gamma-butyrolactone ingestion. The patient also co-ingested a common industrial solvent, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). This co-ingested substance raised theoretical concern of metabolism to a GHB congener, underscoring that the emergence of new psychoactive substance use patterns requires ongoing vigilance and toxicologic confirmation.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona , Oxibato de Sódio , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirrolidinonas , Solventes
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1894, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) remains a leading occupational hazard in firefighters, but cigarette and waterpipe smoking likely contributes to the other sources of CO in such workers. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of self-reported active cigarette smoking, waterpipe use, and potential job-related sources of CO to the level of exhaled CO in firefighters. METHODS: We surveyed the personnel of 18 fire stations (N = 842), median age 28 years, who participated at an annual screening not timed to coincide with recent firefighting. We surveyed smoking and waterpipe history, exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), use of coal for health and biomass for cooking and time since last exposure to firefighting in the workplace. We measured exhaled CO with an instantaneous reading device (piCO Smokerlyzer). We used multivariable regression models to test the association of time since last smoked cigarette (≤12 h) and waterpipe (≤12 h) and time since last fire (≤6 h) with exhaled CO. RESULTS: In analysis limited to men (93.5% of all surveyed), 42% were daily cigarette; 1% were waterpipe smokers; 94% were exposed to SHS, 29% used coal for heating and 4% used biomass for cooking. The median CO was 4 (interquartile range 3;8) ppm. Age (beta 0.74 per 10 years, p < 0.001), use of biomass fuel for cooking (beta 1.38, p = 0.05), cigarette smoked in the last 12 h (beta 8.22, p < 0.001), waterpipe smoked in the last 12 h (beta 23.10, p < 0.001) were statistically associated with CO, but not time since last fire (≤6 h) (beta 4.12, p = 0.12). There was a significant interaction between older age and firefighting for exhaled CO (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette and recent waterpipe smoking are associated with increased exhaled CO in firefighters. Firefighting itself was a less potent contributor to exhaled CO when measured at an annual screening, but an age interaction was manifested.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono , Bombeiros , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adulto , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fumar , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
16.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043057

RESUMO

Background: Despite well-documented case series of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), epidemiological data delineating relative contributions of risk factors are sparse. To address this, we estimated HP risk in a case-referent study of occupational and nonoccupational exposures. Methods: We recruited cases of HP by ICD-9 codes from an integrated healthcare delivery system (IHCDS) and a tertiary medical care centre. We drew referents, matched for age and sex, from the IHCDS. Participants underwent comprehensive, structured telephone interviews eliciting details of occupational and home environmental exposures. We employed a hierarchical analytic approach for data reduction based on the false discovery rate method within clusters of exposures. We measured lung function and selected biomarkers in a subset of participants. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate exposure-associated odds ratios (ORs) and population attributable fractions (PAFs) for HP. Results: We analysed data for 192 HP cases (148 IHCDS; 44 tertiary care) and 229 referents. Occupational exposures combined more than doubled the odds of developing HP (OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.73-4.14) with a PAF of 34% (95% CI 21-46%); nonoccupational bird exposure also doubled the HP odds (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.13-3.60), with a PAF of 12% (3-21%). Lung function and selected biomarkers did not substantively modify the risk estimates on the basis of questionnaire data alone. Discussion: In a case-referent approach evaluating HP risk, identifiable exposures accounted, on an epidemiological basis, for approximately two in three cases of disease; conversely, for one in three, the risk factors for disease remained elusive.

17.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(11): 889-891, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle amplifications until detection, the cycle threshold (Ct), could help inform return to work (RTW) strategies for health care workers (HCWs) recovering from COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Sequential Ct data from COVID-19 nasal pharyngeal (NP) RT-PCR testing in all COVID-19 positive HCWs at a single institution. Analysis of Ct in relation to time until negative testing for RTW clearance. RESULTS: Data for 12 employees showed that time elapsed until RT-PCR test-based RTW clearance ranged from 7 to 57 days (median, 34.5 days). Lower initial Ct correlated with the total time elapsed until clearance (r = -0.80; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Considering the RT-PCR Ct, which correlates with the estimated viral load, may help inform RTW planning and decision making beyond solely relying on dichotomized positive/negative results.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pessoal de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Retorno ao Trabalho , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral
18.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(12): 1570-1575, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649216

RESUMO

Rationale: The use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is associated with increased pneumonia risk, but the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) associated with ICS is not characterized.Objectives: The aim was to test the hypothesis that the use of ICS increases the risk of IPD.Methods: Cases were persons 20-65 years of age included in a Swedish national registry of invasive infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae classified as any IPD as well as the subset of IPD with pneumonia. The case index date was the day the infection was diagnosed. Six control subjects for each case (matched for sex, age, and region) were selected from the Swedish National Population Registry and were assigned the index date of their corresponding case. Current and past users of ICS were defined by the last prescriptions dispensed within 60 or 61-365 days of the index date. Nonusers were defined as those with no dispensed prescription the last 365 days. Current users were characterized by use of fluticasone or budesonide. We used conditional logistic analysis, including matching and covariates, to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of IPD, IPD with pneumonia, and IPD without pneumonia associated with current or past use of ICS.Results: Current use of ICS increased the risk for IPD and IPD with pneumonia (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.39-2.10 and OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.53-2.47, respectively), but there was no statistical association between current use of ICS and IPD without pneumonia (OR, 1.18; 95% CI 0.78-1.80). Past use of ICS increased the risk for IPD and IPD with pneumonia but not for IPD without pneumonia. Among current ICS users, the odds for IPD were similar for budesonide (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57) and fluticasone (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.90). Among current ICS users, the odds for IPD with pneumonia were slightly higher but of similar magnitude for both budesonide and for fluticasone.Conclusions: ICS use is associated with an increased risk of IPD and IPD with pneumonia. The risk is driven by IPD with pneumonia. We found similar risks for budesonide and fluticasone.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Fluticasona/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Thorax ; 75(8): 669-678, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation and related medications are associated with pathobiological changes that can induce frailty, a state of decreased physiological reserve. Causes of persistent or emergent frailty after lung transplantation, and whether such transplant-related frailty is associated with key outcomes, are unknown. METHODS: Frailty and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were prospectively measured repeatedly for up to 3 years after lung transplantation. Frailty, quantified by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), was tested as a time-dependent binary and continuous predictor. The association of transplant-related frailty with HRQL and mortality was evaluated using mixed effects and Cox regression models, respectively, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis, and for body mass index and lung function as time-dependent covariates. We tested the association between measures of body composition, malnutrition, renal dysfunction and immunosuppressants on the development of frailty using mixed effects models with time-dependent predictors and lagged frailty outcomes. RESULTS: Among 259 adults (56% male; mean age 55.9±12.3 years), transplant-related frailty was associated with lower HRQL. Frailty was also associated with a 2.5-fold higher mortality risk (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.21 to 5.23). Further, each 1-point worsening in SPPB was associated, on average, with a 13% higher mortality risk (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.23). Secondarily, we found that sarcopenia, underweight and obesity, malnutrition, and renal dysfunction were associated with the development of frailty after transplant. CONCLUSIONS: Transplant-related frailty is associated with lower HRQL and higher mortality in lung recipients. Abnormal body composition, malnutrition and renal dysfunction may contribute to the development of frailty after transplant. Confirming the role of these potential contributors and developing interventions to mitigate frailty may improve lung transplant success.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...