*Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(2): 266-274, 2019 02 01.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30277641

##### RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a novel computational algorithm based on three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging in estimating fractional flow reserve (IVUSFR ), compared to gold-standard invasive measurements (FFRINVAS ). BACKGROUND: IVUS provides accurate anatomical evaluation of the lumen and vessel wall and has been validated as a useful tool to guide percutaneous coronary intervention. However, IVUS poorly represents the functional status (i.e., flow-related information) of the imaged vessel. METHODS: Patients with known or suspected stable coronary disease scheduled for elective cardiac catheterization underwent FFRINVAS measurement and IVUS imaging in the same procedure to evaluate intermediate lesions. A processing methodology was applied on IVUS to generate a computational mesh condensing the geometric characteristics of the vessel. Computation of IVUSFR was obtained from patient-level morphological definition of arterial districts and from territory-specific boundary conditions. FFRINVAS measurements were dichotomized at the 0.80 threshold to define hemodynamically significant lesions. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients with 34 vessels were analyzed. IVUSFR significantly correlated (r = 0.79; P < 0.001) and showed good agreement with FFRINVAS , with a mean difference of -0.008 ± 0.067 (P = 0.47). IVUSFR presented an overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 91%, 89%, 92%, 80%, and 96%, respectively, to detect significant stenosis. CONCLUSION: The computational processing of IVUSFR is a new method that allows the evaluation of the functional significance of coronary stenosis in an accurate way, enriching the anatomical information of grayscale IVUS.

*Sensors (Basel) ; 18(9)2018 Aug 31.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30200327

##### RESUMO

This paper presents features and advanced settings for a robot manipulator controller in a fully interconnected intelligent manufacturing system. Every system is made up of different agents. As also occurs in the Internet of Things and smart cities, the big issue here is to ensure not only that implementation is key, but also that there is better common understanding among the main players. The commitment of all agents is still required to translate that understanding into practice in Industry 4.0. Mutual interactions such as machine-to-machine and man-to-machine are solved in real time with cyber physical capabilities. This paper explores intelligent manufacturing through the context of industrial robot manipulators within a Smart Factory. An online communication algorithm with proven intelligent manufacturing abilities is proposed to solve real-time interactions. The algorithm is developed to manage and control all robot parameters in real-time. The proposed tool in conjunction with the intelligent manufacturing core incorporates data from the robot manipulators into the industrial big data to manage the factory. The novelty is a communication tool that implements the Industry 4.0 standards to allow communications among the required entities in the complete system. It is achieved by the developed tool and implemented in a real robot and simulation.

*Front Physiol ; 9: 292, 2018.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29643815

##### RESUMO

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and erosion are the most important mechanisms underlying the sudden plaque growth, responsible for acute coronary syndromes and even fatal cardiac events. Advances in the understanding of the culprit plaque structure and composition are already reported in the literature, however, there is still much work to be done toward in-vivo plaque visualization and mechanical characterization to assess plaque stability, patient risk, diagnosis and treatment prognosis. In this work, a methodology for the mechanical characterization of the vessel wall plaque and tissues is proposed based on the combination of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging processing, data assimilation and continuum mechanics models within a high performance computing (HPC) environment. Initially, the IVUS study is gated to obtain volumes of image sequences corresponding to the vessel of interest at different cardiac phases. These sequences are registered against the sequence of the end-diastolic phase to remove transversal and longitudinal rigid motions prescribed by the moving environment due to the heartbeat. Then, optical flow between the image sequences is computed to obtain the displacement fields of the vessel (each associated to a certain pressure level). The obtained displacement fields are regarded as observations within a data assimilation paradigm, which aims to estimate the material parameters of the tissues within the vessel wall. Specifically, a reduced order unscented Kalman filter is employed, endowed with a forward operator which amounts to address the solution of a hyperelastic solid mechanics model in the finite strain regime taking into account the axially stretched state of the vessel, as well as the effect of internal and external forces acting on the arterial wall. Due to the computational burden, a HPC approach is mandatory. Hence, the data assimilation and computational solid mechanics computations are parallelized at three levels: (i) a Kalman filter level; (ii) a cardiac phase level; and (iii) a mesh partitioning level. To illustrate the capabilities of this novel methodology toward the in-vivo analysis of patient-specific vessel constituents, mechanical material parameters are estimated using in-silico and in-vivo data retrieved from IVUS studies. Limitations and potentials of this approach are exposed and discussed.

*Front Physiol ; 9: 148, 2018.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29551979

##### RESUMO

We propose a detailed CellML model of the human cerebral circulation that runs faster than real time on a desktop computer and is designed for use in clinical settings when the speed of response is important. A lumped parameter mathematical model, which is based on a one-dimensional formulation of the flow of an incompressible fluid in distensible vessels, is constructed using a bond graph formulation to ensure mass conservation and energy conservation. The model includes arterial vessels with geometric and anatomical data based on the ADAN circulation model. The peripheral beds are represented by lumped parameter compartments. We compare the hemodynamics predicted by the bond graph formulation of the cerebral circulation with that given by a classical one-dimensional Navier-Stokes model working on top of the whole-body ADAN model. Outputs from the bond graph model, including the pressure and flow signatures and blood volumes, are compared with physiological data.

*Physiol Meas ; 39(1): 015006, 2018 02 01.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29205172

##### RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Blood flow waveforms-essential data for hemodynamic modeling-are often in practice unavailable to researchers. The objectives of this work were to assess the variability among the waveforms for a clinically relevant older population, and develop data-based methods for addressing the missing waveform data for hemodynamic studies. APPROACH: We analyzed 272 flow waveforms from the internal carotid arteries of older patients (73 ± 13 yr) with moderate cardiovascular disease, and used these data to develop methods to guide new approaches for hemodynamic studies. MAIN RESULTS: Profound variations in waveform parameters were found within the aged population that were not seen in published data for young subjects. Common features in the aged population relative to the young included a larger systole-to-diastole flow rate ratio, increased flow during late systole, and absence of a dicrotic notch. Eight waveforms were identified that collectively represent the range of waveforms in the older population. A relationship between waveform shape and flow rate was obtained that, in conjunction with equations relating flow rate to diameter, can be used to provide individualized waveforms for patient-specific geometries. The dependence of flow rate on diameter was statistically different between male and female patients. SIGNIFICANCE: It was shown that a single archetypal waveform cannot well-represent the diverse waveforms found within an aged population, although this approach is frequently used in studies of flow in the cerebral vasculature. Motivated by these results, we provided a set of eight waveforms that can be used to assess the hemodynamic uncertainty associated with the lack of patient-specific waveform data. We also provided a methodology for generating individualized waveforms when patient gender, age, and cardiovascular disease state are known. These data-driven approaches can be used to devise more relevant in vitro or in silico intra-cranial hemodynamic studies for older patients.

##### Assuntos

Artérias Cerebrais/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Software , Ultrassonografia Doppler*Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2(3): 108-117, 2017 Sep.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28989801

##### RESUMO

RATIONALE: The role of hypertension in cerebral small vessel disease is poorly understood. At the base of the brain (the 'vascular centrencephalon'), short straight arteries transmit blood pressure directly to small resistance vessels; the cerebral convexity is supplied by long arteries with many branches, resulting in a drop in blood pressure. Hypertensive small vessel disease (lipohyalinosis) causes the classically described lacunar infarctions at the base of the brain; however, periventricular white matter intensities (WMIs) seen on MRI and WMI in subcortical areas over the convexity, which are often also called 'lacunes', probably have different aetiologies. OBJECTIVES: We studied pressure gradients from proximal to distal regions of the cerebral vasculature by mathematical modelling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood flow/pressure equations were solved in an Anatomically Detailed Arterial Network (ADAN) model, considering a normotensive and a hypertensive case. Model parameters were suitably modified to account for structural changes in arterial vessels in the hypertensive scenario. Computations predict a marked drop in blood pressure from large and medium-sized cerebral vessels to cerebral peripheral beds. When blood pressure in the brachial artery is 192/113 mm Hg, the pressure in the small arterioles of the posterior parietal artery bed would be only 117/68 mm Hg. In the normotensive case, with blood pressure in the brachial artery of 117/75 mm Hg, the pressure in small parietal arterioles would be only 59/38 mm Hg. CONCLUSION: These findings have important implications for understanding small vessel disease. The marked pressure gradient across cerebral arteries should be taken into account when evaluating the pathogenesis of small WMIs on MRI. Hypertensive small vessel disease, affecting the arterioles at the base of the brain should be distinguished from small vessel disease in subcortical regions of the convexity and venous disease in the periventricular white matter.

*Microvasc Res ; 112: 53-64, 2017 07.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28300547

##### RESUMO

Angiogenesis is both a physiological and a pathological process of great complexity, which is difficult to measure objectively and automatically. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) prepared for intravital-microscopy (IVM) has been used to characterize microvascular functions in many studies and was chosen to investigate microvascular characteristics observed in normal non-infected hamsters as compared to those HCPs parasitized by Trypanosoma cruzi. Images of HCPs captured at IVM were subjected to computer based measurements of angiogenesis and histamine-induced macromolecular (FITC-dextran) leakage with an image segmentation approach that has the capacity to discriminate between fluorescence emitted by macromolecular tracers inside the vasculature and in the extravascular space. We present such an automatic segmentation methodology using known tools from image processing field that, to our knowledge, have not been tested in IVM images. We have compared this methodology with a recently published segmentation strategy based on image intensity thresholding. Our method renders an accurate and robust segmentation of blood vessels for different microvascular scenarios, normal and pathological. Application of the proposed strategy for objective and automatic measurement of angiogenesis detection was explored in detail.

##### Assuntos

Algoritmos , Doença de Chagas/patologia , Bochecha/irrigação sanguínea , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Microvasos/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microvasos/parasitologia , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade*IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 64(4): 890-903, 2017 04.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-27323357

##### RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a fundamental imaging technique for atherosclerotic plaque assessment, interventionist guidance, and, ultimately, as a tissue characterization tool. The studies acquired by this technique present the spatial description of the vessel during the cardiac cycle. However, the study frames are not properly sorted. As gating methods deal with the cardiac phase classification of the frames, the gated studies lack motion compensation between vessel and catheter. In this study, we develop registration strategies to arrange the vessel data into its rightful spatial sequence. METHODS: Registration is performed by compensating longitudinal and transversal relative motion between vessel and catheter. Transversal motion is identified through maximum likelihood estimator optimization, while longitudinal motion is estimated by a neighborhood similarity estimator among the study frames. A strongly coupled implementation is proposed to compensate for both motion components at once. Loosely coupled implementations (DLT and DTL) decouple the registration process, resulting in more computationally efficient algorithms in detriment of the size of the set of candidate solutions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The DTL outperforms DLT and coupled implementations in terms of accuracy by a factor of 1.9 and 1.4, respectively. Sensitivity analysis shows that perivascular tissue must be considered to obtain the best registration outcome. Evidences suggest that the method is able to measure axial strain along the vessel wall. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed registration sorts the IVUS frames for spatial location, which is crucial for a correct interpretation of the vessel wall kinematics along the cardiac phases.

##### Assuntos

Algoritmos , Técnicas de Imagem de Sincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Técnica de Subtração , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Artefatos , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/instrumentação , Movimento (Física) , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/instrumentação*Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng ; 33(8): e2843, 2017 08.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-27781397

##### RESUMO

This work presents a detailed investigation of a parameter estimation approach on the basis of the reduced-order unscented Kalman filter (ROUKF) in the context of 1-dimensional blood flow models. In particular, the main aims of this study are (1) to investigate the effects of using real measurements versus synthetic data for the estimation procedure (i.e., numerical results of the same in silico model, perturbed with noise) and (2) to identify potential difficulties and limitations of the approach in clinically realistic applications to assess the applicability of the filter to such setups. For these purposes, the present numerical study is based on a recently published in vitro model of the arterial network, for which experimental flow and pressure measurements are available at few selected locations. To mimic clinically relevant situations, we focus on the estimation of terminal resistances and arterial wall parameters related to vessel mechanics (Young's modulus and wall thickness) using few experimental observations (at most a single pressure or flow measurement per vessel). In all cases, we first perform a theoretical identifiability analysis on the basis of the generalized sensitivity function, comparing then the results owith the ROUKF, using either synthetic or experimental data, to results obtained using reference parameters and to available measurements.

##### Assuntos

Artérias/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Dinâmica não Linear , Algoritmos , Aorta , Engenharia Biomédica/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rigidez Vascular*J Physiol ; 594(23): 6909-6928, 2016 12 01.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-27506597

##### RESUMO

Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well-established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo-skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real-time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model.

##### Assuntos

Circulação Sanguínea , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Software*Int J Cardiol ; 221: 1013-21, 2016 Oct 15.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-27441484

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geometrical risk factors for CAD have been previously proposed before. To date, however, the effect of those factors is not conclusive, and remains as an open research field. Here, we hypothesize that some of these factors have a genetic component explaining inter-individual variability. OBJECTIVE: To detect heritability indicators of the coronary arterial geometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A patient sample of 48 individuals, consisting of 24 siblings, was used. Three dimensional geometry of the LAD, LCx and RCA were reconstructed from standard CCTA. Arterial models were characterized in terms of 20+ geometric descriptors (phenotypes). A comprehensive statistical analysis to detect potential heritability of such phenotypes was employed. Heritability was assessed by means of several statistical indexes. Finally, the association of phenotypes to stenotic lesion is also reported. RESULTS: The RCA scored positive indications for heritability in 15+ phenotypes, while the LAD in 10 and the LCx in only 3 phenotypes. Association between presence of lesion and phenotypes was higher in the LAD, 10+ phenotypes, while for the LCx only 2 phenotypes were significantly associated, and none association was found for the RCA. CONCLUSION: The RCA showed potential heritability for the largest number of phenotypes, followed by the LAD. The LCx presents the weaker association of morphology among siblings. Regarding lesion-geometry associations, the there are hints of an underlying relation in the LAD, the LCx featured a weaker association and the RCA showed none. This difference could be related to the different hemodynamic environments in these arteries.

##### Assuntos

Vasos Coronários , Idoso , Anatomia Comparada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Irmãos*Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng ; 32(10)2016 10.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-26695621

##### RESUMO

In recent years, the complexity of vessel networks for one-dimensional blood flow models has significantly increased, because of enhanced anatomical detail or automatic peripheral vasculature generation, for example. This fact, along with the application of these models in uncertainty quantification and parameter estimation poses the need for extremely efficient numerical solvers. The aim of this work is to present a finite volume solver for one-dimensional blood flow simulations in networks of elastic and viscoelastic vessels, featuring high-order space-time accuracy and local time stepping (LTS). The solver is built on (i) a high-order finite volume type numerical scheme, (ii) a high-order treatment of the numerical solution at internal vertexes of the network, often called junctions, and (iii) an accurate LTS strategy. The accuracy of the proposed methodology is verified by empirical convergence tests. Then, the resulting LTS scheme is applied to arterial networks of increasing complexity and spatial scale heterogeneity, with a number of one-dimensional segments ranging from a few tens up to several thousands and vessel lengths ranging from less than a millimeter up to tens of centimeters, in order to evaluate its computational cost efficiency. The proposed methodology can be extended to any other hyperbolic system for which network applications are relevant. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

##### Assuntos

Simulação por Computador , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Algoritmos , Humanos*Biomech Model Mechanobiol ; 15(3): 593-627, 2016 06.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-26329641

##### RESUMO

In this work, we address the simulation of three-dimensional arterial blood flow and its effect on the stress state of arterial walls. The novel contribution is the unprecedented combination of several modeling techniques to account for (1) the fact that known configurations for the arterial wall are in a preloaded state, (2) the compliance of the vessel segments, (3) proper boundary data over the non-physical interfaces resulting from the isolation of an arterial district from the rest of the arterial tree, (4) the presence of surrounding tissues in which the vessel is embedded and (5) residual stress state due to pre-stretch. Firstly, we formulate both the forward mechanical problem when the reference (zero-load) configuration is assumed to be known and, the preload problem arising when the known domain is a configuration at equilibrium with a certain load state (typically due to internal pressure and tethering forces). Then, two additional complexities are faced: the fluid-structure interaction problem that follows when the compliant vessels are coupled with the blood flow, and the introduction of non-physical boundaries coming from the artificial isolation of the arterial district from the original vessel. This, in turn, posses the problem of coupling dimensionally heterogeneous models to incorporate the effect of upstream and downstream systemic impedances. Additionally, a viscoelastic support on the external surface of the vessel is also incorporated. Two examples are presented to quantify in a physiologically consistent scenario the differences in simulation results when either considering or not the preload state of arterial walls. These computational simulations shed light on the validity of simplifying hypotheses in most hemodynamic models.

##### Assuntos

Simulação por Computador , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Algoritmos , Artérias/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Hemorreologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Suporte de Carga*Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng ; 31(10)2015 Oct.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-26100764

##### RESUMO

Haemodynamical simulations using one-dimensional (1D) computational models exhibit many of the features of the systemic circulation under normal and diseased conditions. Recent interest in verifying 1D numerical schemes has led to the development of alternative experimental setups and the use of three-dimensional numerical models to acquire data not easily measured in vivo. In most studies to date, only one particular 1D scheme is tested. In this paper, we present a systematic comparison of six commonly used numerical schemes for 1D blood flow modelling: discontinuous Galerkin, locally conservative Galerkin, Galerkin least-squares finite element method, finite volume method, finite difference MacCormack method and a simplified trapezium rule method. Comparisons are made in a series of six benchmark test cases with an increasing degree of complexity. The accuracy of the numerical schemes is assessed by comparison with theoretical results, three-dimensional numerical data in compatible domains with distensible walls or experimental data in a network of silicone tubes. Results show a good agreement among all numerical schemes and their ability to capture the main features of pressure, flow and area waveforms in large arteries. All the information used in this study, including the input data for all benchmark cases, experimental data where available and numerical solutions for each scheme, is made publicly available online, providing a comprehensive reference data set to support the development of 1D models and numerical schemes.

##### Assuntos

Artérias/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Aorta Torácica/fisiologia , Benchmarking , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares*IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 62(12): 2867-77, 2015 Dec.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-26111388

##### RESUMO

UNLABELLED: GOAL: Coronary intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a fundamental imaging technique for atherosclerotic plaque assessment. However, volume-based data retrieved from IVUS studies can be misleading due to the artifacts generated by the cardiac motion, hindering diagnostic, and visualization of the vessel condition. Then, we propose an image-based gating method that improves the performance of the preexisting methods, delivering a gating in an appropriate time for clinical practice. METHODS: We propose a fully automatic method to synergically integrate motion signals from different gating methods to improve the cardiac phase estimation. Additionally, we present a local extrema identification method that provides a more accurate extraction of a cardiac phase and, also, a scheme for multiple phase extraction mandatory for elastography-type studies. RESULTS: A comparison with three state-of-the-art methods is performed over 61 in-vivo IVUS studies including a wide range of physiological situations. The results show that the proposed strategy offers: 1) a more accurate cardiac phase extraction; 2) a lower frame oversampling and/or omission in the extracted phase data (error of 1.492 ±0.977 heartbeats per study, mean ± SD); 3) a more accurate and robust heartbeat period detection with a Bland-Altman coefficient of reproducibility (RPC) of 0.23 s, while the second closest method presents an RPC of 0.36 s. SIGNIFICANCE: The integration of motion signals performed by our method shown an improvement of the gating accuracy and reliability.

##### Assuntos

Ecocardiografia/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos*IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 62(2): 736-53, 2015 Feb.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-25347874

##### RESUMO

Simulation platforms are increasingly becoming complementary tools for cutting-edge cardiovascular research. The interplay among structural properties of the arterial wall, morphometry, anatomy, wave propagation phenomena, and ultimately, cardiovascular diseases continues to be poorly understood. Accurate models are powerful tools to shed light on these open problems. We developed an anatomically detailed computational model of the arterial vasculature to conduct 1-D blood flow simulations to serve as simulation infrastructure to aid cardiovascular research. An average arterial vasculature of a man was outlined in 3-D space to serve as geometrical substrate for the mathematical model. The architecture of this model comprises almost every arterial vessel acknowledged in the medical/anatomical literature, with a resolution down to the luminal area of perforator arteries. Over 2000 arterial vessels compose the model. Anatomical, physiological, and mechanical considerations were employed for the set up of model parameters and to determine criteria for blood flow distribution. Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate blood flow and wave propagation phenomena in such arterial network. A sensitivity analysis was developed to unveil the contributions of model parameters to the conformation of the pressure waveforms. In addition, parameters were modified to target model to a patient-specific scenario. On the light of the knowledge domain, we conclude that the present model features excellent descriptive and predictive capabilities in both patient-generic and patient-specific cases, presenting a new step toward integrating an unprecedented anatomical description, morphometric, and simulations data to help in understanding complex arterial blood flow phenomena and related cardiovascular diseases.

##### Assuntos

Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Artérias/fisiologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia*Biomech Model Mechanobiol ; 13(6): 1303-30, 2014 Nov.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-24682727

##### RESUMO

Development of blood flow distribution criteria is a mandatory step toward developing computational models and numerical simulations of the systemic circulation. In the present work, we (i) present a systematic approach based on anatomical and physiological considerations to distribute the blood flow in a 1D anatomically detailed model of the arterial network and (ii) develop a numerical procedure to calibrate resistive parameters in terminal models in order to effectively satisfy such flow distribution. For the first goal, we merge data collected from the specialized medical literature with anatomical concepts such as vascular territories to determine blood flow supply to specific (encephalon, kidneys, etc.) and distributed (muscles, skin, etc.) organs. Overall, 28 entities representing the main specific organs are accounted for in the detailed description of the arterial topology that we use as model substrate. In turn, 116 vascular territories are considered as the basic blocks that compose the distributed organs throughout the whole body. For the second goal, Windkessel models are used to represent the peripheral beds, and the values of the resistive parameters are computed applying a Newton method to a parameter identification problem to guarantee the supply of the correct flow fraction to each terminal location according to the given criteria. Finally, it is shown that, by means of the criteria developed, and for a rather standard set of model parameters, the model predicts physiologically realistic pressure and flow waveforms.

##### Assuntos

Algoritmos , Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Artérias/fisiologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Calibragem , Elasticidade , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Dinâmica não Linear , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pressão*Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng ; 29(3): 408-27, 2013 Mar.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-23345261

##### RESUMO

This work presents a generic and efficient black-box approach for the strong iterative coupling of dimensionally heterogeneous flow models in computational hemodynamics. A heterogeneous model of the cardiovascular system is formed by several vascular black-box components, which are connected through coupling equations. The associated system of equations is solved using the Broyden algorithm. In addition, a multiple time-stepping strategy is introduced to meet different component requirements. The proposed algorithm is employed to split a 3D-1D-0D closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system into corresponding black-box components standing for the 3D (specific vessels), 1D (systemic arteries/peripheral vessels), and 0D (venous/cardiac/pulmonary circulation) components. Examples of application are presented showing the robustness and suitability of this novel approach.