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1.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652896

RESUMO

Forward osmosis (FO) modules currently suffer from performance efficiency limitations due to concentration polarisation (CP), as well as pressure drops during operation. There are incentives to further reduce CP effects, as well as optimise spacer design for pressure drop improvements and mechanical support. In this study, the effects of applying transmembrane pressure (TMP) on FO membrane deformation and the subsequent impact on module performance was investigated by comparing experimental data to 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for three commercial FO modules. At a TMP of 1.5 bar the occlusion of the draw-channel induced by longitudinal pressure hydraulic drop was comparable for the Toray (16%) and HTI modules (12%); however, the hydraulic perimeter of the Profiera module was reduced by 46%. CFD simulation of the occluded channels indicated that a change in hydraulic perimeter due to a 62% increase in shear strain resulted in a 31% increase in the Reynolds number. This reduction in channel dimensions enhanced osmotic efficiency by reducing CP via improved draw-channel hydrodynamics, which significantly disrupted the external concentration polarization (ECP) layer. Furthermore, simulations indicated that the Reynolds number experienced only modest increases with applied TMP and that shear strain at the membrane surface was found to be the most important factor when predicting flux performance enhancement, which varied between the different modules. This work suggests that a numerical approach to assess the effects of draw-spacers on pressure drop and CP can optimize and reduce investment in the design and validation of FO module designs.

2.
Membranes (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066490

RESUMO

In the past few years, osmotic membrane systems, such as forward osmosis (FO), have gained popularity as "soft" concentration processes. FO has unique properties by combining high rejection rate and low fouling propensity and can be operated without significant pressure or temperature gradient, and therefore can be considered as a potential candidate for a broad range of concentration applications where current technologies still suffer from critical limitations. This review extensively compiles and critically assesses recent considerations of FO as a concentration process for applications, including food and beverages, organics value added compounds, water reuse and nutrients recovery, treatment of waste streams and brine management. Specific requirements for the concentration process regarding the evaluation of concentration factor, modules and design and process operation, draw selection and fouling aspects are also described. Encouraging potential is demonstrated to concentrate streams more than 20-fold with high rejection rate of most compounds and preservation of added value products. For applications dealing with highly concentrated or complex streams, FO still features lower propensity to fouling compared to other membranes technologies along with good versatility and robustness. However, further assessments on lab and pilot scales are expected to better define the achievable concentration factor, rejection and effective concentration of valuable compounds and to clearly demonstrate process limitations (such as fouling or clogging) when reaching high concentration rate. Another important consideration is the draw solution selection and its recovery that should be in line with application needs (i.e., food compatible draw for food and beverage applications, high osmotic pressure for brine management, etc.) and be economically competitive.

3.
Membranes (Basel) ; 10(5)2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466224

RESUMO

In an effort to improve performances of forward osmosis (FO) systems, several innovative draw spacers have been proposed. However, the small pressure generally applied on the feed side of the process is expected to result in the membrane bending towards the draw side, and in the gradual occlusion of the channel. This phenomenon potentially presents detrimental effects on process performance, including pressure drop and external concentration polarization (ECP) in the draw channel. A flat sheet FO system with a dot-spacer draw channel geometry was characterized to determine the degree of draw channel occlusion resulting from feed pressurization, and the resulting implications on flow performance. First, tensile testing was performed on the FO membrane to derive a Young's modulus, used to assess the membrane stretching, and the resulting draw channel characteristics under a range of moderate feed pressures. Membrane apex reached up to 67% of the membrane channel height when transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 1.4 bar was applied. The new FO channels considerations were then processed by computational fluid dynamics model (computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by ANSYS Fluent v19.1) and validated against previously obtained experimental data. Further simulations were conducted to better assess velocity profiles, Reynolds number and shear rate. Reynolds number on the membrane surface (draw side) increased by 20% and shear rate increased by 90% when occlusion changed from 0 to 70%, impacting concentration polarisation (CP) on the membrane surface and therefore FO performance. This paper shows that FO draw channel occlusion is expected to have a significant impact on fluid hydrodynamics when the membrane is not appropriately supported in the draw side.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(2): 1234-1245, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414024

RESUMO

Forward osmosis is envisioned as a technology for microalgae concentration but fouling propensity during dewatering is currently a limiting factor that requires better understanding. The purpose of this study is to define the impact of microalgae culturing conditions on the downstream forward osmosis (FO) separation process-water recovery and microalgae harvesting. Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in an outdoor lab-scale reactor fed with synthetic wastewater mimicking primary settled municipal influent under changing environmental conditions (temperature, solar radiation, nutrient balance) with varying hydraulic retention time. High efficiency of nutrient removal was achieved under all tested conditions but microalgae autoflocculation and lower rate of pollutant removal were observed with batches where culturing temperature (6.5-21 °C), solar irradiation rate (181 W/m2), and nitrogen/phosphorous ratio (2.9) were below the optimal range. Regarding FO concentration, high initial water fluxes (in the range of 18.2 to 19.5 L·m2·h-1) and water extraction rate (60.1-83.9%) were observed in all subsequent FO concentration tests. Significant membrane fouling (microalgae deposition on surface) associated with poor biomass recovery from the FO cell was found to be dependent on exopolymeric substance accumulation, which was a response to non-optimal environmental culturing conditions.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Purificação da Água , Biomassa , Osmose , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/métodos
5.
Membranes (Basel) ; 9(8)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387333

RESUMO

Applying forward osmosis directly on raw municipal wastewater is of high interest for the simultaneous production of a high quality permeate for water reuse and pre-concentrating wastewater for anaerobic digestion. This pilot scale study investigates, for the first time, the feasibility of concentrating real raw municipal wastewater using a submerged plate and frame forward osmosis module (0.34 m2) to reach 70% water recovery. Membrane performance, fouling behavior, and effective concentration of wastewater compounds were examined. Two different draw solutions (NaCl and MgCl2), operating either with constant draw concentration or in batch with draw dilution over time, were evaluated. Impact of gas sparging on fouling and external concentration polarization was also assessed. Water fluxes up to 15 L m-2 h-1 were obtained with clean water and 35 g NaCl/L as feed and draw solution, respectively. When using real wastewater, submerged forward osmosis proved to be resilient to clogging, demonstrating its suitability for application on municipal or other complex wastewater; operating with 11.7 g NaCl/L constant draw solution, water and reverse salt fluxes up to 5.1 ± 1.0 L m-2 h-1 and 4.8 ± 2.6 g m-2 h-1 were observed, respectively. Positively, total and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration factors of 2.47 ± 0.15 and 1.86 ± 0.08, respectively, were achieved, making wastewater more suitable for anaerobic treatment.

6.
Membranes (Basel) ; 8(3)2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200413

RESUMO

Submerged forward osmosis (FO) is of high interest for bioreactors, such as osmotic membrane bioreactor, microalgae photobioreactor, food or bioproduct concentration where pumping through pressurized modules is a limitation due to viscosity or breakage of fragile components. However, so far, most FO efforts have been put towards cross flow configurations. This study provides, for the first time, insights on mass transfer limitations in the operation of submerged osmotic systems and offer recommendations for optimized design and operation. It is demonstrated that operation of the submerged plate and frame FO module requires draw circulation in the vacuum mode (vacuum assisted osmosis) that is in favor of the permeation flux. However, high pressure drops and dead zones occurring in classical U-shape FO draw channel strongly disadvantage this design; straight channel design proves to be more effective. External concentration polarization (ECP) is also a crucial element in the submerged FO process since mixing of the feed solution is not as optimized as in the cross flow module unless applying intense stirring. Among the mitigation techniques tested, air scouring proves to be more efficient than feed solution circulation. However, ECP mitigation methodology has to be adapted to application specificities with regards to combined/synergetic effects with fouling mitigation.

7.
Environ Technol ; 38(3): 257-265, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189010

RESUMO

Dry coastal communities increasingly need to consider non-traditional methods of augmenting their water supply. This study presents a preliminary economic comparison of three alternatives for increasing the water supply by 50% for a hypothetical baseline coastal scenario: increasing desalination (Scenario A), direct potable water reuse (DPWR) (Scenario B), and a novel retrofitted configuration of a hybrid forward osmosis-reverse osmosis (FO-RO) plant (Scenario C). The latter used the dilution of the seawater feed to increase the recovery and overall output water of the original RO step. To account for the time value of money, levelised cost (LC) was used as the primary economic metric. The hybrid FO-RO configuration had a comparable LC to DPWR (0.59 vs. 0.61 $ m-3) and was 12% cheaper than desalination (0.67 $ m-3). Furthermore, hybrid FO-RO was 7% more energy efficient than conventional desalination due to reduced intake and pretreatment flows. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that incremental reductions in LC were possible for increased FO membrane flux, including in pressure-assisted osmosis scenarios with applied pressure ranging from 2 to 6 bar. These findings validate the examination of hybrid FO-RO configurations that deviate from the energy-reduction paradigms typically studied.


Assuntos
Modelos Econômicos , Reciclagem/economia , Purificação da Água/economia , Abastecimento de Água/economia , Osmose , Salinidade
8.
Membranes (Basel) ; 6(3)2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27376337

RESUMO

Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

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