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1.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786710

RESUMO

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome and increased cardiovascular risk. Adipokines are biologically active, pleotropic molecules which have been involved in the development of IR and in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to analyze serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin in patients with HS, and investigate their possible associations with IR, HS risk and disease severity. This case-control study enrolled 137 non-diabetic individuals (76 HS-patients and 61 age and sex-matched controls). Serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, and the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) were measured in all the participants. Serum adiponectin concentrations were found to be significantly lower, and leptin, resistin and visfatin levels were significantly higher in HS-patients than in controls. These differences remained significant even after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index, except for leptin. In a multivariate regression analysis, HOMA-IR was inversely correlated with adiponectin and positively associated with resistin levels. Furthermore, serum levels of resistin and visfatin were independently associated with HS risk. However, we found no association between serum levels of adipokines and HS severity. Our results suggest that reduced adiponectin and increased resistin serum levels may be surrogate biomarkers for IR in patients with HS. Moreover, resistin and visfatin might be independent risk factors for the development of HS.

2.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the addition of carotid ultrasound into composite cardiovascular risk (CVR) scores has been found effective for identifying patients with inflammatory arthritis and high CVR, we aimed to determine if its use would facilitate the reclassification of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) into the very-high-risk SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) category and whether this might be related to disease features. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 206 patients who fulfilled CASPAR criteria for PsA and 197 controls. We assessed lipid profile, SCORE, disease activity measurements, and the presence of carotid plaques and carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasonography. A multivariable regression analysis, adjusted for classic CVR factors, was performed to evaluate if the risk of reclassification could be explained by disease-related features and to assess the most parsimonious combination of risk reclassification predictors. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of patients were reclassified into a very-high SCORE risk category after carotid ultrasound compared to 26% of controls (p=0.000). Patients included in the low-risk SCORE category were those who were more commonly reclassified (30% vs. 14%, p=0.002). The DAPSA score was associated with reclassification (beta coefficient 1.10 [95%CI 1.02-1.19], p=0.019) after adjusting for age and traditional CVR factors. A model containing SCORE plus age, statin use, and DAPSA score yielded the highest discriminatory accuracy compared to the SCORE alone model (AUC 0.863 [95%CI 0.789-0.936] vs. 0.716 [95%CI 0.668-0.764], p=0.000). CONCLUSION: PsA patients are more frequently reclassified into the very-high SCORE risk category following carotid ultrasound assessment than controls. This was independently explained by the disease activity.

3.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a leading cause of mortality in patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD). Lung transplantation has become a viable option for patients with end-stage CTD-ILD. However, patients with CTD are often considered suboptimal candidates for lung transplantation because of concerns of worse outcomes. We assessed post-transplant survival of patients with CTD-ILD compared to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent lung transplantation for CTD-ILD at a single referral centre for lung transplantation in Northern Spain between 1998 and 2018 were reviewed. This cohort was compared with patients with IPF (group-matched for age ±3.3 years, transplant year and use of basiliximab induction previous to transplant). Cumulative survival rates after transplantation were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups using the log-rank test. RESULTS: We studied 26 patients with CTD-ILD and 26 patients with IPF. The underlying diseases of CTD-ILD patients were rheumatoid arthritis (n=9), scleroderma (n=6), Sjögren's syndrome (n=4), ANCA-associated vasculitis (n=3), anti-synthetase syndrome (n=2), and dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus (1 each). Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. CTD-ILD patients experienced acute graft rejection less commonly than those with IPF (32.0% vs. 62.5%; p=0.032). However, a non-statistically significant increased frequency of chronic graft rejection was observed in CTD-ILD patients (20.0% vs. 8.3%; p=0.417). In this regard, the 5-year cumulative survival rates after transplantation was reduced in CTD-ILD (42.4% vs. 65.8%) but the difference did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.075). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term post-transplant survival in Northern Spanish patients with CTD-ILD is reduced compared with IPF.

4.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 165: 221-229, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904473

RESUMO

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory disease characterized by bilateral pain involving predominantly the shoulders and proximal aspects of the arms and less commonly the neck and the pelvic girdle. This review discusses briefly the main epidemiological data and clinical features of this condition. Especial attention is paid in the management of the disease. For this reason, both the classic management and the impact of new therapies are discussed in depth. In general, patients with PMR experience a rapid response to 12.5-25 mg/prednisone/day in less than a week. Patients with poor response to glucocorticoids or with relapsing disease require other therapies aimed mainly to spare glucocorticoids. Among them, methotrexate is the most commonly used. Nevertheless, different studies indicate that this agent yields only a modest effect. Biologic therapies against the main cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of the disease have been used in refractory patients. However, randomized controlled trials do not support the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in PMR. In contrast, several case series and retrospective studies highlight the efficacy of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor tocilizumab in PMR. Nonetheless, controlled trials are needed to fully establish the beneficial effect of this agent. The potential favorable effect of the Janus-kinase inhibitors and new anti-interleukin-6 antagonists remains to be determined.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2777, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808881

RESUMO

Behçet's disease (BD) is an immune-mediated systemic disorder with a well-established genetic base. In a previous study, using a next generation sequencing approach, we found many rare variants and some functional polymorphisms in genes related to autoinflammatory syndromes (AID): CECR1, MEFV, MVK, NLRP3, NOD2, PSTPIP1 and TNFRSF1A in our BD cohort. Our strategy did not allow us to establish either number of patients with variants, proportion of individuals accumulating them or relationship with other genetic factors. With the goal to answer these questions, the individual samples were sequenced. Additionally, three functional polymorphisms: NLRP3 p.Gln703Lys, NOD2 p.Arg702Trp and p.Val955Ile were genotyped using TaqMan assays. A total of 98 patients (27.6%) carried at least one rare variant and 13 of them (3.7%) accumulated two or three. Functional regression model analysis suggests epistatic interaction between B51 and MEFV (P = 0.003). A suggestive protective association of the minor allele of NOD2 p.Arg702Trp (P = 0.01) was found in both, B51 positive and negative individuals. Therefore, a high percentage of patients with BD have rare variants in AID genes. Our results suggest that the association of MEFV with BD could be modulated by the HLA molecules; whereas the protective effect of NOD2 p.Arg702Trp would be independent of HLA.

6.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 200: 85-94, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a leading cause of blindness. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in refractory CME. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients with CME secondary to noninfectious uveitis who had inadequate response to corticosteroids and at least 1 conventional immunosuppressive drug, and in most cases to other biological agents, were studied. CME was defined as central retinal thickness greater than 300 µm. The primary outcome measure was macular thickness. Intraocular inflammation, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and corticosteroid-sparing effect were also analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients (mean ± standard deviation age 33.6 ± 18.9 years; 17 women) with CME were assessed. Underlying diseases associated with uveitis-related CME are juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n = 9), Behçet disease (n = 7), birdshot retinochoroidopathy (n = 4), idiopathic (n = 4), and sarcoidosis (n = 1). The ocular patterns were panuveitis (n = 9), anterior uveitis (n = 7), posterior uveitis (n = 5), and intermediate uveitis (n = 4). Most patients had CME in both eyes (n = 24). TCZ was used in monotherapy (n = 11) or combined with conventional immunosuppressive drugs. Regardless of the underlying disease, compared to baseline, a statistically significant improvement in macular thickness (415.7 ± 177.2 vs 259.1 ± 499.5 µm; P = .00009) and BCVA (0.39 ± 0.31 vs 0.54 ± 0.33; P = .0002) was obtained, allowing us to reduce the daily dose of prednisone (15.9 ± 13.6 mg/day vs 3.1 ± 2.3 mg/day; P = .002) after 12 months of therapy. Remission was achieved in 14 patients. Only minor side effects were observed after a mean follow-up of 12.7 ± 8.34 months. CONCLUSION: Macular thickness is reduced following administration of TCZ in refractory uveitis-related CME.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(3)2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis affecting up to 30% of patients with psoriasis (Ps). To date, most of the known risk loci for PsA are shared with Ps, and identifying disease-specific variation has proven very challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic variation specific for PsA. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 835 patients with PsA and 1558 controls from Spain. Genetic association was tested at the single marker level and at the pathway level. Meta-analysis was performed with a case-control cohort of 2847 individuals from North America. To confirm the specificity of the genetic associations with PsA, we tested the associated variation using a purely cutaneous psoriasis cohort (PsC, n=614) and a rheumatoid arthritis cohort (RA, n=1191). Using network and drug-repurposing analyses, we further investigated the potential of the PsA-specific associations to guide the development of new drugs in PsA. RESULTS: We identified a new PsA risk single-nucleotide polymorphism at B3GNT2 locus (p=1.10e-08). At the pathway level, we found 14 genetic pathways significantly associated with PsA (pFDR<0.05). From these, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism pathway was confirmed to be disease-specific after comparing the PsA cohort with the cohorts of patients with PsC and RA. Finally, we identified candidate drug targets in the GAG metabolism pathway as well as new PsA indications for approved drugs. CONCLUSION: These findings provide insights into the biological mechanisms that are specific for PsA and could contribute to develop more effective therapies.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/genética , Glicosaminoglicanos/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Psoríase/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto , Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Giant cell arteritis is a vasculitis of large and middle-sized arteries that affects individuals older than 50 years. Although glucocorticoids remain the mainstay in the treatment of this vasculitis, other drugs are often required to achieve clinical remission and allow glucocorticoid discontinuation. Areas covered: The review summarizes the main biologic therapies used for the managements of GCA. Expert commentary: Although several biologic agents have been used in patients with GCA, the only biologic agent currently approved for this purpose is the recombinant humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody: tocilizumab. It has demonstrated efficacy to improve clinical symptoms, decrease the cumulative prednisone dose and reduce the frequency of relapses in clinical trials and real-life studies on patients with GCA. A trial showed that abatacept may be useful to maintain remission in GCA patients. An open-label study suggested that ustekinumab could be useful for the treatment of patients with refractory GCA. However, further studies are required to confirm if both abatacept and ustekinumab are useful as an adjunctive therapy to reduce relapses or as a glucocorticoid-sparing agent in GCA. Anakinra has been successfully used in a few patients with refractory GCA. In contrast, anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy yielded disappointing results in GCA.

9.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), insulin resistance (IR), a component of the metabolic syndrome, is closely linked to the systemic inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6. In the present study, we aimed to assess if an intravenous administration of the anti-IL-6 receptor tocilizumab may yield a rapid improvement of IR in RA. METHODS: 50 consecutive non-diabetic patients with RA refractory to methotrexate, undergoing periodic treatment with tocilizumab, were studied. Besides disease activity, serum insulin, insulin/glucose ratio, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) indexes were assessed immediately before and 1 hour after the end of an intravenous administration of tocilizumab (given in saline solution over 60 minutes). RESULTS: When comparing baseline data (immediately before) and 1 hour after finishing tocilizumab administration, we observed a dramatic decrease of the serum insulin levels and insulin/glucose ratio. Also, a statistically significant reduction of IR (HOMA-IR: mean± standard deviation immediately before: 2.62±2.03 vs. 1.65±1.15 1 hour after the end of the infusion (p<0.01) and a statistically significant increase of insulin sensitivity (QUICKI immediately before 0.34±0.03 vs. 0.37±0.04 1 hour after the end of tocilizumab infusion (p<0.01) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The intravenous administration of tocilizumab yields a rapid beneficial effect on IR and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic RA patients. These findings support the potential beneficial effect of the IL-6 blockade on the mechanisms associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in patients with RA.

10.
Rheumatol Int ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421105

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of biological therapy with cyclosporin A (CsA), azathioprine (AZA), or placebo in uveitis flares and other ocular outcomes in patients with Behçet disease. A comprehensive and sensitive search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was performed. We selected articles including: (1) adult patients with Behçet's and uveitis; (2) on biological therapies; (3) placebo or active control with CsA or AZA; (4) analyzing efficacy (number of uveitis flares, macular edema, etc.) and/or safety outcomes. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, clinical trials, and observational studies with > 10 patients were included. The selection, data collection and quality assessment (Oxford scale) was carried out by 2 reviewers independently. Nine articles of moderate quality were included (6 randomized clinical trials and 3 retrospective studies) involving 378 patients. Most of them, apart from the study drugs received systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressant drugs. Infliximab was more effective than CsA in reducing short-term uveitis flares and severe complications of retinal vasculitis in the long term. Rituximab was similar to a combination of cytotoxic drugs in improving inflammatory activity. In patients with active uveitis adalimumab was associated with a lower risk of uveitic flare or visual impairment, and in patients with inactive uveitis to a significantly lowered the risk of flare upon corticosteroid withdrawal. Secukinumab and daclizumab were not superior to placebo in reducing uveitis flares, like interferonα compared to other drugs. Our results highlight the need for better designed comparative studies on Behçet's uveitis.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13728, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213986

RESUMO

Calprotectin (CPT) is released during inflammation, also in the context of atherosclerosis. The link between CPT and the atherosclerotic process was evaluated in several diseases. However, studies in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), associated with a high incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis, are scarce. Therefore, we assessed the association of CPT with subclinical atherosclerosis and metabolic risk factors in axSpA. CPT serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 163 axSpA patients and 63 controls. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined in patients by carotid ultrasonography (assessing the presence/absence of carotid plaques and carotid intima-media thickness [cIMT]). Data on inflammation, disease activity, lipid profile and treatment were collected to evaluate its relationship with CPT. axSpA patients evidenced lower CPT levels than controls. CPT showed no association with plaques or cIMT in axSpA. CPT and HDL-cholesterol negatively correlated, while a positive association of CPT with the atherogenic index was disclosed. Additionally, axSpA patients with C-reactive protein values at diagnosis higher than 3 mg/L displayed higher CPT levels. Our study shows no relationship between CPT and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in axSpA. Nevertheless, it demonstrates an association of CPT with adverse lipid profiles and inflammatory biomarkers, which could further influence on the development of atherosclerosis.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to shed light into the genetic background influencing the development of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: After quality control and imputation, a total of 6,308,944 polymorphisms across the whole genome were analysed in 2,989 RA patients from European origin. Data on subclinical atherosclerosis, obtained by carotid ultrasonography through assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and presence/absence of carotid plaques, were available for 1,355 individuals. RESULTS: A genetic variant of the RARB gene (rs116199914) was associated with cIMT values at the genome-wide level of significance (minor allele (G): beta (ß) coefficient=0.142, P=1.86E-08). Interestingly, rs116199914 overlapped with regulatory elements in tissues related to CV pathophysiology and immune cells. In addition, biological pathway enrichment and predictive protein-protein relationship analyses, including suggestive GWAS signals of potential relevance, revealed a functional enrichment of the collagen biosynthesis network related to the presence/absence of carotid plaques (GO:0032964, PFDR =4.01E-03). Furthermore, our data suggest a potential influence of the previously described candidate CV risk loci NFKB1, MSRA and ZC3HC1 (P=8.12E-04, P=5.94E-04 and P=2.46E-04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study strongly suggests that genetic variation within RARB contributes to the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 195, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether, besides carotid ultrasound (US), a lateral lumbar spine radiography may also help identify ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. METHODS: A set of 125 AS patients older than 35 years without a history of CV events, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney disease was recruited. Carotid US and lateral lumbar spine radiography were performed in all of them. The CV risk was calculated according to the total cholesterol systematic coronary risk evaluation (TC-SCORE) algorithm. Presence of carotid plaques was defined following the Mannheim Carotid Intima-media Thickness and Plaque Consensus. Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) in a plain radiography was defined as calcific densities visible in an area parallel and anterior to the lumbar spine. RESULTS: Carotid US showed higher sensitivity than lateral lumbar spine radiography to detect high CV risk in the 54 patients with moderate TC-SCORE (61% versus 38.9%). Using carotid plaques as the gold standard test, a predictive model that included a TC-SCORE ≥ 5% or the presence of AAC in the lateral lumbar spine radiography in patients with both moderate and low CV risk (< 5%) according to the TC-SCORE yielded a sensitivity of 50.9% with a specificity of 95.7% to identify high/very high CV-risk AS patients. A positive correlation between AAC and carotid plaques was observed (r2 = 0.49, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A lateral lumbar spine radiography is a useful tool to identify patients with AS at high risk of CV disease.

14.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 19(11): 1235-1244, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), a common disease in individuals older than 50 in the western world, is characterized by bilateral inflammatory pain involving the shoulder girdle and less commonly the neck and pelvic girdle. The main goals of the currently available treatment are to induce remission and prevent relapse. Areas covered: This review briefly presents the main epidemiological and clinical features of PMR and discusses in depth both its classical management as well as new therapies used in PMR. Expert opinion: In general, patients with isolated PMR experience a rapid response (in less than seven days) to 12.5-25 mg/prednisone/day. Methotrexate is the conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug most commonly used for disease management, especially for relapses of the disease. However, this agent often yields a modest effect. Randomized controlled trials do not support the use of antitumor necrosis factor agents in PMR. Several case series and retrospective studies have highlighted the efficacy of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in PMR. However, controlled trials are needed to fully establish the efficacy of this biologic agent in PMR. The potential beneficial effect of the Janus-kinase inhibitors remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Polimialgia Reumática/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Polimialgia Reumática/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is often the presenting manifestation of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan often discloses the presence of large vessel vasculitis (LVV) in PMR patients. We aimed to identify predictive factors of a positive PET/CT scan for LVV in patients classified as having isolated PMR according to well-established criteria. METHODS: A set of consecutive patients with PMR from a single hospital were assessed. All of them underwent PET/CT scan between January 2010 and February 2018 based on clinical considerations. Patients with PMR associated to other diseases, including those with cranial features of GCA, were excluded. The remaining patients were categorized in classic PMR (if fulfilled the 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria at disease diagnosis; n = 84) or atypical PMR (who did not fulfill these criteria; n = 16). Only information on patients with classic PMR was assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of the 84 patients (51 women) with classic PMR was 71.4 ± 9.2 years. A PET/CT scan was positive in 51 (60.7%). Persistence of classic PMR symptoms was the most common reason to perform a PET/CT scan. Nevertheless, patients with positive PET/CT scan often had unusual symptoms. The best set of predictors of a positive PET/CT scan were bilateral diffuse lower limb pain (OR = 8.8, 95% CI: 1.7-46.3; p = 0.01), pelvic girdle pain (OR = 4.9, 95% CI: 1.50-16.53; p = 0.01) and inflammatory low back pain (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.03-21.5; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Inflammatory low back pain, pelvic girdle and diffuse lower limb pain are predictors of positive PET/CT scan for LVV in PMR.

16.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 14(7): 593-605, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common large-vessel vasculitis in individuals older than 50 years from Western countries. The goal of the treatment is to achieve improvement of symptoms and clinical remission as well as decrease the risk of severe vascular complications. Areas covered: The review summarizes the main epidemiological and clinical features of GCA and discusses in depth both the classic and the new therapies used in the management of GCA. Expert commentary: Prednisone/prednisolone of 40-60 mg/day is the mainstay in GCA therapy. It yields improvement of clinical features and reduces the risk of permanent visual loss in patients with GCA. Other drugs are used in patients who experience relapses (flares of the disease) or side effects related to glucocorticoids. Methotrexate is the most common conventional immunosuppressive drug used as a glucocorticoid sparing agent. Among the new biologic agents, the most frequently used is the recombinant humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, which is effective to improve clinical symptoms, decrease the cumulative prednisone dose, and reduce the frequency of relapses in these patients. Antitumor necrosis factor-α therapy is not useful in GCA. Experience with other biologic agents, such as abatacept or ustekinumab, looks promising but it is still scarce.

17.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 100, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common systemic autoimmune disease with a complex genetic inheritance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have significantly increased the number of significant loci associated with SLE risk. To date, however, established loci account for less than 30% of the disease heritability and additional risk variants have yet to be identified. Here we performed a GWAS followed by a meta-analysis to identify new genome-wide significant loci for SLE. METHODS: We genotyped a cohort of 907 patients with SLE (cases) and 1524 healthy controls from Spain and performed imputation using the 1000 Genomes reference data. We tested for association using logistic regression with correction for the principal components of variation. Meta-analysis of the association results was subsequently performed on 7,110,321 variants using genetic data from a large cohort of 4036 patients with SLE and 6959 controls of Northern European ancestry. Genetic association was also tested at the pathway level after removing the effect of known risk loci using PASCAL software. RESULTS: We identified five new loci associated with SLE at the genome-wide level of significance (p < 5 × 10- 8): GRB2, SMYD3, ST8SIA4, LAT2 and ARHGAP27. Pathway analysis revealed several biological processes significantly associated with SLE risk: B cell receptor signaling (p = 5.28 × 10- 6), CTLA4 co-stimulation during T cell activation (p = 3.06 × 10- 5), interleukin-4 signaling (p = 3.97 × 10- 5) and cell surface interactions at the vascular wall (p = 4.63 × 10- 5). CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify five novel loci for SLE susceptibility, and biologic pathways associated via multiple low-effect-size loci.

18.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 14(supl.2): 35-41, jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176065

RESUMO

La artritis reumatoide es una enfermedad inflamatoria, crónica y sistémica, que afecta a las articulaciones periféricas generalmente de forma simétrica. El conocimiento cada vez mayor de las vías patogénicas ha permitido el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos y ampliar las opciones terapéuticas. La interleucina (IL) 6 parece jugar un papel fundamental en la patogenia de la artritis reumatoide. Por ello, el receptor de esta interleucina parece una diana interesante. Inicialmente, el tocilizumab demostró eficacia y seguridad en el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide. El sarilumab es otro anticuerpo monoclonal dirigido frente al receptor de la IL-6 que, a la vista de los resultados obtenidos en los diferentes ensayos clínicos, muestra una eficacia y perfil de seguridad óptimos en el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide, totalmente acorde con el bloqueo de la señalización de IL-6, cuya dosis recomendada es de 200 mg cada 2 semanas y, en caso de anormalidades de laboratorio, estas pueden gestionarse reduciendo la dosis a 150 mg cada 2 semanas


Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory and systemic disease that affects the peripheral joints, usually symmetrically. The increased knowledge of pathogenic pathways has allowed the development of new drugs, thus expanding the therapeutic options. Interleukin-6 seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the interleukin-6 receptor seems to be an interesting target. Initially, tocilizu mab demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Sarilumab is another monoclonal antibody directed against the interleukin-6 receptor which, based on the results obtained in the various clinical trials, shows an optimal efficacy and safety profile in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The safety profile of sarilumab is consistent with the known effect of IL-6 inhibition. The recommended dose is 200 mg every two weeks and, if there are laboratory abnormalities, the dose can be reduced to 150 mg every two weeks


Assuntos
Humanos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Biológica , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Segurança do Paciente , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Comorbidade
20.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 20(5): 24, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611051

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study is to perform an update on the current knowledge on genetics, clinical manifestations, and therapy in immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV) (Henoch-Schönlein purpura). RECENT FINDINGS: A strong genetic predisposition in individuals with IgAV was confirmed. It was due to the association with the HLA class II region that in people of European background is mainly related to HLA-DRB1*01 allele. Recent reports support the claim that kidney disease is more common in adults than in children with IgAV. The clinical spectrum and outcome of adults with IgAV depends on the age of onset. Relapses are not uncommon in IgAV. The presence of renal impairment or proteinuria excretion exceeding 1 g/24 h at the time of disease diagnosis and the degree of renal damage on the kidney biopsy are the best predictors of end-stage renal failure in adults with IgAV. The levels of urinary IgA at the onset of the disease may predict a poor renal outcome. The use of prednisone does not seem to prevent persistent kidney disease in children with IgAV. No additional benefit of adding cyclophosphamide to glucocorticoids in adults with IgAV was found. Rituximab seems to be a promising therapy in the management of adults with IgAV. In this overview, we focus on the genetics, clinical manifestations, and therapy of IgA vasculitis, emphasizing the main differences in the clinical expression of the disease between children and adults.

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