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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030689, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is characterised by increased and disorganised bone remodelling affecting one or more skeletal sites. Complications include bone pain, deformity, deafness and pathological fractures. Mutations in sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) are strongly associated with the development of PDB. Bisphosphonate therapy can improve bone pain in PDB, but there is no evidence that treatment alters the natural history of PDB or prevents complications. The Zoledronate in the Prevention of Paget's disease trial (ZiPP) will determine if prophylactic therapy with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) can delay or prevent the development of PDB in people who carry SQSTM1 mutations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: People with a family history of PDB aged >30 years who test positive for SQSTM1 mutations are eligible to take part. At the baseline visit, participants will be screened for the presence of bone lesions by radionuclide bone scan. Biochemical markers of bone turnover will be measured and questionnaires completed to assess pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression. Participants will be randomised to receive a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg ZA or placebo and followed up annually for between 4 and 8 years at which point baseline assessments will be repeated. The primary endpoint will be new bone lesions assessed by radionuclide bone scan. Secondary endpoints will include changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, pain, HRQoL, anxiety, depression and PDB-related skeletal events. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Fife and Forth Valley Research Ethics Committee on 22 December 2008 (08/S0501/84). Following completion of the trial, a manuscript will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The results of this trial will inform clinical practice by determining if early intervention with ZA in presymptomatic individuals with SQSTM1 mutations can prevent or slow the development of bone lesions with an adverse event profile that is acceptable. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11616770.

2.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 148, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sensory disturbances in fibromyalgia extend beyond nociception. It has been proposed that imbalance in the mutual competition between painful input and non-painful sensory activity may, to a significant extent, account for the augmented subjective perception of pain. In this context, non-nociceptive somatosensory stimulation could arguably attenuate fibromyalgia symptoms by restoring the sensory balance. We specifically tested the effect of vibrotactile stimulation on symptom relief in fibromyalgia patients with a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover clinical trial. METHODS: Seventy-seven female patients were randomized and data from 63 valid cases were analyzed. Active intervention involved extensive body stimulation with gentle mechanical vibrations administered during 3 h at night for 3 weeks, and the placebo effect was controlled using identical instruments to simulate an alternative treatment option. The primary outcome measure combined pain, fatigue, and complaints of poor cognition. RESULTS: Vibrotactile stimulation was significantly superior to sham in alleviating fibromyalgia symptoms globally. However, univariate analyses showed that the effect was not universal. Benefits were perceived on unpleasant somatic sensations such as generalized pain and fatigue, but not on poor cognition, anxiety, and depression. Vibrotactile stimulation was notably well tolerated and sleep quality significantly improved despite the fact that vibrations were administered at night. CONCLUSIONS: Results thus provide new evidence that non-nociceptive somatosensory stimulation may favorably act upon altered somatosensory balance in fibromyalgia. From a clinical perspective, both the degree of improvement and the easy application of our proposal would seem to support a potential role for vibrotactile stimulation in the symptomatic treatment of fibromyalgia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT03227952 . Registered 24 July, 2017.

3.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 26: e2947, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship between the quantitative assessment of working conditions and the qualitative perception of one's own work experience. METHOD: a sample of 1,760 nursing professionals from Barcelona answered a questionnaire assessing their working conditions and summarized their own current work experience in five key words. RESULTS: the textual corpus of the meanings of nursing work included 8043 lexical forms, which were categorized and codified. Respondents who rated their work conditions the highest expressed a vision of their work in terms of autonomy, achievement and well-being, while those who rated their work conditions the lowest talked mostly of exhaustion, depersonalization and negative climate. A correspondence analysis showed a close relationship between the quantitative assessments of working conditions and the verbal codes of the meaning of work. CONCLUSIONS: the meanings given to work were not only consistent with the numerical evaluations of the working conditions but also made them more understandable. The information obtained poses challenges for reflection and indicates ways to promote the positive aspects and prevent the negative conditions of nursing work.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Enfermagem , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Espanha
6.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e2947, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-961203

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the relationship between the quantitative assessment of working conditions and the qualitative perception of one's own work experience. Method: a sample of 1,760 nursing professionals from Barcelona answered a questionnaire assessing their working conditions and summarized their own current work experience in five key words. Results: the textual corpus of the meanings of nursing work included 8043 lexical forms, which were categorized and codified. Respondents who rated their work conditions the highest expressed a vision of their work in terms of autonomy, achievement and well-being, while those who rated their work conditions the lowest talked mostly of exhaustion, depersonalization and negative climate. A correspondence analysis showed a close relationship between the quantitative assessments of working conditions and the verbal codes of the meaning of work. Conclusions: the meanings given to work were not only consistent with the numerical evaluations of the working conditions but also made them more understandable. The information obtained poses challenges for reflection and indicates ways to promote the positive aspects and prevent the negative conditions of nursing work.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a relação entre a avaliação quantitativa das condições de trabalho e a percepção qualitativa da própria experiência de trabalho. Método: uma amostra de 1760 profissionais de enfermagem de Barcelona respondeu a um questionário para avaliação de suas condições de trabalho e resumiu em cinco palavras-chave sua própria experiência de trabalho atual. Resultados: o corpus textual dos significados do trabalho incluiu 8043 formas lexicais, que foram categorizadas e codificadas. As pessoas pesquisadas que classificaram mais alto as suas condições de trabalho expressaram uma visão do trabalho em termos de autonomia, realização e bem-estar, ao passo que as que o classificavam mais baixo falavam principalmente de exaustão, despersonalização e clima negativo. Uma análise de correspondências evidenciou uma estreita relação entre as avaliações quantitativas das condições de trabalho e os códigos verbais de significado do trabalho. Conclusões: os significados dados ao trabalho foram não só coerentes com as avaliações numéricas das condições de trabalho, mas também as tornaram mais compreensíveis. A informação obtida coloca desafios para reflexão e aponta caminhos para enfrentar a promoção dos aspectos positivos e a prevenção dos negativos das condições do trabalho de enfermagem.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la relación entre la valoración cuantitativa de las condiciones de trabajo y la percepción cualitativa de la propia experiencia laboral. Método: una muestra de 1.760 profesionales de enfermería de Barcelona respondió a un cuestionario de valoración de sus condiciones de trabajo y resumió en cinco palabras clave su propia experiencia laboral actual. Resultados: el corpus textual de significados del trabajo incluyó 8.043 formas léxicas, que fueron categorizadas y codificadas. Las personas encuestadas que valoraron más alto sus condiciones de trabajo expresaron una visión de su trabajo en términos de autonomía, realización y bienestar; mientras que quienes las valoraron más bajo hablaron sobre todo de agotamiento, despersonalización y clima negativo. Un análisis de correspondencias evidenció una estrecha relación entre las valoraciones cuantitativas de las condiciones laborales y los códigos verbales de significado del trabajo. Conclusiones: los significados dados al trabajo fueron no solo coherentes con las valoraciones numéricas de las condiciones laborales, sino que además las hicieron más comprensibles. La información obtenida plantea desafíos para la reflexión y señala caminos orientados a la promoción de los aspectos positivos y a la prevención de los negativos de las condiciones del trabajo de enfermería.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Enfermagem , Carga de Trabalho , Satisfação no Emprego , Espanha , Estudos Transversais , Autorrelato
7.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160703, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551718

RESUMO

Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute renal failure, causing renal cell death, a permanent decrease of renal blood flow, organ dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product rich in growth factors, and therefore able to promote tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. This product has proven its efficacy in multiple studies, but has not yet been tested on kidney tissue. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the application of PRP to rat kidneys undergoing ischemia-reperfusion reduces mid-term kidney damage. A total of 30 monorrenal Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent renal ischemia-reperfusion for 45 minutes. During ischemia, PRP (PRP Group, n = 15) or saline solution (SALINE Group, n = 15) was administered by subcapsular renal injection. Control kidneys were the contralateral organs removed immediately before the start of ischemia in the remaining kidneys. Survival, body weight, renal blood flow on Doppler ultrasound, kidney weight, kidney volume, blood biochemistry and histopathology were determined for all subjects and kidneys, as applicable. Correlations between these variables were searched for. The PRP Group showed significantly worse kidney blood flow (p = 0.045) and more histopathological damage (p<0.0001). Correlations were found between body weight, kidney volume, kidney weight, renal blood flow, histology, and serum levels of creatinine and urea. Our study provides the first evidence that treatment with PRP results in the deterioration of the kidney's response to ischemia-reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Rim/lesões , Rim/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia
8.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 254: 41-7, 2016 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27318593

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly affects children, although the symptoms persist into adulthood in approximately 50% of cases. Structural imaging studies in children have documented both cortical and subcortical changes in the brain. However, there have been only a few studies in adults and the results are inconclusive. METHOD: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to 44 adults with ADHD, Combined subtype, aged 18-54 years and 44 healthy controls matched for age, sex and IQ. RESULTS: ADHD patients showed reduced gray matter (GM) volume in the right supplementary motor area (SMA). Using more lenient thresholds we also observed reductions in the subgenual anterior cingulate (ACC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) cortices and increases in the basal ganglia, specifically in the left caudate nucleus and putamen. There was a positive correlation between the cumulative stimulant dose and volume in the right SMA and DLPFC clusters. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that adults with ADHD show brain structural changes in regions belonging to the so-called cool executive function network. Long-term stimulant medication may act to normalize these GM alterations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Motor/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 50: 21, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27191157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relations between the meanings of working and the levels of doctors work well-being in the context of their working conditions. METHOD: The research combined the qualitative methodology of textual analysis and the quantitative one of correspondence factor analysis. A convenience, intentional, and stratified sample composed of 305 Spanish and Latin American doctors completed an extensive questionnaire on the topics of the research. RESULTS: The general meaning of working for the group located in the quartile of malaise included perceptions of discomfort, frustration, and exhaustion. However, those showing higher levels of well-being, located on the opposite quartile, associated their working experience with good conditions and the development of their professional and personal competences. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between contextual factors and the meanings of working for participants with higher levels of malaise, and of the importance granted both to intrinsic and extrinsic factors by those who scored highest on well-being.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Médicos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Esgotamento Profissional , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Percepção , Satisfação Pessoal , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Adv Ther ; 33(4): 658-69, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26984314

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The management of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) in routine clinical practice differs considerably from guideline recommendations. The objective of our study was to reach a consensus on the management of PMO, considering prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up, according to expert opinion in Spain. METHODS: A two-round Delphi technique was conducted, including 38 experts. The questionnaire contained 35 sections, each one including 1-10 questions (n = 308) based on a literature review and contributions from the scientific steering committee. Each question was scored by experts from the current (1 = no occurrence, 9 = occurrence in all cases), wish (1 = total rejection; 9 = wish) and prediction (1 = no occurrence at all; 9 = occurs with maximum probability) perspectives. Consensus (wish and prediction perspectives) was considered when ≥75% of experts scored 7-9 (agreement) or 1-3 (disagreement). RESULTS: Overall, consensus was achieved on 75% of questions. While protocols of clinical management and consultation/referral should be followed, their implementation is unlikely. Furthermore, the medical specialties currently involved in PMO management are poorly defined. PMO patients without fracture should be managed (prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up) in both primary care and rheumatology settings; however, experts predicted that only treatment and follow-up will be assumed by these specialties. A multidisciplinary team should be involved in patients with fracture. No assessment tools are usually applied, and prediction indicated that they will not be used. CONCLUSION: Efforts should be focused on questions with high divergence between wishes and predictions, defining actions that will improve PMO management. Collaboration between scientific societies and health authorities to address the identified opportunities of improvement is proposed. FUNDING: Amgen S.A.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Idoso , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/diagnóstico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/terapia , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 50: 21, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962237

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the relations between the meanings of working and the levels of doctors work well-being in the context of their working conditions. METHOD The research combined the qualitative methodology of textual analysis and the quantitative one of correspondence factor analysis. A convenience, intentional, and stratified sample composed of 305 Spanish and Latin American doctors completed an extensive questionnaire on the topics of the research. RESULTS The general meaning of working for the group located in the quartile of malaise included perceptions of discomfort, frustration, and exhaustion. However, those showing higher levels of well-being, located on the opposite quartile, associated their working experience with good conditions and the development of their professional and personal competences. CONCLUSIONS The study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between contextual factors and the meanings of working for participants with higher levels of malaise, and of the importance granted both to intrinsic and extrinsic factors by those who scored highest on well-being.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO Analizar las relaciones entre los significados del trabajo y los niveles de bienestar laboral de los profesionales de la medicina en el contexto de sus condiciones de trabajo. MÉTODOS La investigación combinó la metodología cualitativa del análisis textual, y la cuantitativa del análisis factorial de correspondencias. Una muestra de conveniencia, intencional y estratificada, compuesta por 305 profesionales de la medicina de España y de América Latina, respondió un amplio cuestionario sobre los temas de la investigación. RESULTADOS El significado general del trabajo del grupo situado en el cuartil de malestar se configuró en torno a percepciones de incomodidad, frustración y agotamiento. En cambio, quienes expresaron mayores niveles de bienestar, ubicados en el cuartil opuesto, asociaron su experiencia laboral a buenas condiciones de trabajo y al desarrollo de las propias competencias profesionales y personales. CONCLUSIONES El estudio aporta evidencia empírica acerca de la relación entre factores contextuales y significados de trabajo, en los participantes con mayores niveles de malestar; también, sobre la importancia dada a factores tanto intrínsecos como extrínsecos por quienes obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones en bienestar.

12.
Psicol. teor. pesqui ; 32(3): e323210, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-829382

RESUMO

Abstract This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV) of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men as the most violent and evaluated the other groups with different degrees of IPV. Physical violence is regarded as natural in men, both gay and heterosexual. To conclude, the results suggest that IPV stereotypes are affected by the sex of the evaluators and by their sexual orientation. It is relevant to expand the scope of prevention programs.


Resumo Esta pesquisa avalia estereótipos sobre violência entre parceiros íntimos (VPI) relacionados a casais heterossexuais e homossexuais. Os/as participantes, 232 estudantes universitários mexicanos, avaliaram a VPI física e psicológica exercida por homens e mulheres com diferentes orientações sexuais. Os dados foram analisados com o teste de Wilcoxon. Os resultados indicam que homens avaliaram mulheres e homens gays como apresentando níveis similares de VPI, sendo a percepção masculina sobre VPI nesses grupos superior à feminina. Mulheres percebem homens heterossexuais como mais violentos e atribuem graus diferentes de VPI para os demais grupos. A violência física é vista como natural em homens, homossexuais ou heterossexuais. Para concluir, é possível sugerir que estereótipos de VPI são influenciados pelo sexo do avaliador e por sua orientação sexual. É relevante ampliar o alcance de programas preventivos.

13.
Br J Psychiatry ; 206(2): 136-44, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25497296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how functional imaging changes in bipolar disorder relate to different phases of the illness. AIMS: To compare cognitive task activation in participants with bipolar disorder examined in different phases of illness. METHOD: Participants with bipolar disorder in mania (n = 38), depression (n = 38) and euthymia (n = 38), as well as healthy controls (n = 38), underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of the n-back working memory task. Activations and de-activations were compared between the bipolar subgroups and the controls, and among the bipolar subgroups. All participants were also entered into a linear mixed-effects model. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, the mania and depression subgroups, but not the euthymia subgroup, showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex and other areas. Compared with the euthymia subgroup, the mania and depression subgroups showed hypoactivation in the parietal cortex. All three bipolar subgroups showed failure of de-activation in the ventromedial frontal cortex. Linear mixed-effects modelling revealed a further cluster of reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the patients; this was significantly more marked in the mania than in the euthymia subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Bipolar disorder is characterised by mood state-dependent hypoactivation in the parietal cortex. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal activation is a further feature of mania and depression, which may improve partially in euthymia. Failure of de-activation in the medial frontal cortex shows trait-like characteristics.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
14.
Rev. psicol. organ. trab ; 14(4): 355-366, dez. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-62286

RESUMO

El objetivo general de este texto consiste en describir y discutir, a partir de una revisión de literatura, el panorama actual del fenómeno "NiNi", el de las personas jóvenes que ni trabajan, ni estudian, ni tampoco realizan actividad alguna relacionada con la formación ocupacional, atendiendo especialmente a su desarrollo europeo, y particularmente español, articulando cinco criterios de exposición principales: (a) el contexto histórico y cultural de su emergencia y expansión, (b) su vinculación con metamorfosis y megatendencias socioeconómicas como la crisis de la sociedad salarial del pleno empleo estable, la desregulación de las relaciones laborales y la precarización de las condiciones de trabajo en el marco de la nueva gestión flexible del mismo, que determinan la transición hacia el posfordismo, (c) la información empírica acumulada sobre su tipología y prevalencia, (d) los discursos sociopolíticos y las lecturas teóricas relativos a sus causas y consecuencias y las consiguientes propuestas de afrontamiento (e) la reflexión y discusión sobre sus implicaciones teóricas y prácticas en cuanto a la necesidad de repensar constructos como juventud, ciudadanía, transición de la escuela al trabajo u orientación para el empleo.(AU)


The overall objective of this paper is to describe and discuss, based on a literature review, the current situation of the "NEET" phenomenon, concerning young people Not in Employment, Education or Training, with special attention to its European development, particularly in Spain, articulating five major criteria of exposure: (a) the historical and cultural context of its emergence and expansion, (b) its relationship with socioeconomic megatrends and metamorphosis, such as the crisis of the full stable employment wage society, the deregulation of labor relations, and the rise of precarious working conditions under its new flexible management, which determine the transition to post-Fordism, (c) empirical information accumulated on its typology and prevalence, (d) the socio-political discourses and theoretical readings concerning its causes and consequences, and subsequent proposals for coping, and (e) reflection and discussion of its theoretical and practical implications in terms of the need to rethink constructs such as youth, citizenship, transition from school to work, or employment guidance.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto Jovem , Trabalho , Mercado de Trabalho , Desemprego , Impacto Psicossocial
15.
Rev. psicol. organ. trab ; 14(4): 355-366, dez. 2014.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-735520

RESUMO

El objetivo general de este texto consiste en describir y discutir, a partir de una revisión de literatura, el panorama actual del fenómeno "NiNi", el de las personas jóvenes que ni trabajan, ni estudian, ni tampoco realizan actividad alguna relacionada con la formación ocupacional, atendiendo especialmente a su desarrollo europeo, y particularmente español, articulando cinco criterios de exposición principales: (a) el contexto histórico y cultural de su emergencia y expansión, (b) su vinculación con metamorfosis y megatendencias socioeconómicas como la crisis de la sociedad salarial del pleno empleo estable, la desregulación de las relaciones laborales y la precarización de las condiciones de trabajo en el marco de la nueva gestión flexible del mismo, que determinan la transición hacia el posfordismo, (c) la información empírica acumulada sobre su tipología y prevalencia, (d) los discursos sociopolíticos y las lecturas teóricas relativos a sus causas y consecuencias y las consiguientes propuestas de afrontamiento (e) la reflexión y discusión sobre sus implicaciones teóricas y prácticas en cuanto a la necesidad de repensar constructos como juventud, ciudadanía, transición de la escuela al trabajo u orientación para el empleo...


The overall objective of this paper is to describe and discuss, based on a literature review, the current situation of the "NEET" phenomenon, concerning young people Not in Employment, Education or Training, with special attention to its European development, particularly in Spain, articulating five major criteria of exposure: (a) the historical and cultural context of its emergence and expansion, (b) its relationship with socioeconomic megatrends and metamorphosis, such as the crisis of the full stable employment wage society, the deregulation of labor relations, and the rise of precarious working conditions under its new flexible management, which determine the transition to post-Fordism, (c) empirical information accumulated on its typology and prevalence, (d) the socio-political discourses and theoretical readings concerning its causes and consequences, and subsequent proposals for coping, and (e) reflection and discussion of its theoretical and practical implications in terms of the need to rethink constructs such as youth, citizenship, transition from school to work, or employment guidance...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Mercado de Trabalho , Trabalho , Adulto Jovem , Impacto Psicossocial , Desemprego
16.
Cad. psicol. soc. trab ; 17(1): 67-83, jun. 2014. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-741006

RESUMO

As indústrias de abate e processamento de carnes vêm assumindo grande importância econômica no cenário nacional, entretanto, as difíceis condições de trabalho nesse setor ocasionam o adoecimento de muitos trabalhadores. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as características do trabalho nas agroindústrias do estado de Santa Catarina e analisar a relação dessas com a saúde dos trabalhadores. Esta pesquisa é de natureza qualitativa e, por sua vez, um estudo descritivo exploratório. Os instrumentos utilizados para o levantamento de informações foram entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas com 17 trabalhadores e 14 profissionais de saúde. A entrevista foi subsidiada pelos registros de diário de campo decorrentes de observação participante. Por meio deste estudo observou-se que, apesar das tentativas de fiscalização e regulamentação das atividades laborais no setor agroindustrial, vem ocorrendo um processo de intensificação e prolongamento da jornada de trabalho nesse contexto, aspectos que são as principais características desse trabalho na região estudada. Nesse sentido, se destacou uma estreita relação entre a atividade produtiva nas indústrias de abate e processamento de carnes e o adoecimento dos trabalhadores do setor...


Industries of slaughter and meat processing have assumed great economic importance in the national scene, however, the hard working conditions in those sectors cause the illness of many workers. This study's aim was to identify the characteristics of work in the agro-industries of the state of Santa Catarina and to analyze the relationship between these organizations and their workers' health. This research is qualitative in nature and a descriptive exploratory study. The instruments used for collecting information were records of a field diary, made in the course of participant observation and also semi-structured interviews with 17 workers and 14 health professionals. As a result of the study, it was observed that in despite of the attempts of inspection and regulation of labor activities in the agro-industrial sector, there has been a process of intensification and prolongation of the working journey, which are the main characteristics of that kind of work in the studied region. Thus, a close relationship became clear between productive activities in slaughter and meat processing industries and illness among workers of the sector...


Assuntos
Humanos , Indústria da Carne , Matadouros , Saúde do Trabalhador , Jornada de Trabalho
17.
Cad. psicol. soc. trab ; 17(1): 67-83, jun. 2014. tab
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-62746

RESUMO

As indústrias de abate e processamento de carnes vêm assumindo grande importância econômica no cenário nacional, entretanto, as difíceis condições de trabalho nesse setor ocasionam o adoecimento de muitos trabalhadores. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as características do trabalho nas agroindústrias do estado de Santa Catarina e analisar a relação dessas com a saúde dos trabalhadores. Esta pesquisa é de natureza qualitativa e, por sua vez, um estudo descritivo exploratório. Os instrumentos utilizados para o levantamento de informações foram entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas com 17 trabalhadores e 14 profissionais de saúde. A entrevista foi subsidiada pelos registros de diário de campo decorrentes de observação participante. Por meio deste estudo observou-se que, apesar das tentativas de fiscalização e regulamentação das atividades laborais no setor agroindustrial, vem ocorrendo um processo de intensificação e prolongamento da jornada de trabalho nesse contexto, aspectos que são as principais características desse trabalho na região estudada. Nesse sentido, se destacou uma estreita relação entre a atividade produtiva nas indústrias de abate e processamento de carnes e o adoecimento dos trabalhadores do setor.(AU)


Industries of slaughter and meat processing have assumed great economic importance in the national scene, however, the hard working conditions in those sectors cause the illness of many workers. This study's aim was to identify the characteristics of work in the agro-industries of the state of Santa Catarina and to analyze the relationship between these organizations and their workers' health. This research is qualitative in nature and a descriptive exploratory study. The instruments used for collecting information were records of a field diary, made in the course of participant observation and also semi-structured interviews with 17 workers and 14 health professionals. As a result of the study, it was observed that in despite of the attempts of inspection and regulation of labor activities in the agro-industrial sector, there has been a process of intensification and prolongation of the working journey, which are the main characteristics of that kind of work in the studied region. Thus, a close relationship became clear between productive activities in slaughter and meat processing industries and illness among workers of the sector.(AU)


Assuntos
Jornada de Trabalho , Indústria da Carne , Matadouros , Saúde do Trabalhador
18.
Pap. psicol ; 35(1): 40-47, ene.-abr. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-119536

RESUMO

La Nueva Gestión Pública convierte servicios hospitalarios y universitarios en empresas de mercado. El objetivo del artículo es analizar y describir el impacto de esta metamorfosis en la subjetividad laboral del personal empleado en tales servicios. Estudios empíricos en hospitales y universidades iberoamericanos descubren una experiencia paradójica: relativa satisfacción manifiesta por condiciones materiales y técnicas que permiten trabajar más y mejor; pero también malestar latente por la sobrecarga de tarea y los dilemas ético-profesionales planteados por las nuevas demandas organizacionales, ante las que el personal desarrolla modos de afrontamiento que van de la obediencia manifiesta a la resistencia latente. Ello refuerza las razones para el rediseño de aquellos servicios en función de un mayor equilibrio entre demandas mercantiles y sociales, entre valores gerenciales y profesionales, entre eficiencia empresarial y calidad de vida laboral


New Public Management (NPM) makes public hospital and university services in market enterprises. The aim of the paper is to analyze and describe the impact of this metamorphosis in labor subjectivity of staff employed in such services. Empirical studies in Spanish and Latin American hospitals and universities discover a paradoxical experience: relative manifest satisfaction by material and technical conditions allowing work harder and better, but also latent discomfort to the task overload, and professional and ethical dilemmas posed by new organizational demands, facing with these staff develop ways of coping ranging from manifest obedience to latent resistance. This reinforces the reasons for the redesign of those services based on a better balance between commercial and social demands, managerial and professional values, and between business efficiency and quality of working life


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Condições de Trabalho , Satisfação no Emprego , Inovação Organizacional , Universidades , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Organizacional
19.
Br J Psychiatry ; 203(1): 51-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23222039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathological basis of tardive dyskinesia is unknown. Although its clinical features implicate the basal ganglia, imaging studies have not found clear evidence that it is associated with volume changes in these or other brain structures. AIMS: To determine, using voxel-based structural imaging, whether there are regions of grey matter volume change in people with schizophrenia who also have tardive dyskinesia compared with those without tardive dyskinesia. METHOD: A total of 81 people with chronic schizophrenia, 32 with tardive dyskinesia and 49 without, were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whole-brain, optimised voxel-based morphometry. A comparison group of 61 healthy controls was also examined. RESULTS: Compared with those without tardive dyskinesia, patients with tardive dyskinesia showed a pattern of volume reductions in predominantly subcortical regions, including the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Within the basal ganglia, volume reductions were seen in the caudate nucleus, to a lesser extent in the putamen, and only marginally in the globus pallidus. The patients with tardive dyskinesia, but not those without, showed significant volume reductions in the basal ganglia compared with the healthy controls but both groups had smaller volumes than controls in other affected areas. CONCLUSIONS: The pathological process or processes that underlie the development of tardive dyskinesia are not just neurochemical in nature, but affect brain structure.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/patologia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/patologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Adulto , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos dos Movimentos/complicações , Tamanho do Órgão , Esquizofrenia/complicações
20.
Estud. psicol. (Campinas) ; 29(supl.1): 657-665, out.-dez. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-60206

RESUMO

Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a estrutura e as propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Questionário de Bem-Estar no Trabalho. Essa ferramenta foi projetada para uma medição particularmente sensível aos aspectos psicossociais do bem-estar no trabalho, bem como à natureza bipolar dessa experiência de bem-estar. O questionário foi aplicado a uma amostra constituída por 101 docentes de uma instituição comunitária de ensino superior no sul catarinense. A análise fatorial mostra dois fatores independentes no Questionário Bem-Estar no Trabalho, o primeiro considerando três escalas de bem-estar psicossocial (afetos, competências e expectativas), e o segundo levando em conta três escalas de efeitos colaterais (somatização, desgaste e alienação). As escalas mostraram uma alta consistência interna, com alfas de Cronbach de 95, 95, 97, 88, 93 e 80, respectivamente. O Questionário Bem-Estar no Trabalho reproduz fielmente a estrutura do modelo teórico assumido e reúne as propriedades técnicas necessárias para avaliar o bem-estar no trabalho em ambientes universitários.(AU)


The objective of this article is to present the structure and psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of The Work Well-Being Questionnaire. This was developed with the aim of providing a measurement tool particularly sensitive to the psychosocial dimension of work well-being, and to the bipolar nature of the well-being experience. The questionnaire was applied to a convenience and intentional sample, constituted by 101 teachers of a higher education community institution in the south of Santa Catarina. Factor analysis shows two independent factors in The Work Well-Being Questionnaire, considering the first of three scales of psychosocial well-being (emotions, skills and expectations) and the second, three other side effects (somatization, wear and alienation). The scales showed high internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas of 95, 95, 97, 88, 93 and 80, respectively. The Work Well-Being Questionnaire faithfully reproduces the structure of the theoretical model assumed and meets the technical properties needed to assess the work well-being in university environments.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Satisfação no Emprego , Trabalho
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