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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411153

RESUMO

Whilst upregulation of type I interferon (IFN) signaling is common across the type I interferonopathies (T1Is), central nervous system (CNS) involvement varies between these disorders, the basis of which remains unclear. We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from patients with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI), presumed monogenic T1Is (pT1I), childhood systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric features (nSLE), non-IFN-related autoinflammation (AI) and non-inflammatory hydrocephalus (as controls). We measured IFN-alpha protein using digital ELISA. Eighty-two and 63 measurements were recorded respectively in CSF and serum of 42 patients and 6 controls. In an intergroup comparison (taking one sample per individual), median CSF IFN-alpha levels were elevated in AGS, SAVI, pT1I, and nSLE compared to AI and controls, with levels highest in AGS compared to all other groups. In AGS, CSF IFN-alpha concentrations were higher than in paired serum samples. In contrast, serum IFN was consistently higher compared to CSF levels in SAVI, pT1I, and nSLE. Whilst IFN-alpha is present in the CSF and serum of all IFN-related diseases studied here, our data suggest the primary sites of IFN production in the monogenic T1I AGS and SAVI are, respectively, the CNS and the periphery. These results inform the diagnosis of, and future therapeutic approaches to, monogenic and multifactorial T1Is.

3.
Drug Saf ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367975

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Darunavir is a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor boosted with ritonavir (DRV/r) or cobicistat. OBJECTIVE: This study provided continued access to DRV/r and assessed long-term safety in patients aged 3 to < 18 years. METHODS: Patients who had completed treatment in the DELPHI (TMC114-C212), DIONE (TMC114-TiDP29-C230), or ARIEL (TMC114-TiDP29-C228) studies were eligible to participate if they derived benefit from using DRV/r in countries where it was not available to them. DRV/r dosing was continued based on original study protocols. Only safety data were collected. Reportable adverse events (AEs) included AEs considered at least possibly related to treatment with DRV/r, AEs leading to discontinuation or treatment interruption, and serious AEs (SAEs). RESULTS: Forty-six patients rolled over to this study and received at least one dose of DRV/r. Median duration of DRV/r intake was 4.2 years. Overall, 15/46 patients experienced one or more reportable AEs, 10/46 patients experienced one or more grade 3 or 4 AEs, and 12/46 patients experienced one or more SAEs. The most common grade 3 or 4 and SAEs were pneumonia (3/46) and asthma (2/46). Only one AE (grade 1 lipoatrophy) was considered probably related to DRV/r (DIONE, n = 1). Overall, 3/46 patients experienced an HIV-related AE (grade 3 pneumonia SAE; grade 2 tuberculosis SAE, and grade 2 lipoatrophy AE), none of which were considered related to DRV/r or led to study discontinuation. Two AEs leading to discontinuation were pregnancies. CONCLUSION: These long-term safety results continue to support DRV/r as a valuable therapeutic option for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in pediatric patients aged ≥ 3 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01138605/EudraCT number: 2009-017013-29; first submitted 8 April 2010.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function mutations in STING1 underlie a type I interferonopathy termed SAVI (STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy). This severe disease is variably characterized by early-onset systemic inflammation, skin vasculopathy and interstitial lung disease (ILD). OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of SAVI patients. METHODS: Assessment of clinical, radiological, and immunologic data from 21 patients (17 families). RESULTS: Patients carried heterozygous substitutions in STING1 previously described in SAVI, mainly the p.V155M. Most patients were symptomatic from infancy but late onset in adulthood occurred in one patient. Systemic inflammation, skin vasculopathy and ILD were observed in 19, 18 and 21 patients respectively. Extensive tissue loss occurred in 4 patients. Severity of ILD was highly variable with insidious progression up to end-stage respiratory failure reached at teenage in 6 patients. Lung imaging revealed early fibrotic lesions. Failure to thrive was almost constant, with severe growth failure seen in 4 patients. Seven patients presented polyarthritis and one infant mimicked a combined immune deficiency. Extended features reminiscent of other interferonopathies were also found e.g. intracranial calcification, glaucoma, glomerular nephropathy. Increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and interferon α protein was constant. Autoantibodies were frequently found, in particular rheumatoid factor. Most patients presented with a T-cell defect, with low counts of memory CD8+ cells and impaired T-cell proliferation in response to antigens. Long-term follow-up described in 8 children confirmed the clinical benefice of ruxolitinib in SAVI unless the treatment is started early in the course of the disease underlying the need for early diagnosis. Tolerance was reasonably good. CONCLUSION: This largest worldwide cohort of SAVI patients precise core features and extends the clinical and immunological phenotype of the disease, displaying overlap with other monogenic interferonopathies.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150502

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Management of inflammatory complications of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is challenging. The aim of this study was to assess safety, with a focus on infections, and effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockers in CGD patients. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center cohort study of CGD patients treated by anti-TNF-α agents at Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital (Paris, France) and registered at the French National Reference Center for Primary Immunodeficiencies (CEREDIH). RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2019, 14 (X-linked: n = 10, 71.4%; autosomal-recessive: n = 4, 28.6%) CGD patients with gastrointestinal (n = 12, 85.7%), pulmonary (n = 10, 71.4%), cutaneous (n = 3, 21.4%), and/or genitourinary (n = 2, 14.3%) inflammatory manifestations received one or more doses of infliximab because of steroid-dependent (n = 7, 50%), refractory (n = 4, 28.6%) inflammatory disease or as first-line drug (n = 2, 14.3%; missing data, n = 1). All patients received adequate antimicrobial prophylaxis. Infliximab achieved complete (n = 2, 14.3%) or partial (n = 9, 64.3%) response in 11 (78.6%) patients. Seven (50%) patients were switched to adalimumab. During anti-TNF-α treatment, 11 infections (pneumonia, adenitis, invasive candidiasis, each n = 2; intra-abdominal abscess, bacteremic salmonellosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related folliculitis, cat-scratch disease, proven pulmonary mucormycosis, each n = 1) occurred in 7 (50%) patients. All infectious complications had a favorable outcome. Anti-TNF-α treatment was definitively stopped because of infection in two patients. Nine (64.3%) patients finally underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. No death occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TNF-α treatment could improve the outcome of severe inflammatory complications in CGD patients, but increases their risk of infections. We suggest that anti-TNF-α treatment might be of short-term benefit in selected CGD patients with severe inflammatory complications awaiting hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 595478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250898

RESUMO

Primary infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox, a benign and self-limited disease in healthy children. In patients with primary or acquired immunodeficiencies, primary infection can be life-threatening, due to rapid dissemination of the virus to various organs [lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, eye, central nervous system (CNS)]. We retrospectively described and compared the clinical presentations and outcomes of disseminated varicella infection (DV) in patients with acquired (AID) (n= 7) and primary (PID) (n= 12) immunodeficiencies. Patients with AID were on immunosuppression (mostly steroids) for nephrotic syndrome, solid organ transplantation or the treatment of hemopathies, whereas those with PID had combined immunodeficiency (CID) or severe CID (SCID). The course of the disease was severe and fulminant in patients with AID, with multiple organ failure, no rash or a delayed rash, whereas patients with CID and SICD presented typical signs of chickenpox, including a rash, with dissemination to other organs, including the lungs and CNS. In the PID group, antiviral treatment was prolonged until immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation, which was performed in 10/12 patients. Four patients died, and three experienced neurological sequelae. SCID patients had the worst outcome. Our findings highlight substantial differences in the clinical presentation and course of DV between children with AID and PID, suggesting differences in pathophysiology. Prevention, early diagnosis and treatment are required to improve outcome.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), but it remains debated whether all conventionally treated CGD patients benefit from HSCT. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 104 conventionally treated CGD patients, of whom 50 patients underwent HSCT. RESULTS: On conventional treatment, seven patients (13%) died after a median time of 16.2 years (interquartile range [IQR] 7.0-18.0). Survival without severe complications was 10 ± 3% (mean ± SD) at the age of 20 years; 85% of patients developed at least one infection, 76% one non-infectious inflammation. After HSCT, 44 patients (88%) were alive at a median follow-up of 2.3 years (IQR 0.8-4.9): Six patients (12%) died from infections. Survival after HSCT was significantly better for patients transplanted ≤8 years (96 ± 4%) or for patients without active complications at HSCT (100%). Eight patients suffered from graft failure (16%); six (12%) developed acute graft-vs-host disease requiring systemic treatment. Conventionally treated patients developed events that required medical attention at a median frequency of 1.7 (IQR 0.8-3.2) events per year vs 0 (IQR 0.0-0.5) in patients beyond the first year post-HSCT. While most conventionally treated CGD patients failed to thrive, catch-up growth after HSCT in surviving patients reached the individual percentiles at the age of diagnosis of CGD. CONCLUSION: Chronic granulomatous disease patients undergoing HSCT until 8 years of age show excellent survival, but young children need more intense conditioning to avoid graft rejection. Risks and benefits of HSCT for adolescents and adults must still be weighed carefully.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(8): 1144-1155, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nocardiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease. We aimed at describing nocardiosis in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). METHODS: This international retrospective cohort included patients with PID and nocardiosis diagnosed and/or published from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2016. To identify nocardiosis cases, we analyzed PID databases from the French National Reference Center for PID (Paris, France) and the National Institute of Health (NIH, United States of America) and we performed a literature review on PubMed. RESULTS: Forty-nine cases of nocardiosis associated with PID were included: median age at diagnosis of nocardiosis was 19 (0-56) years and most cases were observed among chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients (87.8%). Median time from symptoms to diagnosis of Nocardia infection was 20 (2-257) days. Most frequent clinical nocardiosis presentation was pneumonia (86.7%). Twelve-month mortality rate was 4.2%, and 11.9% of patients experienced a possible recurrence of infection. Nocardiosis more frequently led to the diagnosis of PID among non-CGD patients than in CGD patients. Non-CGD patients experienced more cerebral nocardiosis and more disseminated infections, but mortality and recurrence rates were similar. Highest incidences of nocardiosis among PID cohorts were observed among CGD patients (0.0057 and 0.0044 cases/patient-year in the USA and in France, respectively), followed by IL-12p40 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Among 49 cases of nocardiosis associated with PID, most patients had CGD and lung involvement. Both mortality and recurrence rates were low.

11.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812031

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) preferentially infects epithelial cells and B lymphocytes and sometimes T and NK lymphocytes. Persistence of EBV-infected cells results in severe lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Diagnosis of EBV-driven T or NK cell LPD and chronic active EBV diseases (CAEBV) is difficult, often requiring biopsies. Herein, we report a flow-FISH cytometry assay that detects cells expressing EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), allowing rapid identification of EBV-infected cells among PBMCs. EBV-infected B, T, and/or NK cells were detectable in various LPD conditions. Diagnosis of CAEBV in 22 patients of Caucasian and African origins was established. All exhibited circulating EBV-infected T and/or NK cells, highlighting that CAEBV is not restricted to native American and Asian populations. Proportions of EBV-infected cells correlated with blood EBV loads. We showed that EBV-infected T cells had an effector memory activated phenotype, whereas EBV-infected B cells expressed plasma cell differentiation markers. Thus, this method achieves accurate and unambiguous diagnoses of different forms of EBV-driven LPD and represents a powerful tool to study their pathophysiological mechanisms.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637386

RESUMO

Aim: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most frequent monogenic disease worldwide; ~5-7% of the world population carry a hemoglobin disorder trait. In the US, one in every 1,941 newborns has SCD, whereas one in every 3,000 newborns in France is affected - resulting in 385 new cases and 5,883 newly identified carriers per year. The objective of the present study was to evaluate three different ways of providing information to parents at risk of having a child with SCD, with a view to increasing the parental screening rate and decreasing the number of new cases per year in France. Method: In a randomized study, we contacted 300 couples of parents after their child had been identified as a SCD carrier in the French national newborn screening programme: 100 couples received an information letter (the standard procedure in France: arm A), 100 couples received a letter and then a follow-up phone call (arm B), and 100 received a letter and then three follow-up text messages at 5-day intervals (arm C). The primary endpoint was the number of parents in each arm screened in the 120 days after the letter had been sent. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the screening rate was 17% in arm A, 35% in arm B, and 30% in arm C. Results: Telephone and text message follow-ups were associated with higher screening rates, compared with no follow-up. After being informed of their child's carrier status, some parents had consulted a healthcare professional but had not been referred for screening (16% in arm A, 19% in arm B, and 13% in arm C). Conclusion: A letter followed by a phone call or three text messages is more effective than a letter alone for informing parents at risk of having a child with SCD. The effective implementation of this follow-up programme probably requires better training of all the healthcare professionals involved.

13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(8): 737-739, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502129

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study of 358 HIV-1-infected children and adolescents living in Sub-Saharan Africa treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based regimens for a median of 1.5 interquartile range [0.6-3.1 years] showed a loss of glomerular filtration rate estimated to be 0.41 mL/min/1.73 m per month of treatment. In contrast, there was no decrease depending on the duration of the previous antiretroviral treatment.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(5): 752-762, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the CYBB gene (located on Xp21.1). Patients with large deletions on chromosome Xp21.1 can present with the McLeod phenotype and also Duchenne muscular dystrophy or retinitis pigmentosa. The objective of the present study was to describe a series of French patients with CGD and the McLeod phenotype. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from the medical records of 8 patients with CGD and the McLeod phenotype registered at the French National Reference Center for blood types. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis of CGD was 1.2 years, the median age at diagnosis of the McLeod phenotype was 4.5 years, and the median length of follow-up was 15.2 years. Four patients displayed allo-immunization, with anti-KEL20 and anti-XK1 (formerly known as anti-KL) antibodies. Five of the 6 patients with available blood smears had acanthocytosis. Neuropsychiatric, muscle-related, and ocular manifestations were present in 4, 2, and 1 of the patients, respectively. Three of the 4 patients having undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are alive. Overall, 5 patients are alive, and 3 are alive and well. CONCLUSION: This is the largest yet descriptive study of a series of patients with X-linked CGD and the McLeod phenotype. Although this disease combination is rare, the timely, accurate diagnosis of the McLeod phenotype is critical because of the serious post-transfusion complications. However, HSCT can be considered in these patients.

17.
Am J Transplant ; 20(8): 2243-2253, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065452

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a rare but frequently lethal complication after solid organ transplantation. GVHD occurs in unduly immunocompromised hosts but requires the escalation of immunosuppression, which does not discriminate between host and donor cells. In contrast, donor-targeted therapy would ideally mitigate graft-versus-host reactivity while sparing recipient immune functions. We report two children with end-stage renal disease and severe primary immune deficiency (Schimke syndrome) who developed severe steroid-resistant acute GVHD along with full and sustained donor T cell chimerism after isolated kidney transplantation. Facing a therapeutic dead end, we used a novel strategy based on the adoptive transfer of anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) through the transfusion of highly selected plasma. After approval by the appropriate regulatory authority, an urgent nationwide search was launched among more than 3800 registered blood donors with known anti-HLA sensitization. Adoptively transferred DSAs bound to and selectively depleted circulating donor T cells. The administration of DSA-rich plasma was well tolerated and notably did not induce antibody-mediated rejection of the renal allografts. Acute GVHD symptoms promptly resolved in one child. This report provides a proof of concept for a highly targeted novel therapeutic approach for solid organ transplantation-associated GVHD.

18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(4): e28177, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare syndrome combining acute hepatitis of variable severity and AA. Hepatitis may be severe enough to require urgent liver transplantation (LT). Herein, we describe clinical presentation and management of a cohort of pediatric patients diagnosed with AA after undergoing LT for nonviral hepatitis. METHODS: To describe this rare clinical situation, we performed a national survey and identified nine children treated for AA following LT during the last 10 years in France. RESULTS: All patients were treated first for hepatic failure with urgent LT. AA was diagnosed with a median delay of 34 days [21-200] from the diagnosis of hepatitis. Seven children were treated with antithymocyte globulin/cyclosporine, one with CSA alone and one received bone marrow transplantation. At the last visit (median follow-up: 4 years), outcomes were excellent: all patients were alive and in hematological remission (complete remission: 7; partial remission: 2). Immunosuppressive therapy was pursued in all patients due to the liver transplant. No unusual toxicities were reported. CONCLUSION: AA after LT is considered a therapeutic challenge. Nevertheless, hematological outcome is good using a standard immunosuppressive approach.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Hepatite , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado , Adolescente , Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Anemia Aplástica/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Hepatite/epidemiologia , Hepatite/etiologia , Hepatite/terapia , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(4): 1030-1039, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal treatment with lopinavir boosted by ritonavir (LPV/r) is associated with steroidogenic abnormalities. Long-term effects in infants have not been studied. METHODS: Adrenal-hormone profiles were compared at weeks 6 and 26 between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-exposed but uninfected infants randomly assigned at 7 days of life to prophylaxis with LPV/r or lamivudine (3TC) to prevent transmission during breastfeeding. LPV/r in vitro effect on steroidogenesis was assessed in H295R cells. RESULTS: At week 6, 159 frozen plasma samples from Burkina Faso and South Africa were assessed (LPV/r group: n = 92; 3TC group: n = 67) and at week 26, 95 samples from Burkina Faso (LPV/r group: n = 47; 3TC group: n = 48). At week 6, LPV/r-treated infants had a higher median dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level than infants from the 3TC arm: 3.91 versus 1.48 ng/mL (P < .001). Higher DHEA levels (>5 ng/mL) at week 6 were associated with higher 17-OH-pregnenolone (7.78 vs 3.71 ng/mL, P = .0004) and lower testosterone (0.05 vs 1.34 ng/mL, P = .009) levels in LPV/r-exposed children. There was a significant correlation between the DHEA and LPV/r AUC levels (ρ = 0.40, P = .019) and Ctrough (ρ = 0.40, P = .017). At week 26, DHEA levels remained higher in the LPV/r arm: 0.45 versus 0.13 ng/mL (P = .002). Lopinavir, but not ritonavir, inhibited CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activity in H295R cells. CONCLUSIONS: Lopinavir was associated with dose-dependent adrenal dysfunction in infants. The impact of long-term exposure and potential clinical consequences require evaluation. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00640263.

20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(4): 704-711, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843562

RESUMO

Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a rare disease characterized by erosive photosensitivity and chronic hemolysis due to a defect of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen-III-synthase (UROS). To date, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for the devastating early and severe form of the disease. We describe 6 patients with CEP treated with HSCT (3 of them twice after failure of a first graft) between 1994 and 2016 in our center, including 2 of the very first living patients treated more than 20 years ago. Four patients are doing well at 6 to 25 years post-HSCT, with near-normal biochemical parameters of porphyrin metabolism without the cutaneous or hematologic features of CEP. One patient died within the first year after HSCT from severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and 1 child died of unexplained acute hepatic failure at 1 year after HSCT, despite full donor chimerism. Retrospectively, it appears that all but 1 child had increased transaminase activity with onset from the early postnatal period, which was significantly more marked in the child who died of liver failure. In contrast, liver function values progressively normalized after engraftment in all other children. Liver pathology before HSCT for 3 patients revealed varying degrees of portal, centrilobular, and perisinusoidal fibrosis; clarification of hepatocytes; and cytosolic porphyrin deposits. The liver porphyrin content in biopsy specimens was >60 times the normal values. Despite difficult engraftment, the long-term efficacy of HSCT in CEP appears to be favorable and reinforces its benefits for the severe form of CEP. Hepatic involvement requires careful evaluation before and after HSCT and further investigation into its pathophysiology and care.

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