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1.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801802

RESUMO

Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are pivotal in inflammation and joint damage of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They acquire an active and aggressive phenotype, displaying increased migration and invasiveness, contributing to perpetuate synovial inflammation and destruction of cartilage and bone. The main current therapies of RA are focused against inflammatory factors and immune cells, however, a significant percentage of patients do not successfully respond. Combined treatments with drugs that control inflammation and that reverse the pathogenic phenotype of FLS could improve the prognosis of these patients. An unexplored area includes the retinoic acid, the main biological retinoid, which is a candidate drug for many diseases, but that has reached clinical use only for a few. Here, we explored the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the aggressive phenotype of FLS from RA patients. RA FLS were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), TNF or TNF+ATRA and cell migration and invasion were analysed. In addition, a microarray analysis of expression, followed by gene-set analysis and qPCR validation was performed. We showed that ATRA induced a notable decrease in FLS migration and invasion that were accompanied by complex changes in gene expression. At supraphysiological doses, many of these effects were overridden or reverted by the concomitant presence of TNF. In conclusion, these results have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of retinoic acid on RA FLS provided TNF could be counterbalanced, either with high ATRA doses or with TNF inhibitors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: ATRA reduced the RA FLS migration and invasiveness, and downregulated gene expression of cell motility and migration genes. At supraphysiological doses, some of these effects were reverted by TNF. Therefore, ATRA could be an RA drug candidate that would require high doses or combined treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs.

2.
Int J Biometeorol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734816

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and it is a leading cause of disability in the elderly. Its complete etiology is not known although there are several metabolic, genetic, epigenetic, and local contributing factors involved. At the moment, there is no cure for this pathology and treatment alternatives to retard or stop its progression are intensively being sought. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a small gaseous molecule and is present in sulfurous mineral waters as its active component. Data from recent clinical trials shows that balneotherapy (immersion in mineral and/or thermal waters from natural springs) in sulfurous waters can improve OA symptoms, in particular, pain and function. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are poorly known. Hydrogen sulfide is also considered, with NO and CO, an endogenous signaling gasotransmitter. It is synthesized endogenously with the help of three enzymes, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH), cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST). Here, the expression of these three enzymes was demonstrated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and their protein abundance [by immunohistochemistry and Western blot (WB)] in human articular cartilage. No significant differences were found in CBS or CTH expression or abundance, but mRNA and protein levels of 3-MPST were significantly reduced in cartilage form OA donors. Also, the biosynthesis of H2S from OA cartilage, measured with a specific microelectrode, was significantly lower than in OA-free tissue. Yet, no differences were found in H2S concentration in serum from OA patients and OA-free donors. The current results suggest that reduced levels of the mitochondrial enzyme 3-MPST in OA cartilage might be, at least in part, responsible for a reduction in H2S biosynthesis in this tissue and that impaired H2S biosynthesis in the joint might be a contributing factor to OA. This could contribute to explain why exogenous supplementation of H2S, for instance with sulfurous thermal water, has positive effects in OA patients.

4.
J Proteome Res ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599600

RESUMO

A steady increase in the incidence of osteoarthritis and other rheumatic diseases has been observed in recent decades, including autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and Sjögren's syndrome. Rheumatic and autoimmune diseases (RADs) are characterized by the inflammation of joints, muscles, or other connective tissues. In addition to often experiencing debilitating mobility and pain, RAD patients are also at a higher risk of suffering comorbidities such as cardiovascular or infectious events. Given the socioeconomic impact of RADs, broad research efforts have been dedicated to these diseases worldwide. In the present work, we applied literature mining platforms to identify "popular" proteins closely related to RADs. The platform is based on publicly available literature. The results not only will enable the systematic prioritization of candidates to perform targeted proteomics studies but also may lead to a greater insight into the key pathogenic processes of these disorders.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15076, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636332

RESUMO

The recognition of PPxY viral Late domains by the third WW domain of the HECT-E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 (hNEDD4-WW3) is essential for the completion of the budding process of numerous enveloped viruses, including Ebola, Marburg, HTLV1 or Rabies. hNEDD4-WW3 has been validated as a promising target for the development of novel host-oriented broad spectrum antivirals. Nonetheless, finding inhibitors with good properties as therapeutic agents remains a challenge since the key determinants of binding affinity and specificity are still poorly understood. We present here a detailed structural and thermodynamic study of the interactions of hNEDD4-WW3 with viral Late domains combining isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR structural determination and molecular dynamics simulations. Structural and energetic differences in Late domain recognition reveal a highly plastic hNEDD4-WW3 binding site that can accommodate PPxY-containing ligands with varying orientations. These orientations are mostly determined by specific conformations adopted by residues I859 and T866. Our results suggest a conformational selection mechanism, extensive to other WW domains, and highlight the functional relevance of hNEDD4-WW3 domain conformational flexibility at the binding interface, which emerges as a key element to consider in the search for potent and selective inhibitors of therapeutic interest.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(12): 1699-1705, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find autoantibodies (AAbs) in serum that could be useful to predict incidence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (KOA). DESIGN: A Nucleic-acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) platform was used to screen AAbs against 2125 human proteins in sera at baseline from participants free of radiographic KOA belonging to the incidence and non-exposed subcohorts of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) who developed or not, radiographic KOA during a follow-up period of 96 months. NAPPA-ELISA were performed to analyse reactivity against methionine adenosyltransferase two beta (MAT2ß) and verify the results in 327 participants from the same subcohorts. The association of MAT2ß-AAb levels with KOA incidence was assessed by combining several robust biostatistics analysis (logistic regression, Receiver Operating Characteristic and Kaplan-Meier curves). The proposed prognostic model was replicated in samples from the progression subcohort of the OAI. RESULTS: In the screening phase, six AAbs were found significantly different at baseline in samples from incident compared with non-incident participants. In the verification phase, high levels of MAT2ß-AAb were significantly associated with the future incidence of KOA and with an earlier development of the disease. The incorporation of this AAb in a clinical model for the prognosis of incident radiographic KOA significantly improved the identification/classification of patients who will develop the disorder. The usefulness of the model to predict radiographic KOA was confirmed on a different OAI subcohort. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of AAbs against MAT2ß in serum might be highly useful to improve the prediction of OA development, and also to estimate the time to incidence.

7.
ACS Chem Biol ; 14(10): 2315-2326, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479228

RESUMO

The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-associated factor p15PAF is a nuclear protein that acts as a regulator of DNA repair during DNA replication. The p15PAF gene is overexpressed in several types of human cancer, and its function is regulated by monoubiquitination of two lysines (K15 and K24) at the protein N-terminal region. We have previously shown that p15PAF is an intrinsically disordered protein which partially folds upon binding to PCNA and independently contacts DNA through its N-terminal tail. Here we present an NMR conformational characterization of p15PAF monoubiquitinated at both K15 and K24 via a disulfide bridge mimicking the isopeptide bond. We show that doubly monoubiquitinated p15PAF is monomeric, intrinsically disordered, and binds to PCNA as nonubiquitinated p15PAF does but interacts with DNA with reduced affinity. Our SAXS-derived conformational ensemble of doubly monoubiquitinated p15PAF shows that the ubiquitin moieties, separated by eight disordered residues, form transient dimers because of the high local effective ubiquitin concentration. This observation and the sequence similarity with histone H3 N-terminal tail suggest that doubly monoubiquitinated p15PAF is a binding target of DNA methyl transferase Dnmt1, as confirmed by calorimetry. Therefore, doubly monoubiquitinated p15PAF directly interacts with PCNA and recruits Dnmt1 for maintenance of DNA methylation during replication.

8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1791, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417564

RESUMO

4-1BB (CD137) is an inducible costimulatory receptor that promotes expansion and survival of activated T cells; and IgG-based 4-1BB-agonistic monoclonal antibodies exhibited potent antitumor activity in clinical trials. However, the clinical development of those antibodies is restricted by major off-tumor toxicities associated with FcγR interactions. We have recently generated an EGFR-targeted 4-1BB-agonistic trimerbody that demonstrated strong antitumor activity and did not induce systemic inflammatory cytokine secretion and hepatotoxicity associated with first-generation 4-1BB agonists. Here, we generate a bispecific 4-1BB-agonistic trimerbody targeting the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) that is highly expressed in cancers of diverse origins. The CEA-targeted anti-4-1BB-agonistic trimerbody consists of three 4-1BB-specific single-chain fragment variable antibodies and three anti-CEA single-domain antibodies positioned around a murine collagen XVIII-derived homotrimerization domain. The trimerbody was produced as a homogenous, non-aggregating, soluble protein purifiable by standard affinity chromatographic methods. The purified trimerbody was found to be trimeric in solution, very efficient at recognizing 4-1BB and CEA, and potently costimulating T cells in vitro in the presence of CEA. Therefore, trimerbody-based tumor-targeted 4-1BB costimulation is a broadly applicable and clinically feasible approach to enhance the costimulatory environment of disseminated tumor lesions.

9.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(10): 2018-2028, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352363

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a pathology characterized by the loss of articular cartilage. In this study, we performed a peptidomic strategy to identify endogenous peptides (neopeptides) that are released from human osteoarthritic tissue, which may serve as disease markers. With this aim, secretomes of osteoarthritic and healthy articular cartilages obtained from knee and hip were analyzed by shotgun peptidomics. This discovery step led to the identification of 1175 different peptides, corresponding to 101 proteins, as products of the physiological or pathological turnover of cartilage extracellular matrix. Then, a targeted multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the panel of best marker candidates on a larger set of samples (n = 62). Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the significance of the observed differences and the ability of the neopeptides to classify the tissue. Eight of them were differentially abundant in the media from wounded zones of OA cartilage compared with the healthy tissue (p < 0.05). Three neopeptides belonging to Clusterin and one from Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein showed a disease-dependent decrease specifically in hip OA, whereas two from Prolargin (PRELP) and one from Cartilage Intermediate Layer Protein 1 were significantly increased in samples from knee OA. The release of one peptide from PRELP showed the best metrics for tissue classification (AUC = 0.834). The present study reveals specific neopeptides that are differentially released from knee or hip human osteoarthritic cartilage compared with healthy tissue. This evidences the intervention of characteristic pathogenic pathways in OA and provides a novel panel of peptidic candidates for biomarker development.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 45: 588-605, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ageing-related failure of homeostasis mechanisms contributes to articular cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis (OA), for which disease-modifying treatments are not available. Our objective was to identify molecules to prevent OA by regulating chondrocyte senescence and autophagy. METHODS: Human chondrocytes with IL-6 induced senescence and autophagy suppression and SA-ß-gal as a reporter of senescence and LC3 as reporter of autophagic flux were used to screen the Prestwick Chemical Library of approved drugs. Preclinical cellular, tissue and blood from OA and blood from OA and ageing models were used to test the efficacy and relevance of activating PPARα related to cartilage degeneration. FINDINGS: Senotherapeutic molecules with pro-autophagic activity were identified. Fenofibrate (FN), a PPARα agonist used for dyslipidaemias in humans, reduced the number of senescent cells via apoptosis, increased autophagic flux, and protected against cartilage degradation. FN reduced both senescence and inflammation and increased autophagy in both ageing human and OA chondrocytes whereas PPARα knockdown conferred the opposite effect. Moreover, PPARα expression was reduced through both ageing and OA in mice and also in blood and cartilage from knees of OA patients. Remarkably, in a retrospective study, fibrate treatment improved OA clinical conditions in human patients from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) Cohort. INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate that FDA-approved fibrate drugs targeting lipid metabolism protect against cartilage degeneration seen with ageing and OA. Thus, these drugs could have immediate clinically utility for age-related cartilage degeneration and OA treatment. FUND: This study was supported by Instituto de Salud Carlos III- Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Spain, Plan Estatal 2013-2016 and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER), "Una manera de hacer Europa", PI14/01324 and PI17/02059, by Innopharma Pharmacogenomics platform applied to the validation of targets and discovery of drugs candidates to preclinical phases, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, by grants of the National Instiutes of Health to PDR (P01 AG043376 and U19 AG056278). We thank FOREUM Foundation for Research in Rheumatology for their support.

11.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(11): 920-933, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a potential treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), but composition heterogeneity hampers comparison among studies, with the result that definite conclusions on its efficacy have not been reached. OBJECTIVES: 1) To develop a novel methodology to prepare a series of standardized PRP releasates (PRP-Rs) with known absolute platelet concentrations, and 2) To evaluate the influence of this standardization parameter on the anti-inflammatory properties of these PRP-Rs in an in vitro and an ex vivo model of OA. METHODS: A series of PRPs was prepared using the absolute platelet concentration as the standardization parameter. Doses of platelets ranged from 0% (platelet poor plasma, PPP) to 1.5·105 platelets/µl. PRPs were then activated with CaCl2 to obtain releasates (PRP-R). Chondrocytes were stimulated with 10% of each PRP-R in serum-free culture medium for 72 h to assess proliferation and viability. Cells were co-stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1ß (5 ng/ml) and 10% of each PRP-R for 48 h to determine the effects on gene expression, secretion and intra-cellular content of common markers associated with inflammation, catabolism and oxidative stress in OA. OA cartilage explants were co-stimulated with IL-1ß (5 ng/ml) and 10% of either PRP-R with 0.75·105 platelets/µl or PRP-R with 1.5·105 platelets/µl for 21 days to assess matrix inflammatory degradation. RESULTS: Chondrocyte viability was not affected, and proliferation was dose-dependently increased. The gene expression of all pro-inflammatory mediators was significantly and dose-independently reduced, except for that of IL-1ß and IL-8. Immunoblotting corroborated this effect for inducible NO synthase (NOS2). Secreted matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) was reduced to almost basal levels by the PRP-R from PPP. Increasing platelet dosage led to progressive loss to this anti-catabolic ability. Safranin O and toluidine blue stains supported the beneficial effect of low platelet dosage on cartilage matrix preservation. CONCLUSION: We have developed a methodology to prepare PRP releasates using the absolute platelet concentration as the standardization parameter. Using this approach, the composition of the resulting PRP derived product is independent of the donor initial basal platelet count, thereby allowing the evaluation of its effects objectively and reproducibly. In our OA models, PRP-Rs showed antiinflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-catabolic properties. Platelet enrichment could favor chondrocyte proliferation but is not necessary for the above effects and could even be counter-productive.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242676

RESUMO

Upon inflammation, monocyte-derived macrophages (MΦ) infiltrate blood vessels to regulate several processes involved in vascular pathophysiology. However, little is known about the mediators involved. Macrophage polarization is crucial for a fast and efficient initial response (GM-MΦ) and a good resolution (M-MΦ) of the inflammatory process. The functional activity of polarized MΦ is exerted mainly through their secretome, which can target other cell types, including endothelial cells. Endoglin (CD105) is a cell surface receptor expressed by endothelial cells and MΦ that is markedly upregulated in inflammation and critically involved in angiogenesis. In addition, a soluble form of endoglin with anti-angiogenic activity has been described in inflammation-associated pathologies. The aim of this work was to identify components of the MΦ secretome involved in the shedding of soluble endoglin. We find that the GM-MΦ secretome contains metalloprotease 12 (MMP-12), a GM-MΦ specific marker that may account for the anti-angiogenic activity of the GM-MΦ secretome. Cell surface endoglin is present in both GM-MΦ and M-MΦ, but soluble endoglin is only detected in GM-MΦ culture supernatants. Moreover, MMP-12 is responsible for the shedding of soluble endoglin in vitro and in vivo by targeting membrane-bound endoglin in both MΦ and endothelial cells. These data demonstrate a direct correlation between GM-MΦ polarization, MMP-12, and soluble endoglin expression and function. By targeting endothelial cells, MMP-12 may represent a novel mediator involved in vascular homeostasis.

13.
J Mol Biol ; 431(12): 2298-2319, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026448

RESUMO

The INhibitor of Growth (ING) family of tumor suppressors regulates the transcriptional state of chromatin by recruiting remodeling complexes to sites with histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). This modification is recognized by the plant homeodomain (PHD) present at the C-terminus of the five ING proteins. ING5 facilitates histone H3 acetylation by the HBO1 complex, and also H4 acetylation by the MOZ/MORF complex. We show that ING5 forms homodimers through its N-terminal domain, which folds independently into an elongated coiled-coil structure. The central region of ING5, which contains the nuclear localization sequence, is flexible and disordered, but it binds dsDNA with micromolar affinity. NMR analysis of the full-length protein reveals that the two PHD fingers of the dimer are chemically equivalent and independent of the rest of the molecule, and they bind H3K4me3 in the same way as the isolated PHD. We have observed that ING5 can form heterodimers with the highly homologous ING4, and that two of three primary tumor-associated mutants in the N-terminal domain strongly destabilize the coiled-coil structure. They also affect cell proliferation and cell cycle phase distribution, suggesting a driver role in cancer progression.

14.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 15(2): 90-96, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-3369

RESUMO

Objetivos: Describir la metodología del estudio de prevalencia de las enfermedades reumáticas en la población adulta en España, EPISER 2016, así como sus fortalezas y limitaciones. El objetivo del proyecto es estimar la prevalencia de artritis reumatoide (AR), artropatía psoriásica (APs), espondilitis anquilosante (EA), lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), síndrome de Sjögren (SS), artrosis (de rodilla, cadera, manos, columna cervical y lumbar), fibromialgia, gota y fractura osteoporótica clínica. Material y método: Estudio transversal multicéntrico de base poblacional en el que participan 45 municipios de las 17 comunidades autónomas. La población de referencia está compuesta por adultos de 20 o más años residentes en España. La recogida de información se llevará a cabo mediante encuesta telefónica empleando el sistema Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI). Las sospechas diagnósticas y los diagnósticos autorreferidos serán estudiadas por reumatólogos del hospital de referencia de los municipios seleccionados. Análisis estadístico: se calcularán las prevalencias de enfermedades reumáticas mediante estimadores y sus IC del 95%. Se calcularán factores de ponderación en función de la probabilidad de selección en cada una de las etapas del muestreo. Se tendrá en cuenta la distribución de la población en España según datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Conclusiones: Los cambios sociodemográficos y en hábitos de vida durante los últimos 16 años justifican la realización de EPISER 2016. El estudio ofrecerá datos actualizados de prevalencia en AR, EA, APs, LES, SS, artrosis, fibromialgia, gota y fractura osteoporótica clínica. Los resultados permitirán comparar los datos con estudios de otros países y con el EPISER 2000


Aims: To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Material and method: Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. Statistical analysis: the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Conclusions: Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000

15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(6): 3974-3983, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903650

RESUMO

Failure of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) based on the inhibition of metalloproteinases, might be because of their constitutive expression in homeostasis, together with their network complexity. The knowledge of this network would contribute to selective target pathological conditions. In this sense, blockade of mediators produced by neighbouring joint cells, such as synovial fibroblasts (SF), would prevent cartilage damage. Thus, we studied the contribution of ADAMTS-7 and -12 from SF to cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) degradation, and the signalling pathways involved in their expression. We report for the first time in SF, the involvement of ERK-Runx2 axis and Wnt/ß-catenin signalling in ADAMTS-12 and ADAMTS-7 expressions, respectively, with the subsequent consequences in COMP degradation from cartilage extracellular matrix. After stimulation with IL-1ß or fibronectin fragments, we showed that ERK inhibition decreased Runx2 activation and ADAMTS-12 expression in OA-SF, also reducing Fn-fs-induced COMP degradation. Blockage of Wnt signalling by DKK1 reduced ADAMTS-7 and COMP degradation in OA-SF as well. In addition, Wnt7B expression was induced by IL-1ß and by itself, also increasing ADAMTS-7. Our results could contribute to the development of disease-modifying OA drugs targeting ADAMTS-7 and -12 for the prevention of extracellular matrix components degradation like COMP.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0213073, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818333

RESUMO

Research in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is increasingly focused on the discovery of biomarkers that could enable personalized treatments. The genetic biomarkers associated with the response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are among the most studied. They include 12 SNPs exhibiting promising results in the three largest genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, they still require further validation. With this aim, we assessed their association with response to TNFi in a replication study, and a meta-analysis summarizing all non-redundant data. The replication involved 755 patients with RA that were treated for the first time with a biologic drug, which was either infliximab (n = 397), etanercept (n = 155) or adalimumab (n = 203). Their DNA samples were successfully genotyped with a single-base extension multiplex method. Lamentably, none of the 12 SNPs was associated with response to the TNFi in the replication study (p > 0.05). However, a drug-stratified exploratory analysis revealed a significant association of the NUBPL rs2378945 SNP with a poor response to etanercept (B = -0.50, 95% CI = -0.82, -0.17, p = 0.003). In addition, the meta-analysis reinforced the previous association of three SNPs: rs2378945, rs12142623, and rs4651370. In contrast, five of the remaining SNPs were less associated than before, and the other four SNPs were no longer associated with the response to treatment. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of the pharmacogenetics of TNFi in RA showing that it could involve a drug-specific component and clarifying the status of the 12 GWAS-drawn SNPs.

17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(7): 1191-1200, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of mitochondrial genome variation on the DNA methylome of articular cartilage. METHODS: DNA methylation profiling was performed using data deposited in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database (accession no. GSE43269). Data were obtained for 14 cartilage samples from subjects with haplogroup J and 20 cartilage samples from subjects with haplogroup H. Subsequent validation was performed in an independent subset of 7 subjects with haplogroup J and 9 with haplogroup H by RNA-seq. Correlated genes were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction in an independent cohort of 12 subjects with haplogroup J and 12 with haplogroup H. Appropriate analyses were performed using R Bioconductor and qBasePlus software, and gene ontology analysis was conducted using DAVID version 6.8. RESULTS: DNA methylation profiling revealed 538 differentially methylated loci, while whole-transcriptome profiling identified 2,384 differentially expressed genes, between cartilage samples from subjects with haplogroup H and those with haplogroup J. Seventeen genes showed an inverse correlation between methylation and expression. In terms of gene ontology, differences in correlations between methylation and expression were also detected between cartilage from subjects with haplogroup H and those with haplogroup J, highlighting a significantly enhanced apoptotic process in cartilage from subjects with haplogroup H (P = 0.007 for methylation and P = 0.019 for expression) and repressed apoptotic process in cartilage from subjects with haplogroup J (P = 0.021 for methylation), as well as a significant enrichment of genes related to metabolic processes (P = 1.93 × 10-4 for methylation and P = 6.79 x 10-4 for expression) and regulation of gene expression (P = 0.012 for methylation) in cartilage from subjects with haplogroup H, and to developmental processes (P = 0.015 for methylation and P = 8.25 x 10-12 for expression) in cartilage from subjects with haplogroup J. CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial DNA variation differentially associates with the methylation status of articular cartilage by acting on key mechanisms involved in osteoarthritis, such as apoptosis and metabolic and developmental processes.

18.
J Biol Chem ; 294(11): 3947-3956, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655288

RESUMO

Human DNA polymerase δ is essential for DNA replication and acts in conjunction with the processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition to its catalytic subunit (p125), pol δ comprises three regulatory subunits (p50, p68, and p12). PCNA interacts with all of these subunits, but only the interaction with p68 has been structurally characterized. Here, we report solution NMR-, isothermal calorimetry-, and X-ray crystallography-based analyses of the p12-PCNA interaction, which takes part in the modulation of the rate and fidelity of DNA synthesis by pol δ. We show that p12 binds with micromolar affinity to the classical PIP-binding pocket of PCNA via a highly atypical PIP box located at the p12 N terminus. Unlike the canonical PIP box of p68, the PIP box of p12 lacks the conserved glutamine; binds through a 2-fork plug made of an isoleucine and a tyrosine residue at +3 and +8 positions, respectively; and is stabilized by an aspartate at +6 position, which creates a network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. These findings add to growing evidence that PCNA can bind a diverse range of protein sequences that may be broadly grouped as PIP-like motifs as has been previously suggested.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase III/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Calorimetria , Domínio Catalítico , DNA Polimerase III/química , DNA Polimerase III/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/química , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/isolamento & purificação
19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(7): 1056-1069, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of the anti-interleukin-1α/ß (anti-IL-1α/ß) dual variable domain immunoglobulin lutikizumab (ABT-981) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and evidence of synovitis. METHODS: Patients (n = 350; 347 analyzed) with Kellgren/Lawrence grade 2-3 knee OA and synovitis (determined by magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or ultrasound) were randomized to receive placebo or lutikizumab 25, 100, or 200 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 50 weeks. The coprimary end points were change from baseline in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score at week 16 and change from baseline in MRI-assessed synovitis at week 26. RESULTS: The WOMAC pain score at week 16 had improved significantly versus placebo with lutikizumab 100 mg (P = 0.050) but not with the 25 mg or 200 mg doses. Beyond week 16, the WOMAC pain score was reduced in all groups but was not significantly different between lutikizumab-treated and placebo-treated patients. Changes from baseline in MRI-assessed synovitis at week 26 and other key symptom- and most structure-related end points at weeks 26 and 52 were not significantly different between the lutikizumab and placebo groups. Injection site reactions, neutropenia, and discontinuations due to neutropenia were more frequent with lutikizumab versus placebo. Reductions in neutrophil and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels plateaued with lutikizumab 100 mg, with further reductions not observed with the 200 mg dose. Immunogenic response to lutikizumab did not meaningfully affect systemic lutikizumab concentrations. CONCLUSION: The limited improvement in the WOMAC pain score and the lack of synovitis improvement with lutikizumab, together with published results from trials of other IL-1 inhibitors, suggest that IL-1 inhibition is not an effective analgesic/antiinflammatory therapy in most patients with knee OA and associated synovitis.

20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4809, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442944

RESUMO

The costimulation of immune cells using first-generation anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has demonstrated anti-tumor activity in human trials. Further clinical development, however, is restricted by significant off-tumor toxicities associated with FcγR interactions. Here, we have designed an Fc-free tumor-targeted 4-1BB-agonistic trimerbody, 1D8N/CEGa1, consisting of three anti-4-1BB single-chain variable fragments and three anti-EGFR single-domain antibodies positioned in an extended hexagonal conformation around the collagen XVIII homotrimerization domain. The1D8N/CEGa1 trimerbody demonstrated high-avidity binding to 4-1BB and EGFR and a potent in vitro costimulatory capacity in the presence of EGFR. The trimerbody rapidly accumulates in EGFR-positive tumors and exhibits anti-tumor activity similar to IgG-based 4-1BB-agonistic mAbs. Importantly, treatment with 1D8N/CEGa1 does not induce systemic inflammatory cytokine production or hepatotoxicity associated with IgG-based 4-1BB agonists. These results implicate FcγR interactions in the 4-1BB-agonist-associated immune abnormalities, and promote the use of the non-canonical antibody presented in this work for safe and effective costimulatory strategies in cancer immunotherapy.

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