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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 706-718, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564435

RESUMO

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used to diagnose diabetes and assess glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. However, nonglycemic determinants, including genetic variation, may influence how accurately HbA1c reflects underlying glycemia. Analyzing the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) sequence data in 10,338 individuals from five studies and four ancestries (6,158 Europeans, 3,123 African-Americans, 650 Hispanics, and 407 East Asians), we confirmed five regions associated with HbA1c (GCK in Europeans and African-Americans, HK1 in Europeans and Hispanics, FN3K and/or FN3KRP in Europeans, and G6PD in African-Americans and Hispanics) and we identified an African-ancestry-specific low-frequency variant (rs1039215 in HBG2 and HBE1, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.03). The most associated G6PD variant (rs1050828-T, p.Val98Met, MAF = 12% in African-Americans, MAF = 2% in Hispanics) lowered HbA1c (-0.88% in hemizygous males, -0.34% in heterozygous females) and explained 23% of HbA1c variance in African-Americans and 4% in Hispanics. Additionally, we identified a rare distinct G6PD coding variant (rs76723693, p.Leu353Pro, MAF = 0.5%; -0.98% in hemizygous males, -0.46% in heterozygous females) and detected significant association with HbA1c when aggregating rare missense variants in G6PD. We observed similar magnitude and direction of effects for rs1039215 (HBG2) and rs76723693 (G6PD) in the two largest TOPMed African American cohorts, and we replicated the rs76723693 association in the UK Biobank African-ancestry participants. These variants in G6PD and HBG2 were monomorphic in the European and Asian samples. African or Hispanic ancestry individuals carrying G6PD variants may be underdiagnosed for diabetes when screened with HbA1c. Thus, assessment of these variants should be considered for incorporation into precision medicine approaches for diabetes diagnosis.

2.
JAMA Psychiatry ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665216

RESUMO

Importance: Recurrent microdeletions and duplications in the genomic region 15q11.2 between breakpoints 1 (BP1) and 2 (BP2) are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. These structural variants are present in 0.5% to 1.0% of the population, making 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 the site of the most prevalent known pathogenic copy number variation (CNV). It is unknown to what extent this CNV influences brain structure and affects cognitive abilities. Objective: To determine the association of the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 deletion and duplication CNVs with cortical and subcortical brain morphology and cognitive task performance. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this genetic association study, T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging were combined with genetic data from the ENIGMA-CNV consortium and the UK Biobank, with a replication cohort from Iceland. In total, 203 deletion carriers, 45 247 noncarriers, and 306 duplication carriers were included. Data were collected from August 2015 to April 2019, and data were analyzed from September 2018 to September 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The associations of the CNV with global and regional measures of surface area and cortical thickness as well as subcortical volumes were investigated, correcting for age, age2, sex, scanner, and intracranial volume. Additionally, measures of cognitive ability were analyzed in the full UK Biobank cohort. Results: Of 45 756 included individuals, the mean (SD) age was 55.8 (18.3) years, and 23 754 (51.9%) were female. Compared with noncarriers, deletion carriers had a lower surface area (Cohen d = -0.41; SE, 0.08; P = 4.9 × 10-8), thicker cortex (Cohen d = 0.36; SE, 0.07; P = 1.3 × 10-7), and a smaller nucleus accumbens (Cohen d = -0.27; SE, 0.07; P = 7.3 × 10-5). There was also a significant negative dose response on cortical thickness (ß = -0.24; SE, 0.05; P = 6.8 × 10-7). Regional cortical analyses showed a localization of the effects to the frontal, cingulate, and parietal lobes. Further, cognitive ability was lower for deletion carriers compared with noncarriers on 5 of 7 tasks. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings, from the largest CNV neuroimaging study to date, provide evidence that 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 structural variation is associated with brain morphology and cognition, with deletion carriers being particularly affected. The pattern of results fits with known molecular functions of genes in the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 region and suggests involvement of these genes in neuronal plasticity. These neurobiological effects likely contribute to the association of this CNV with neurodevelopmental disorders.

3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma-derived (pd) or recombinant (r) therapeutic FVIII proteins (FVIIIs) are infused to arrest/prevent bleeding in patients with hemophilia A (PWHA). However, FVIIIs are neutralized if anti-FVIII-antibodies ("inhibitors") develop. Accumulating evidence suggests that pdFVIIIs with von Willebrand factor (VWF) are less immunogenic than rFVIIIs and that distinct rFVIIIs are differentially immunogenic. Since inhibitor development is T-helper-cell-dependent, HLA-class-II (HLAcII) molecules comprise an important early determinant. OBJECTIVES: Use dendritic cell (DC)-protein processing/presentation assays with mass-spectrometric and peptide-proteomic analyses to quantify the DP-, DQ-, and DR-bound/FVIII-derived-peptides in individual HLAcII repertoires and compare the immunogenic potential of six distinct FVIIIs based on their measured peptide counts. PATIENTS/METHODS: Monocyte-derived-DCs from normal donors and/or PWHA were cultured with either: "Mix-rFVIII", a VWF-free equimolar mixture of a full-length (FL)-rFVIII (Advate®) and four distinct B-domain-deleted (BDD)-rFVIIIs (Xyntha®, Novoeight®, Nuwiq®, and Afstyla®); a pdFVIII + pdVWF (Beriate®); Advate ± pdVWF; Afstyla ± pdVWF; and Xyntha + pdVWF. RESULTS: We showed that: (i) Beriate had a significantly lower immunogenic potential than Advate ± pdVWF, Afstyla - pdVWF, and Mix-rFVIII; (ii) distinct FVIIIs differed significantly in their immunogenic potential in that, in addition to "(i)", Afstyla + pdVWF had a significantly lower immunogenic potential than Beriate, while the immunogenic potential of Beriate was not significantly different from Xyntha + pdVWF; and (iii) rFVIIIs with pdVWF had a significantly lower immunogenic potential than the same rFVIIIs without pdVWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide HLAcII peptidomic level explanations for several important clinical observations/issues including the differential immunogenicity of distinct FVIIIs and the role of HLAcII genetics in inhibitor development.

4.
J Lipid Res ; 60(9): 1630-1639, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227640

RESUMO

The de novo ceramide synthesis pathway is essential to human biology and health, but genetic influences remain unexplored. The core function of this pathway is the generation of biologically active ceramide from its precursor, dihydroceramide. Dihydroceramides have diverse, often protective, biological roles; conversely, increased ceramide levels are biomarkers of complex disease. To explore the genetics of the ceramide synthesis pathway, we searched for deleterious nonsynonymous variants in the genomes of 1,020 Mexican Americans from extended pedigrees. We identified a Hispanic ancestry-specific rare functional variant, L175Q, in delta 4-desaturase, sphingolipid 1 (DEGS1), a key enzyme in the pathway that converts dihydroceramide to ceramide. This amino acid change was significantly associated with large increases in plasma dihydroceramides. Indexes of DEGS1 enzymatic activity were dramatically reduced in heterozygotes. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing of HepG2 cells confirmed that the L175Q variant results in a partial loss of function for the DEGS1 enzyme. Understanding the biological role of DEGS1 variants, such as L175Q, in ceramide synthesis may improve the understanding of metabolic-related disorders and spur ongoing research of drug targets along this pathway.

5.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(14): 4180-4191, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187567

RESUMO

White matter microstructure is affected by immune system activity via the actions of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although white matter microstructure and inflammatory measures are significantly heritable, it is unclear if overlapping genetic factors influence these traits in humans. We conducted genetic correlation analyses of these traits using randomly ascertained extended pedigrees from the Genetics of Brain Structure and Function Study (N = 1862, 59% females, ages 18-97 years; 42 ± 15.7). White matter microstructure was assessed using fractional anisotropy (FA) calculated from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Circulating levels (pg/mL) of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα) phenotypically associated with white matter microstructure were quantified from blood serum. All traits were significantly heritable (h2 ranging from 0.41 to 0.66 for DTI measures and from 0.18 to 0.30 for inflammatory markers). Phenotypically, higher levels of circulating inflammatory markers were associated with lower FA values across the brain (r = -.03 to r = -.17). There were significant negative genetic correlations between most DTI measures and IL-8 and TNFα, although effects for TNFα were no longer significant when covarying for body mass index. Genetic correlations between DTI measures and IL-6 were not significant. Understanding the genetic correlation between specific inflammatory markers and DTI measures may help researchers focus questions related to inflammatory processes and brain structure.

6.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(12): 3575-3588, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062906

RESUMO

That metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with age-related cognitive decline is well established. The neurobiological changes underlying these cognitive deficits, however, are not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine whether MetS is associated with regional differences in gray-matter volume (GMV) using a cross-sectional, between-group contrast design in a large, ethnically homogenous sample. T1-weighted MRIs were sampled from the genetics of brain structure (GOBS) data archive for 208 Mexican-American participants: 104 participants met or exceeded standard criteria for MetS and 104 participants were age- and sex-matched metabolically healthy controls. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 74 years (37.3 ± 13.2 years, 56.7% female). Images were analyzed in a whole-brain, voxel-wise manner using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Three contrast analyses were performed, a whole sample analysis of all 208 participants, and two post hoc half-sample analyses split by age along the median (35.5 years). Significant associations between MetS and decreased GMV were observed in multiple, spatially discrete brain regions including the posterior cerebellum, brainstem, orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral caudate nuclei, right parahippocampus, right amygdala, right insula, lingual gyrus, and right superior temporal gyrus. Age, as shown in the post hoc analyses, was demonstrated to be a significant covariate. A further functional interpretation of the structures exhibiting lower GMV in MetS reflected a significant involvement in reward perception, emotional valence, and reasoning. Additional studies are needed to characterize the influence of MetS's individual clinical components on brain structure and to explore the bidirectional association between GMV and MetS.

7.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 2310235, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089471

RESUMO

Measurements of fasting glucose (FG) or glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are two clinically approved approaches commonly used to determine glycemia, both of which are influenced by genetic factors. Obtaining accurate measurements of FG or HbA1c is not without its challenges, though. Measuring glycated serum protein (GSP) offers an alternative approach for assessing glycemia. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of GSP and GSP expressed as a percentage of total serum albumin (%GA) using a variance component approach and localize genomic regions (QTLs) that harbor genes likely to influence GSP and %GA trait variation in a large extended multigenerational pedigree from Jiri, Nepal (n = 1,800). We also performed quantitative bivariate analyses to assess the relationship between GSP or %GA and several cardiometabolic traits. Additive genetic effects significantly influence variation in GSP and %GA levels (p values: 1.15 × 10-5 and 3.39 × 10-5, respectively). We localized a significant (LOD score = 3.18) and novel GSP QTL on chromosome 11q, which has been previously linked to type 2 diabetes. Two common (MAF > 0.4) SNPs within the chromosome 11 QTL were associated with GSP (adjusted pvalue < 5.87 × 10-5): an intronic variant (rs10790184) in the DSCAML1 gene and a 3'UTR variant (rs8258) in the CEP164 gene. Significant positive correlations were observed between GSP or %GA and blood pressure, and lipid traits (p values: 0.0062 to 1.78 × 10-9). A significant negative correlation was observed between %GA and HDL cholesterol (p = 1.12 × 10-5). GSP is influenced by genetic factors and can be used to assess glycemia and diabetes risk. Thus, GSP measurements can facilitate glycemic studies when accurate FG and/or HbA1c measurements are difficult to obtain. GSP can also be measured from frozen blood (serum) samples, which allows the prospect of retrospective glycemic studies using archived samples.

8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 80: 292-299, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is major public health concern. It is imperative to find robust biomarkers so that at-risk individuals can be identified in a timely and reliable manner. Previous work suggests mechanistic links between increased cytokines and risk for suicide, but questions remain regarding the etiology of this association, as well as the roles of sex and BMI. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using a randomly-ascertained extended-pedigree sample of 1882 Mexican-American individuals (60% female, mean age = 42.04, range = 18-97). Genetic correlations were calculated using a variance components approach between the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, and Lifetime Suicide Attempt and Current Suicidal Ideation. The potentially confounding effects of sex and BMI were considered. RESULTS: 159 individuals endorse a Lifetime Suicide Attempt. IL-8 and IL-6 shared significant genetic overlap with risk for suicide attempt (ρg = 0.49, pFDR = 7.67 × 10-03; ρg = 0.53, pFDR = 0.01), but for IL-6 this was attenuated when BMI was included as a covariate (ρg = 0.37, se = 0.23, pFDR = 0.12). Suicide attempts were significantly more common in females (pFDR = 0.01) and the genetic overlap between IL-8 and risk for suicide attempt was significant in females (ρg = 0.56, pFDR = 0.01), but not in males (ρg = 0.44, pFDR = 0.30). DISCUSSION: These results demonstrate that: IL-8 shares genetic influences with risk for suicide attempt; females drove this effect; and BMI should be considered when assessing the association between IL-6 and suicide. This finding represents a significant advancement in knowledge by demonstrating that cytokine alterations are not simply a secondary manifestation of suicidal behavior, but rather, the pathophysiology of suicide attempts is, at least partly, underpinned by the same biological mechanisms responsible for regulating inflammatory response.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705424

RESUMO

Prior to and following the publication of this article the authors noted that the complete list of authors was not included in the main article and was only present in Supplementary Table 1. The author list in the original article has now been updated to include all authors, and Supplementary Table 1 has been removed. All other supplementary files have now been updated accordingly. Furthermore, in Table 1 of this Article, the replication cohort for the row Close relative in data set, n (%) was incorrect. All values have now been corrected to 0(0%). The publishers would like to apologise for this error and the inconvenience it may have caused.

10.
J Hypertens ; 37(5): 997-1011, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a common and serious heritable disorder of human pregnancy. Although there have been notable successes in identification of maternal susceptibility genes a large proportion of the heritability of preeclampsia remains unaccounted for. It is has been postulated that rare variation may account for some of this missing heritability. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in multiplex families to identify rare exonic risk variants. METHODS: We conducted WES in 244 individuals from 34 Australian/New Zealand multiplex preeclampsia families. Variants were tested for association with preeclampsia using a threshold model and logistic regression. RESULTS: We found significant association for two moderately rare missense variants, rs145743393 (Padj = 0.0032, minor allele frequency = 0.016) in the chromosome 1 open reading frame 35 (C1orf35) gene, and rs34270076 (Padj = 0.0128, minor allele frequency = 0.024) in the pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide receptor (QRFPR) gene. To replicate these associations we performed imputation in our Australian genome wide association scan for preeclampsia and found no significant exonic variants in either C1orf35 or QRFPR. However, 11 variants demonstrating nominal significance (P < 0.05) in the genomic region between QRFPR and annexin A5 (ANXA5) were identified. We further leveraged publicly available genome-wide available summary data from the UK Biobank to investigate association of these two variants with the underlying clinical phenotypes of preeclampsia and detected nominal association of the QRFPR variant (rs34270076, P = 0.03) with protein levels in females. CONCLUSION: The study represents the first to use WES in multiplex families for preeclampsia and identifies two novel genes (QRFPR and C1orf35) not previously associated with preeclampsia and find nominal association of rs34270076 with protein levels, a key clinical feature of preeclampsia. We find further support for ANXA5 previously associated with pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia.

11.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychotic disorders, but the profile of impairment across adulthood, particularly in African-American populations, remains unclear. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from a case-control study of African-American adults with affective (n = 59) and nonaffective (n = 68) psychotic disorders, we examined cognitive functioning between early and middle adulthood (ages 20-60) on measures of general cognitive ability, language, abstract reasoning, processing speed, executive function, verbal memory, and working memory. RESULTS: Both affective and nonaffective psychosis patients showed substantial and widespread cognitive impairments. However, comparison of cognitive functioning between controls and psychosis groups throughout early (ages 20-40) and middle (ages 40-60) adulthood also revealed age-associated group differences. During early adulthood, the nonaffective psychosis group showed increasing impairments with age on measures of general cognitive ability and executive function, while the affective psychosis group showed increasing impairment on a measure of language ability. Impairments on other cognitive measures remained mostly stable, although decreasing impairments on measures of processing speed, memory and working memory were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest similarities, but also differences in the profile of cognitive dysfunction in adults with affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders. Both affective and nonaffective patients showed substantial and relatively stable impairments across adulthood. The nonaffective group also showed increasing impairments with age in general and executive functions, and the affective group showed an increasing impairment in verbal functions, possibly suggesting different underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 260-274, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639324

RESUMO

With advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) technology, more advanced statistical methods for testing genetic association with rare variants are being developed. Methods in which variants are grouped for analysis are also known as variant-set, gene-based, and aggregate unit tests. The burden test and sequence kernel association test (SKAT) are two widely used variant-set tests, which were originally developed for samples of unrelated individuals and later have been extended to family data with known pedigree structures. However, computationally efficient and powerful variant-set tests are needed to make analyses tractable in large-scale WGS studies with complex study samples. In this paper, we propose the variant-set mixed model association tests (SMMAT) for continuous and binary traits using the generalized linear mixed model framework. These tests can be applied to large-scale WGS studies involving samples with population structure and relatedness, such as in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. SMMATs share the same null model for different variant sets, and a virtue of this null model, which includes covariates only, is that it needs to be fit only once for all tests in each genome-wide analysis. Simulation studies show that all the proposed SMMATs correctly control type I error rates for both continuous and binary traits in the presence of population structure and relatedness. We also illustrate our tests in a real data example of analysis of plasma fibrinogen levels in the TOPMed program (n = 23,763), using the Analysis Commons, a cloud-based computing platform.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Computação em Nuvem , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/análise , Fibrinogênio/genética , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Masculino , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Medicina de Precisão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
13.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12530, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379395

RESUMO

Processing speed is a psychological construct that refers to the speed with which an individual can perform any cognitive operation. Processing speed correlates strongly with general cognitive ability, declines sharply with age and is impaired across a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Thus, identifying genes that influence processing speed will likely improve understanding of the genetics of intelligence, biological aging and the etiologies of numerous disorders. Previous genetics studies of processing speed have relied on simple phenotypes (eg, mean reaction time) derived from single tasks. This strategy assumes, erroneously, that processing speed is a unitary construct. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the genetic architecture of processing speed by using a multidimensional model applied to a battery of cognitive tasks. Linkage and QTL-specific association analyses were performed on the factors from this model. The randomly ascertained sample comprised 1291 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. We found that performance on all three distinct processing-speed factors (Psychomotor Speed; Sequencing and Shifting and Verbal Fluency) were moderately and significantly heritable. We identified a genome-wide significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 3q23 for Psychomotor Speed (LOD = 4.83). Within this locus, we identified a plausible and interesting candidate gene for Psychomotor Speed (Z = 2.90, P = 1.86 × 10-03 ).

14.
Hum Hered ; 83(2): 92-99, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An interesting consequence of consanguinity is that the inbred singleton becomes informative for genetic variance. We determine the contribution of an inbred singleton to variance component analysis of heritability and linkage. METHODS: Statistical theory for the power of variance component analysis of quantitative traits is used to determine the expected contribution of an inbred singleton to likelihood-ratio tests of heritability and linkage. RESULTS: In variance component models, an inbred singleton contributes relatively little to a test of heritability but can contribute substantively to a test of linkage. For small-to-moderate quantitative trait locus (QTL) effects and a level of inbreeding comparable to matings between first cousins (the preferred form of union in many human populations), an inbred singleton can carry nearly 25% of the information of a non-inbred sib pair. In more highly inbred contexts available with experimental animal populations, nonhuman primate colonies, and some human subpopulations, the contribution of an inbred singleton relative to a sib pair can exceed 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Inbred individuals, even in isolation from other members of a sample, can contribute to variance component estimation and tests of heritability and linkage. Under certain conditions, the informativeness of the inbred singleton can approach that of a non-inbred sib pair.

15.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496643

RESUMO

Imaging genetic analyses quantify genetic control over quantitative measurements of brain structure and function using coefficients of relationship (CR) that code the degree of shared genetics between subjects. CR can be inferred through self-reported relatedness or calculated empirically using genome-wide SNP scans. We hypothesized that empirical CR provides a more accurate assessment of shared genetics than self-reported relatedness. We tested this in 1,046 participants of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) (480 M/566 F) recruited from the Missouri twin registry. We calculated the heritability for 17 quantitative traits drawn from four categories (brain diffusion and structure, cognition, and body physiology) documented by the HCP. We compared the heritability and genetic correlation estimates calculated using self-reported and empirical CR methods Kinship-based INference for GWAS (KING) and weighted allelic correlation (WAC). The polygenetic nature of traits was assessed by calculating the empirical CR from chromosomal SNP sets. The heritability estimates based on whole-genome empirical CR were higher but remained significantly correlated (r ∼0.9) with those obtained using self-reported values. Population stratification in the HCP sample has likely influenced the empirical CR calculations and biased heritability estimates. Heritability values calculated using empirical CR for chromosomal SNP sets were significantly correlated with the chromosomal length (r 0.7) suggesting a polygenic nature for these traits. The chromosomal heritability patterns were correlated among traits from the same knowledge domains; among traits with significant genetic correlations; and among traits sharing biological processes, without being genetically related. The pedigree structures generated in our analyses are available online as a web-based calculator (www.solar-eclipse-genetics.org/HCP).

16.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 51, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275897

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have helped us identify a wealth of genetic variants associated with complex human phenotypes. Because most variants explain a small portion of the total phenotypic variation, however, marker-based studies remain limited in their ability to predict such phenotypes. Here, we show how modern statistical genetic techniques borrowed from animal breeding can be employed to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction of complex phenotypes and the power of genetic mapping studies. Specifically, using the triglyceride data of the GAW20 data set, we apply genomic-best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP) methods to obtain empirical genetic values (EGVs) for each triglyceride phenotype and each individual. We then study 2 different factors that influence the prediction accuracy of G-BLUP for the analysis of human data: (a) the choice of kinship matrix, and (b) the overall level of relatedness. The resulting genetic values represent the total genetic component for the phenotype of interest and can be used to represent a trait without its environmental component. Finally, using empirical data, we demonstrate how this method can be used to increase the power of genetic mapping studies. In sum, our results show that dense genome-wide data can be used in a wider scope than previously anticipated.

17.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 52, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275898

RESUMO

We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan to detect loci that influence the levels of fasting triglycerides in plasma. Fasting triglyceride levels were available at 4 time points (visits), 2 pre- and 2 post-fenofibrate intervention. Multipoint identity-by-descent (MIBD) matrices were derived from genotypes using IBDLD. Variance-component linkage analyses were then conducted using SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines). We found evidence of linkage (logarithm of odds [LOD] ≥3) at 5 chromosomal regions with triglyceride levels in plasma. The highest LOD scores were observed for linkage to the estimated genetic value (additive genetic component) of the log-normalized triglyceride levels in plasma. Our results suggest that a chromosome 10 locus at 37 cM (LODpre = 3.01, LODpost = 3.72) influences fasting triglyceride levels in plasma regardless of the fenofibrate intervention, and that loci in chromosomes 1 at 170 cM and 4 at 24 cM ceases to affect the triglyceride levels when fenofibrate is present, while the regions in chromosomes 6 at 136 to 162 cM and 11 at 39 to 40 cM appear to influence triglyceride levels in response to fenofibrate.

18.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263043

RESUMO

High-throughput platforms allow the characterization of thousands of previously known methylation sites. These platforms have great potential for investigating the epigenetic effects that are partially responsible for gene expression control. Methylation sites provide a bridge for the investigation of real-time environmental contributions on genomic events by the alteration of methylation status of those sites. Using the data provided by GAW20's organization committee, we calculated the heritability estimates of each cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) island before and after the use of fenofibrate, a lipid-control drug. Surprisingly, we detected substantially high heritability estimates before drug usage. This somewhat unexpected high sample correlation was corrected by the use of principal components and the distributions of heritability estimates before and after fenofibrate treatment, which made the distributions comparable. The methylation sites located near a gene were collected and a genetic relationship matrix estimated to represent the overall correlation between samples. We implemented a random-effect association test to screen genes whose methylation patterns partially explain the observable high-density lipoprotein (HDL) heritability. Our leading association was observed for the TMEM52 gene that encodes a transmembrane protein, and is largely expressed in the liver, had not been previously associated with HDL until this manuscript. Using a variance component decomposition framework with the linear mixed model allows the integration of data from different sources, such as methylation, gene expression, metabolomics, and proteomics. The decomposition of the genetic variance component decomposition provides a flexible analytical approach for the challenges of this new omics era.

19.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 34, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263045

RESUMO

The heritability of a phenotype is an estimation of the percent of variance in that phenotype that is attributable to additive genetic factors. Heritability is optimally estimated in family-based sample populations. Traditionally, this involves use of a pedigree-based kinship coefficient generated from the collected genealogical relationships between family members. An alternative, when dense genotype data are available, is to directly measure the empirical kinship between samples. This study compares the use of pedigree and empirical kinships in the GAW20 data set. Two phenotypes were assessed: triglyceride levels and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels pre- and postintervention with the cholesterol-reducing drug fenofibrate. Using SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines), pedigree-based kinships and empirically calculated kinships (using IBDLD and LDAK) were used to calculate phenotype heritability. In addition, a genome-wide association study was conducted using each kinship model for each phenotype to identify genetic variants significantly associated with phenotypic variation. The variant rs247617 was significantly associated with HDL-C levels both pre- and post-fenofibrate intervention. Overall, the phenotype heritabilities calculated using pedigree based kinships or either of the empirical kinships generated using IBDLD or LDAK were comparable. Phenotype heritabilities estimated from empirical kinships generated using IBDLD were closest to the pedigree-based estimations. Given that there was not an appreciable amount of unknown relatedness between the pedigrees in this data set, a large increase in heritability in using empirical kinship was not expected, and our calculations support this. Importantly, these results demonstrate that when sufficient genotypic data are available, empirical kinship estimation is a practical alternative to using pedigree-based kinships.

20.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 43(13): 2556-2563, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082891

RESUMO

Suicide is major public health concern; one million individuals worldwide die by suicide each year of which there are many more attempts. Thus, it is imperative that robust and reliable indicators, or biomarkers, of suicide risk be identified so that individuals at risk can be identified and provided appropriate interventions as quickly as possible. Previous work has revealed a relationship between low levels of circulating cholesterol and suicide risk, implicating cholesterol level as one such potential biomarker, but the factors underlying this relationship remain unknown. In the present study, we applied a combination of bivariate polygenic and coefficient-of-relatedness analysis, followed by mediation analysis, in a large sample of Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees [N = 1897; 96 pedigrees (average size = 19.17 individuals, range = 2-189) 60% female; mean age = 42.58 years, range = 18-97 years, sd = 15.75 years] with no exclusion criteria for any given psychiatric disorder. We observed that total esterified cholesterol measured at the time of psychiatric assessment shared a significant genetic overlap with risk for suicide attempt (ρg = -0.64, p = 1.24 × 10-04). We also found that total unesterified cholesterol measured around 20 years prior to assessment varied as a function of genetic proximity to an affected individual (h2 = 0.21, se = 0.10, p = 8.73 × 10-04; ßsuicide = -0.70, se = 0.25, p = 8.90 × 10-03). Finally, we found that the relationship between total unesterified cholesterol and suicide risk was significantly mediated by ABCA-1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity (ßsuicide-efflux = -0.45, p = 0.039; ßefflux-cholexterol = -0.34, p < 0.0001; ßindirect = -0.15, p = 0.044). These findings suggest that the relatively well-delineated process of cholesterol metabolism and associated molecular pathways will be informative for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of risk for suicide attempt.

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