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1.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-6, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530163

RESUMO

Objectives: Although providing care to a person with dementia can have a negative impact, caregivers may also perceive certain benefits and gains through the tasks they perform. Our aim here was to study caregiver gains within the framework of positive psychology, exploring the predictive power of character strengths, while controlling for sociodemographic variables and variables related to the dementia and caring. Methods: A sample of 105 main caregivers of people diagnosed with dementia completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Gain in Alzheimer care Instrument and the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Correlational analysis and hierarchical regression were conducted. Results: Eighteen character strengths were positively and significantly correlated with gain scores. Regression analysis indicated that level of education was negatively related to gain scores. In addition, hope was the character strength which best predicted the gain score, such that caregivers who scored higher on hope tended to perceive greater benefits from their role. Conclusion: The results suggest that hope may play an important role in relation to the perceived gains of caregiving. Intervention programmes based on positive psychology and aimed at enhancing character strengths, especially hope, could help caregivers to identify the positive aspects of their caring role.

2.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 36: 176-180, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383436

RESUMO

The present study examines the effect of the Mindfulness and Emotional Intelligence Program (PINEP), adapted to the virtual learning platform Moodle where participants receive Mindfulness training in 12 sessions lasting an hour and a half. The sample consists of 89 people, assigned randomly to a control group on the waiting list and to an experimental group that undertakes the training. The results indicate that the participants who completed PINEP showed improvement in the variables of health, empathy and mindfulness, in comparison with the participants of the group on the waiting list.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Atenção Plena , Realidade Virtual , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Humanos , Atenção Plena/educação , Atenção Plena/métodos
3.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(2): 204-209, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185227

RESUMO

Background: Although there is growing research on the excessive use of Facebook and its correlates, most studies to date are not directly comparable or generalizable to the overall population as their samples are often limited to students and they use different assessment tools. The first aim of our study was to develop a Spanish version of the Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire (FIQ-S), an instrument which emphasises the social components and consequences of excessive Facebook use. Second, we aimed to examine its psychometric properties: factor structure, reliability and external validity. Methods: Participants were 567 Spanish adults who completed an online battery of questionnaires, including variables related to addictive behaviours. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, using a cross-validation strategy, supported a one-factor structure. The composite reliability value was adequate. Evidence of external validity was provided via correlational analysis, showing a negative association with self-control and positive associations with time spent using social networking sites, problematic mobile phone use, internet addiction, phubbing, fear of missing out and depression. Conclusions: Results are consistent with the original validation study and confirm the addictive component of the construct measured and highlight the impact of Facebook abuse on mental health


Antecedentes: a pesar de que está aumentando la investigación sobre el uso excesivo de Facebook y sus correlatos, la mayoría de los estudios no son directamente comparables o generalizables a la población general ya que sus muestras suelen ser de estudiantes y usan diferentes instrumentos de evaluación. El primer objetivo es desarrollar la versión española del Cuestionario de Intrusión del Facebook (FIQ-S). Este instrumento enfatiza los componentes y consecuencias sociales del uso excesivo del Facebook. El segundo objetivo es examinar sus propiedades psicométricas: estructura factorial, fiabilidad y validez externa. Método: los participantes fueron 567 adultos españoles, quienes completaron una batería de cuestionarios online. Resultados: los análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios, con validación cruzada, muestran una estructura unifactorial. La fiabilidad compuesta es adecuada. Los análisis de las correlaciones muestran evidencias de validez externa, encontrándose asociaciones negativas con autocontrol y positivas con tiempo de uso de las redes sociales, uso problemático del teléfono móvil, phubbing, adicción a internet, miedo a perderse algo y depresión. Conclusiones: los resultados son consistentes con el estudio de validación de la versión original y confirman el componente adictivo del constructo evaluado. Además, se destaca el impacto del uso excesivo de Facebook en salud mental


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Aditivo , Autorrelato , Mídias Sociais , Estudos Transversais/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha , Tradução
4.
Psicothema ; 31(2): 204-209, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is growing research on the excessive use of Facebook and its correlates, most studies to date are not directly comparable or generalizable to the overall population as their samples are often limited to students and they use different assessment tools. The first aim of our study was to develop a Spanish version of the Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire (FIQ-S), an instrument which emphasises the social components and consequences of excessive Facebook use. Second, we aimed to examine its psychometric properties: factor structure, reliability and external validity. METHODS: Participants were 567 Spanish adults who completed an online battery of questionnaires, including variables related to addictive behaviours. RESULTS: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, using a cross-validation strategy, supported a one-factor structure. The composite reliability value was adequate. Evidence of external validity was provided via correlational analysis, showing a negative association with self-control and positive associations with time spent using social networking sites, problematic mobile phone use, internet addiction, phubbing, fear of missing out and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with the original validation study and confirm the addictive component of the construct measured and highlight the impact of Facebook abuse on mental health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Autorrelato , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(1): 24-29, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181929

RESUMO

Background: The literature is replete with evidence regarding the impact of psychological distress in the workplace. Traditionally, worksite interventions to enhance mental health have been carried out in groups. This study aimed to implement a brief individual program in the workplace through the combination of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Public Administration employees. Method: One hundred and six public employees from a Spanish city council completed pretest measures and forty-three met the inclusion criteria. The participants´ scores on distress, burnout, psychological flexibility, depression, anxiety and stress were examined in a pretest-posttest design with a waiting list control group and random assignment. Thirty-eight employees completed the intervention (FACT group= 19; Waiting list control group= 19). The intervention lasted three individual sessions using a protocol with the processes of FAP and ACT, resulting in a protocol named FACT. Results: The FACT group showed statistically significant improvements in distress, burnout, psychological flexibility and anxiety compared with the waiting list control group. Conclusion: These results provide a breakthrough and initial support for the inclusion of FAP in the workplace along with the integration with brief ACT in individual sessions to improve employees' mental health


Antecedentes: la literatura está repleta de evidencia sobre las repercusiones del malestar psicológico en el trabajo. Tradicionalmente, las intervenciones para mejorar la salud mental en el trabajo se han llevado a cabo en grupo. El objetivo de este estudio fue implementar un programa individual breve en el entorno laboral, a través de la combinación de la Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional (FAP) y la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT) para empleados de la Administración pública. Método: ciento seis funcionarios de un ayuntamiento español rellenaron las medidas pretest y cuarenta y tres cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Las puntuaciones de los participantes en malestar, burnout, flexibilidad psicológica, depresión, ansiedad y estrés fueron analizadas en un diseño experimental pre-post con un grupo de control en lista de espera y asignación aleatoria. Treinta y ocho empleados completaron la intervención (grupo FACT= 19; grupo control en lista de espera= 19). Resultados: el grupo FACT tras tres sesiones mostró mejoras estadísticamente significativas en malestar, ansiedad, burnout y flexibilidad psicológica en comparación con el grupo de control en lista de espera. Conclusión: estos resultados proporcionan una innovación y apoyo inicial para la incorporación de FAP en el entorno laboral, además de su integración con ACT breve para mejorar la salud de los empleados


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Esgotamento Profissional/terapia , Psicoterapia , Setor Público , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Psicothema ; 31(1): 24-29, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature is replete with evidence regarding the impact of psychological distress in the workplace. Traditionally, worksite interventions to enhance mental health have been carried out in groups. This study aimed to implement a brief individual program in the workplace through the combination of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Public Administration employees. METHOD: One hundred and six public employees from a Spanish city council completed pretest measures and forty-three met the inclusion criteria. The participants´ scores on distress, burnout, psychological flexibility, depression, anxiety and stress were examined in a pretest-posttest design with a waiting list control group and random assignment. Thirty-eight employees completed the intervention (FACT group= 19; Waiting list control group= 19). The intervention lasted three individual sessions using a protocol with the processes of FAP and ACT, resulting in a protocol named FACT. RESULTS: The FACT group showed statistically significant improvements in distress, burnout, psychological flexibility and anxiety compared with the waiting list control group. CONCLUSION: These results provide a breakthrough and initial support for the inclusion of FAP in the workplace along with the integration with brief ACT in individual sessions to improve employees’ mental health.


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Estresse Ocupacional/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia , Setor Público , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410552

RESUMO

Purpose: Karate is a martial arts discipline which is widely practiced in the Western world as a form of self-defense, as well as a discipline to achieve physical and mental balance. However, little is known with respect to its specific psychobiological effects, particularly in relation to the influence that it may exert on the endocrine system. Thus, in the present study, we examined the effects of karate on several hormonal parameters of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid axes in long-time practitioners. Methods: Twenty-two healthy volunteer subjects (12 experimental and 10 controls) participated in the study. Experimental subjects were karate players with a minimum of 3 years of practice in this discipline. Blood samples for the quantification of hormonal parameters were taken in both groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed for each variable in order to analyze the differences between groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in cortisol and thyroid hormones, with the karate group showing lower levels of these hormones as compared to control. Conclusions: These findings, therefore, reveal that long-term karate practice is associated with a significant endocrine modulation, which suggests interesting psychobiological and clinical implications. Further research is needed to verify these preliminary results, as well as properly assessing its possible use as a psychosomatic intervention tool.

8.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 30(4): 449-454, nov. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178702

RESUMO

Background: Phubbing is an increasingly common behavior that involves using a smartphone in a social setting of two or more people and interacting with the phone rather than with the other people. Research to date on phubbing has measured it using different scales or single questions, and therefore standard measures with appropriate psychometric properties are needed to improve its assessment. The aim of our study was to develop a Spanish version of the Phubbing Scale and to examine its psychometric properties: factor structure, reliability, and concurrent validity. Method: Participants were 759 Spanish adults between 18 and 68 years of age. They completed an online survey. Results: The results support a structure that is consistent with the original validation study, with two factors: Communication Disturbance and Phone Obsession. Internal consistency was found to be adequate. Evidence of concurrent validity was provided via a hierarchical regression model that showed positive associations with measures of internet addiction, Facebook intrusion, and fear of missing out. Conclusions: These results indicate that the Spanish version of the Phubbing Scale exhibits appropriate psychometric properties


Antecedentes: el incremento del uso de los teléfonos móviles ha derivado en el incremento del phubbing, que se define como la conducta de ignorar a otras personas durante una interacción social por el uso del teléfono móvil. El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar y validar la escala de Phubbing en su versión española y examinar sus propiedades psicométricas: estructura factorial, fiabilidad y validez concurrente. Método: se administró una batería de tests a 759 adultos españoles entre 18 y 68 años. Resultados: los resultados mostraron una estructura de dos factores consistente con la versión original: Disrupción de la comunicación y Obsesión con el teléfono móvil. La consistencia interna fue adecuada y las evidencias de validez concurrente, mediante regresión jerárquica, mostraron correlaciones positivas con medidas de adicción a Internet, adicción a Facebook y miedo a perderse algo (FoMO). Conclusiones: la escala de Phubbing en su versión española muestra adecuadas propiedades psicométricas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Medo , Internet , Testes Psicológicos , Smartphone , Estudos Transversais , Psicometria , Linguagem , Mídias Sociais
9.
Psicothema ; 30(4): 449-454, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phubbing is an increasingly common behavior that involves using a smartphone in a social setting of two or more people and interacting with the phone rather than with the other people. Research to date on phubbing has measured it using different scales or single questions, and therefore standard measures with appropriate psychometric properties are needed to improve its assessment. The aim of our study was to develop a Spanish version of the Phubbing Scale and to examine its psychometric properties: factor structure, reliability, and concurrent validity. METHOD: Participants were 759 Spanish adults between 18 and 68 years of age. They completed an online survey. RESULTS: The results support a structure that is consistent with the original validation study, with two factors: Communication Disturbance and Phone Obsession. Internal consistency was found to be adequate. Evidence of concurrent validity was provided via a hierarchical regression model that showed positive associations with measures of internet addiction, Facebook intrusion, and fear of missing out. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the Spanish version of the Phubbing Scale exhibits appropriate psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Medo , Internet , Testes Psicológicos , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Mídias Sociais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046332

RESUMO

Karate is a Japanese martial arts system with potential physical and psychological benefits. However, karate has been scarcely investigated from a psychobiological perspective, and its effects on the immune system remain virtually unknown. We designed the present study with the aim of analyzing the effects of karate practice on immunological parameters. 27 healthy male volunteer subjects participated in the study, 15 in the experimental group and 12 in the control. Experimental subjects were all karate players who had practiced this martial art for a minimum of three years attending regular lessons at a karate training center, in the evening, two to three days per week. Blood samples for the quantification of immunological parameters (total leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, IgG, IgA, and IgM) were taken in both groups. A t-test for independent groups was performed in each dependent variable; a value of p<0.05 was considered to be significant. Karate practitioners exhibited a significantly higher number of total leukocytes (p<0.02), monocytes (p<0.01), and lymphocytes (p<0.01), a higher percentage of monocytes (p<0.01), and greater serum concentrations of IgG (p<0.02) and IgM (p<0.01). Our findings show that long-term karate practice is related to a broad modulation of immune parameters, including total and specific leukocyte counts, as well as immunoglobulin concentrations. This peculiar immunomodulatory profile, apart from its psychobiological relevance, may have noteworthy clinical implications.

11.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(3): 937-962, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643157

RESUMO

Inconsistencies in the research findings on F-test robustness to variance heterogeneity could be related to the lack of a standard criterion to assess robustness or to the different measures used to quantify heterogeneity. In the present paper we use Monte Carlo simulation to systematically examine the Type I error rate of F-test under heterogeneity. One-way, balanced, and unbalanced designs with monotonic patterns of variance were considered. Variance ratio (VR) was used as a measure of heterogeneity (1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 2, 3, 5, and 9), the coefficient of sample size variation as a measure of inequality between group sizes (0.16, 0.33, and 0.50), and the correlation between variance and group size as an indicator of the pairing between them (1, .50, 0, -.50, and -1). Overall, the results suggest that in terms of Type I error a VR above 1.5 may be established as a rule of thumb for considering a potential threat to F-test robustness under heterogeneity with unequal sample sizes.


Assuntos
Análise de Variância , Método de Monte Carlo , Tamanho da Amostra , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
12.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2558, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618979

RESUMO

This paper analyzes current practices in psychology in the use of research methods and data analysis procedures (DAP) and aims to determine whether researchers are now using more sophisticated and advanced DAP than were employed previously. We reviewed empirical research published recently in prominent journals from the USA and Europe corresponding to the main psychological categories of Journal Citation Reports and examined research methods, number of studies, number and type of DAP, and statistical package. The 288 papers reviewed used 663 different DAP. Experimental and correlational studies were the most prevalent, depending on the specific field of psychology. Two-thirds of the papers reported a single study, although those in journals with an experimental focus typically described more. The papers mainly used parametric tests for comparison and statistical techniques for analyzing relationships among variables. Regarding the former, the most frequently used procedure was ANOVA, with mixed factorial ANOVA being the most prevalent. A decline in the use of non-parametric analysis was observed in relation to previous research. Relationships among variables were most commonly examined using regression models, with hierarchical regression and mediation analysis being the most prevalent procedures. There was also a decline in the use of stepwise regression and an increase in the use of structural equation modeling, confirmatory factor analysis, and hierarchical linear modeling. Overall, the results show that recent empirical studies published in journals belonging to the main areas of psychology are employing more varied and advanced statistical techniques of greater computational complexity.

13.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 29(4): 552-557, nov. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167765

RESUMO

Background: The robustness of F-test to non-normality has been studied from the 1930s through to the present day. However, this extensive body of research has yielded contradictory results, there being evidence both for and against its robustness. This study provides a systematic examination of F-test robustness to violations of normality in terms of Type I error, considering a wide variety of distributions commonly found in the health and social sciences. Method: We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study involving a design with three groups and several known and unknown distributions. The manipulated variables were: Equal and unequal group sample sizes; group sample size and total sample size; coefficient of sample size variation; shape of the distribution and equal or unequal shapes of the group distributions; and pairing of group size with the degree of contamination in the distribution. Results: The results showed that in terms of Type I error the F-test was robust in 100% of the cases studied, independently of the manipulated conditions (AU)


Antecedentes: las consecuencias de la violación de la normalidad sobre la robustez del estadístico F han sido estudiadas desde 1930 y siguen siendo de interés en la actualidad. Sin embargo, aunque la investigación ha sido extensa, los resultados son contradictorios, encontrándose evidencia a favor y en contra de su robustez. El presente estudio presenta un análisis sistemático de la robustez del estadístico F en términos de error de Tipo I ante violaciones de la normalidad, considerando una amplia variedad de distribuciones frecuentemente encontradas en ciencias sociales y de la salud. Método: se ha realizado un estudio de simulación Monte Carlo considerando un diseño de tres grupos y diferentes distribuciones conocidas y no conocidas. Las variables manipuladas han sido: igualdad o desigualdad del tamaño de los grupos, tamaño muestral total y de los grupos; coeficiente de variación del tamaño muestral; forma de la distribución e igualdad o desigualdad de la forma en los grupos; y emparejamiento entre el tamaño muestral con el grado de contaminación en la distribución. Resultados: los resultados muestran que el estadístico F es robusto en términos de error de Tipo I en el 100% de los casos estudiados, independientemente de las condiciones manipuladas (AU)


Assuntos
Análise de Variância , Psicometria/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Distribuições Estatísticas , Método de Monte Carlo , Amostragem por Conglomerados , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Teoria da Probabilidade
14.
Psicothema ; 29(4): 552-557, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The robustness of F-test to non-normality has been studied from the 1930s through to the present day. However, this extensive body of research has yielded contradictory results, there being evidence both for and against its robustness. This study provides a systematic examination of F-test robustness to violations of normality in terms of Type I error, considering a wide variety of distributions commonly found in the health and social sciences. METHOD: We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study involving a design with three groups and several known and unknown distributions. The manipulated variables were: Equal and unequal group sample sizes; group sample size and total sample size; coefficient of sample size variation; shape of the distribution and equal or unequal shapes of the group distributions; and pairing of group size with the degree of contamination in the distribution. RESULTS: The results showed that in terms of Type I error the F-test was robust in 100% of the cases studied, independently of the manipulated conditions.


Assuntos
Análise de Variância , Método de Monte Carlo , Tamanho da Amostra
15.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1602, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28959227

RESUMO

Statistical analysis is crucial for research and the choice of analytical technique should take into account the specific distribution of data. Although the data obtained from health, educational, and social sciences research are often not normally distributed, there are very few studies detailing which distributions are most likely to represent data in these disciplines. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the frequency of appearance of the most common non-normal distributions in the health, educational, and social sciences. The search was carried out in the Web of Science database, from which we retrieved the abstracts of papers published between 2010 and 2015. The selection was made on the basis of the title and the abstract, and was performed independently by two reviewers. The inter-rater reliability for article selection was high (Cohen's kappa = 0.84), and agreement regarding the type of distribution reached 96.5%. A total of 262 abstracts were included in the final review. The distribution of the response variable was reported in 231 of these abstracts, while in the remaining 31 it was merely stated that the distribution was non-normal. In terms of their frequency of appearance, the most-common non-normal distributions can be ranked in descending order as follows: gamma, negative binomial, multinomial, binomial, lognormal, and exponential. In addition to identifying the distributions most commonly used in empirical studies these results will help researchers to decide which distributions should be included in simulation studies examining statistical procedures.

16.
Psychol Assess ; 29(10): e1-e12, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782980

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire and to examine its psychometric properties: factor structure, measurement invariance across samples, reliability, and concurrent validity. Participants consisted of 1,560 Spanish students between 12 and 18 years of age. The results support a structure based on 10 first-order factors (corresponding to stressors on the dimensions Home Life, School Performance, School Attendance, Romantic Relationships, Peer Pressure, Teacher Interaction, Future Uncertainty, School/Leisure Conflict, Financial Pressure, and Emerging Adult Responsibility) and 1 second-order factor that subsumes the first-order factors. This model was selected for measurement invariance testing because it showed good fit indexes and was more parsimonious than the first-order factor model. This structure was replicated across 2 independent samples from the same population, as well as across 3 age groups (early, middle, and late adolescence), showing acceptable fit for all groups. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were adequate. Evidence of concurrent validity was provided by positive associations with measures of stress manifestations, anxiety, and depression, and by a negative association with life satisfaction. The results indicate that the Spanish version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire is a suitable tool for assessing stressors in Spanish adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/instrumentação , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Behav Res Methods ; 48(4): 1621-1630, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26489849

RESUMO

In this study, we explored the accuracy of sphericity estimation and analyzed how the sphericity of covariance matrices may be affected when the latter are derived from simulated data. We analyzed the consequences that normal and nonnormal data generated from an unstructured population covariance matrix-with low (ε = .57) and high (ε = .75) sphericity-can have on the sphericity of the matrix that is fitted to these data. To this end, data were generated for four types of distributions (normal, slightly skewed, moderately skewed, and severely skewed or log-normal), four sample sizes (very small, small, medium, and large), and four values of the within-subjects factor (K = 4, 6, 8, and 10). Normal data were generated using the Cholesky decomposition of the correlation matrix, whereas the Vale-Maurelli method was used to generate nonnormal data. The results indicate the extent to which sphericity is altered by recalculating the covariance matrix on the basis of simulated data. We concluded that bias is greater with spherical covariance matrices, nonnormal distributions, and small sample sizes, and that it increases in line with the value of K. An interaction was also observed between sample size and K: With very small samples, the observed bias was greater as the value of K increased.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Viés , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
Span. j. psychol ; 17(1): e59.1-e59.10, ene.-dic. 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-130471

RESUMO

The present study analyzes the profiles of boys and girls, considering gender, in the early stages of adolescence in the variables of character strengths, attitudes toward diversity and violence, and sexism. The aim is to explore the gender differences, whether the variables in each set differ from one another and whether these differences are maintained in profiles for boys and girls. The participants were 527 students (mean age = 12.21 and SD = 0.53) from the city of Málaga (Spain). Profile analysis was used to analyze data. The results, using an alpha of 0.0021 for each contrast, indicate that boys and girls differ in their character strengths, particularly in the case of girls, whose prominent strengths relate to pro-social behavior and peer relationships, where Cohen´s d are higher than .30. Moreover, boys justify attitudes of violence to a greater extent (Cohen´s d from .44 to .81) and show greater agreement with sexist beliefs (d = .63). The research suggests that it would be of interest to encourage advancement in character strengths at this age (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Psicologia do Adolescente/tendências , Violência/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Relações Interpessoais , Gênero e Saúde
19.
Ansiedad estrés ; 20(1): 1-10, jun. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-122892

RESUMO

La meditación mindfulness implica concentrarse en el momento presente de forma activa y reflexiva. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos de esta forma de meditación sobre parámetros inmunitarios en pacientes con síntomas de ansiedad y depresión. Dieciséis pacientes fueron sometidos a un programa de meditación mindfulness de dos meses de duración. Diversos parámetros inmunitarios, como el recuento de leucocitos, linfocitos, monocitos, neutrófilos, eosinófilos y basófilos, así como los niveles de inmunoglobulinas (IgA, IgG, e IgM) y del complemento (C3 y C4), fueron evaluados antes y después del programa. Los resultados en el post-test revelaron un aumento significativo de las concentraciones de IgG, IgM, C3 y C4, así como un descenso en el recuento de monocitos. Estos hallazgos indican, por tanto, que la práctica de la meditación mindfulness parece ejercer una acción inmunomoduladora en pacientes con ansiedad y depresión, lo que sugiere interesantes implicaciones psicobiológicas y clínicas (AU)


Mindfulness meditation involves concentrating on the present moment in an active and reflexive way. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of this form of meditation on immune parameters in a sample of patients with depressive and anxious symptoms. Sixteen patients practiced mindfulness meditation for two months. Several immune parameters, including the total number of leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, as well as the levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) and complement (C3, C4), were measured before and after the program. At post-test, results revealed a significant increase in the concentrations of IgG, IgM, C3 and C4, as well as a decreased monocyte count. Therefore, these findings indicate that mindfulness meditation appears to exert an immunomodulatory action in patients with anxious and depressive symptoms, which suggests interesting psychobiological and clinical implications (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Depressão/terapia , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Meditação/métodos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico , Imunomodulação/imunologia
20.
Psicothema ; 26(2): 279-85, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24755032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the independent effect of skewness and kurtosis on the robustness of the linear mixed model (LMM), with the Kenward-Roger (KR) procedure, when group distributions are different, sample sizes are small, and sphericity cannot be assumed. METHODS: A Monte Carlo simulation study considering a split-plot design involving three groups and four repeated measures was performed. RESULTS: The results showed that when group distributions are different, the effect of skewness on KR robustness is greater than that of kurtosis for the corresponding values. Furthermore, the pairings of skewness and kurtosis with group size were found to be relevant variables when applying this procedure. CONCLUSIONS: With sample sizes of 45 and 60, KR is a suitable option for analyzing data when the distributions are: (a) mesokurtic and not highly or extremely skewed, and (b) symmetric with different degrees of kurtosis. With total sample sizes of 30, it is adequate when group sizes are equal and the distributions are: (a) mesokurtic and slightly or moderately skewed, and sphericity is assumed; and (b) symmetric with a moderate or high/extreme violation of kurtosis. Alternative analyses should be considered when the distributions are highly or extremely skewed and samples sizes are small.


Assuntos
Modelos Lineares , Demografia , Modelos Educacionais , Modelos Psicológicos , Tamanho da Amostra
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