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2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025894

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterise the burden of illness of patients with inadequately controlled hereditary periodic fevers (HPFs), during and outside of flares. It was focused on the burden to the patients and also considered the wider impact on their caregivers and families. METHODS: The target population was patients or caregivers of patients with clinically/genetically confirmed colchicine resistant FMF (crFMF), mevalonate kinase deficiency/hyperimmunoglobinaemia D with periodic fever syndrome (MKD/HIDS) or TRAPS, who were expected to flare at least once in a 6-month period based on patient history. Disease burden was captured during and between flares using an electronic diary (e-diary) with questions on patient functioning, emotional/social well-being and pain, using validated instruments. RESULTS: HPF-related symptoms such as fever, joint, muscle or bone pain and tiredness and fatigue were reported by patients both during and outside of a flare. The SF-10 Health Survey (SF-10v2) (paediatric patients) and SF-12 Health Survey (SF-12v2) (adult patients) showed that flares negatively impacted patients' psychosocial and physical health. Negative effect of on-flare status on health utility index score assessed by the Short-Form Six-Dimension (SF-6D) was significant only for crFMF patients. Furthermore, the Sheehan Disability Score (SDSv3) showing the on-flare status resulted in significant functional impairment in all 3 disease cohorts through assessment of impact on work/school, social and family life. CONCLUSIONS: crFMF, MKD/HIDS and TRAPS negatively affected the quality of life (QoL) of adult and paediatric patients, including their physical, mental, psychosocial health, and social functioning. There remains, however, a high number of unmet needs for these patients to reduce their disease burden.

3.
Am J Hematol ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602121

RESUMO

In localized light chain amyloidosis (locAL), amyloidogenic light chains (aLC) are produced and deposited locally by a B-cell clone. We present 293 patients with immunohistochemically confirmed locAL. Lung (nodular pulmonary) with 63 patients was the most involved organ. The aLC was λ in 217 cases (κ:λ ratio 1:3). A local B-cell clone was identified in 30% of cases. Sixty-one (21%) had a concomitant autoimmune disorder (cAD). A monoclonal component (MC) were present in 101 (34%) patients and were more frequent in subjects with cAD (51% vs 34%; P = .03). Cigarette smoking was more prevalent in lung locAL (54% vs 37%; P = .018). After a median follow-up of 44 months, 16 patients died and 5- and 10-years locAL progression-free survival (PFS) were 62% and 44%. Interestingly, locAL-PFS was shorter among patients with an identified clonal infiltrate at amyloid deposition site (40 vs 109 months; P = .02) and multinuclear giant cells and/or an inflammatory infiltrate resulted in longer locAL-PFS in lung involvement (65 vs 42 months; P = .01). However, no differences in locAL PFS were observed in patients with cAD, a MC and involved organ site. Treatment was administered in 163 (54%) patients and was surgical in 135 (46%). Median locAL-PFS after first treatment was 56 months. Responders had longer locAL-PFS (78 vs 17 months; P < .001). Three patients with lung locAL and a MC were diagnosed as systemic AL amyloidosis at follow-up. In summary, locAL pathogenesis seems to be heterogeneous and the clonal infiltrate leads local progression.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1172, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595640

RESUMO

Piperlongumine (PL), a natural small molecule derived from the Piper longum Linn plant, has received growing interest as a prooxidative drug with promising anticancer properties. Yet, the influence of PL on primary human T cells remained elusive. Knowledge of this is of crucial importance, however, since T cells in particular play a critical role in tumor control. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PL on the survival and function of primary human peripheral blood T cells (PBTs). While PL was not cytotoxic to PBTs, it interfered with several stages of T cell activation as it inhibited T cell/APC immune synapse formation, co-stimulation-induced upregulation of CD69 and CD25, T cell proliferation and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. PL-induced immune suppression was prevented in the presence of thiol-containing antioxidants. In line with this finding, PL increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione in PBTs. Diminished intracellular glutathione was accompanied by a decrease in S-glutathionylation on actin suggesting a global alteration of the antioxidant response. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that TH17-related genes were predominantly inhibited by PL. Consistently, the polarization of primary human naïve CD4+ T cells into TH17 subsets was significantly diminished while differentiation into Treg cells was substantially increased upon PL treatment. This opposed consequence for TH17 and Treg cells was again abolished by thiol-containing antioxidants. Taken together, PL may act as a promising agent for therapeutic immunosuppression by exerting prooxidative effects in human T cells resulting in a diminished TH17 but enhanced Treg cell differentiation.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(8): 1090-1097, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibition of interleukin (IL)-1 represents a promising treatment option in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of canakinumab in patients with AOSD and active joint involvement by means of a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Patients with AOSD and active joint involvement (tender and swollen joint counts of ≥4 each) were treated with canakinumab (4 mg/kg, maximum 300 mg subcutaneous every 4 weeks) or placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a clinically relevant reduction in disease activity at week 12 as determined by the change in disease activity score (ΔDAS28>1.2). RESULTS: At enrolment, patients had high active disease with a mean DAS28(ESR) of 5.4 in the canakinumab and 5.3 in the placebo group, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 12 patients (67%) in the canakinumab group and 7 patients (41%) in the placebo group fulfilled the primary outcome criterion (p=0.18). In the per-protocol analysis, significantly higher American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 30% (61% vs 20%, p=0.033), ACR 50% (50% vs 6.7%, p=0.009) and ACR 70% (28% vs 0%, p=0.049) response rates were observed in the canakinumab group compared with the placebo group. Two patients in the canakinumab group experienced a serious adverse event. CONCLUSION: Although the study was terminated prematurely and the primary endpoint was not achieved, treatment with canakinumab led to an improvement of several outcome measures in AOSD. The overall safety findings were consistent with the known profile of canakinumab. Thus, our data support indication for IL-1 inhibition with canakinumab in AOSD.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(11): 3380-3389, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis is a heterogeneous, multisystem disease. It can occur at any age, but most patients develop the disease between the age of 40 to 50 years. There is controversial evidence on whether/how the age at disease onset affects their clinical phenotype. We here investigate the relationship between age at disease onset and symptoms in a large cohort of SSc patients (lcSSc, dcSSc and SSc-overlap syndromes). METHODS: Clinical data of the registry of the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma including 3281 patients were evaluated and subdivided into three age groups at disease onset (<40 years, 40-60 years, >60 years). RESULTS: Among all SSc patients, 24.5% developed their first non-Raynaud phenomenon symptoms at the age <40 years, and 22.5% were older than 60 years of age. In particular, older patients at onset developed the lcSSc subset significantly more often. Furthermore, they had pulmonary hypertension more often, but digital ulcerations less often. Remarkably, the course of the disease was more rapidly progressing in the older cohort (>60 years), except for gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal involvement. No significant difference was found for the use of corticosteroids. However, significantly, fewer patients older than 60 years received immunosuppressive treatment. CONCLUSION: In this large registry, ∼25% of patients developed SSc at an age above 60 years with an increased frequency of lcSSc. In this age group, an onset of internal organ involvement was significantly accelerated across all three subsets. These findings suggest that, in the elderly cohort, more frequent follow-up examinations are required for an earlier detection of organ complications.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(3): 370-378, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the impact of the new haemodynamic definition of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as proposed by the 6th PH World Symposium on phenotypes and survival in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: In SSc patients who were prospectively and consecutively screened for PAH including right heart catheterisation in Heidelberg or Zurich, haemodynamic and clinical variables have been reassessed according to the new PAH definition. Patients have been followed for 3.7±3.7 (median 3.4) years; Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. Patients with significant lung or left heart disease were excluded from comparative analyses. RESULTS: The final dataset included 284 SSc patients, 146 patients (49.2%) had mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≤20 mm Hg, 19.3% had mPAP 21-24 mm Hg and 29.4% had mPAP ≥25 mm Hg. In the group of mildly elevated mPAP, only four patients (1.4% of the whole SSc cohort) had pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) values ≥3 Wood Units (WU) and could be reclassified as manifest SSc-APAH. Twenty-eight (9.8%) patients with mPAP of 21-24 mm Hg and PVR ≥2 WU already presented with early pulmonary vascular disease with decreased 6 min walking distance (6MWD) (p<0.001), TAPSE (p=0.004) and pulmonary arterial compliance (p<0.001). A PVR ≥2 WU was associated with reduced long-term survival (p=0.002). PVR and 6MWD were independent prognostic predictors in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The data of this study show that a PVR threshold ≥3 WU is too high to enable an early diagnosis of PAH. A PVR threshold ≥2 WU was already associated with pulmonary vascular disease, significantly reduced survival and would be more appropriate in SSc patients with mild PAH.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/genética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/mortalidade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/mortalidade , Idoso , Pressão Arterial/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Resistência Vascular/genética
8.
J Rheumatol ; 47(2): 241-248, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a severe life-threatening manifestation in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the knowledge about risk factors for SRC is limited. We determined here the frequency of SRC and identified risk factors for the prediction of SRC. METHODS: Based on regular followup data from the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma, we used univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations to analyze the association between clinical variables, SSc subsets, therapy [i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), corticosteroids], and the occurrence of SRC. RESULTS: Data of 2873 patients with 10,425 visits were available for analysis with a mean number of registry visits of 3.6 ± 2.8 and a mean time of followup of 3.6 ± 3.8 years. In total, 70 patients developed SRC (70/2873, 2.4%). Of these patients, 57.1% (40/70) were diagnosed with diffuse cutaneous SSc, 31.4% (22/70) with limited cutaneous SSc, and 11.4% (8/70) with SSc-overlap syndromes. Predictive independent factors with the highest probability for SRC were positive anti-RNA polymerase antibodies (RNAP), a history of proteinuria prior to SRC onset, diminished DLCO, and a history of hypertension. Interestingly, positive antitopoisomerase autoantibodies did not predict a higher risk for SRC. Further, patients with SRC were significantly more frequently treated with ACEi and corticosteroids without being independently associated with SRC. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, SRC has become a rare complication. By far the highest risk for SRC was associated with the detection of anti-RNAP and proteinuria.

9.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 277, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the last few years, anti-CD20 antibody rituximab profoundly changed the therapeutic landscape of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Here, we investigated whether natural killer (NK) cells may play a role in rituximab's mechanism of action in GPA. METHODS: B cell depletion, NK cell degranulation, and the expression of CD69 and CD16 on NK cells were measured in a series of in vitro experiments using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In vivo activation of NK cells was investigated in patients receiving rituximab infusions. Cells were analyzed by seven-color flow cytometry. RESULTS: NK cells from GPA patients were activated by immobilized rituximab. Also soluble rituximab activated NK cells, provided that B cells were present. NK cells degranulated and expressed the activation marker CD69 while CD16 expression was decreased. This activation of NK cells by soluble rituximab was accompanied by a reduction of B cells. The next-generation anti-CD20 antibody obinutuzumab showed stronger effects compared to rituximab on both the reduction of B cells and the activation of NK cells. Finally, we found that rituximab led to the activation of NK cells in vivo, provided that B cells were not depleted due to prior rituximab infusions. CONCLUSION: B cell-bound rituximab activates NK cells in GPA. While NK cells therefore participate in rituximab's mechanism of action in humans, their potential may be more efficiently exploited, e.g., by Fc engineering of therapeutic antibodies.


Assuntos
Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia
10.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 217, 2019 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, trial was to assess the effect of ambrisentan on mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mildly elevated pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: Thirty-eight SSc patients with mildly elevated mPAP at rest between 21 and 24 mmHg and/or > 30 mmHg during low-dose exercise were randomly assigned to treatment with either ambrisentan 5-10 mg/day or placebo. Right heart catheterization and further clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. The primary endpoint was the difference of mPAP change at rest between groups. RESULTS: After 6 months, the two groups did not differ in the primary endpoint (ambrisentan mPAP - 1 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. placebo - 0.73 ± 3.59 mmHg at rest, p = 0.884). However, three patients from the placebo group but none of the ambrisentan group progressed to SSc-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Furthermore, ambrisentan treatment showed significant improvements in the secondary endpoints cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest (CI 0.36 ± 0.66 l/min/m2 vs. - 0.31 ± 0.71 l/min/m2, p = 0.010; PVR - 0.70 ± 0.78 WU vs. 0.01 ± 0.71 WU, p = 0.012) and during exercise (CI 0.7 ± 0.81 l/min/m2 vs. - 0.45 ± 1.36 l/min/m2, p = 0.015; PVR - 0.84 ± 0.48 WU vs. - 0.0032 ± 0.34 WU, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study testing the effect of ambrisentan in patients with mildly elevated mPAP and/or exercise PH. The primary endpoint change in mPAP did only tendentially improve in the ambrisentan group, but the significant improvement of other hemodynamic parameters points to a possible benefit of ambrisentan and will be helpful to design future trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, unique identifier NCT: NCT02290613 , registered 14th of November 2014.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fenilpropionatos/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências
11.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 21(5): 18, 2019 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852700

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Idiopathic acute and recurrent pericarditis are rare diseases of unknown origin. Here, we review trigger factors, pathomechanism, and treatment options for acute and recurrent pericarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: Acute pericarditis can be triggered by viral infections, myocardial ischemia, heart catheter interventions, cardiac surgery or seem to occur without any trigger. Earlier reports about viral nucleic acids in the effusion or myocardial autoantibodies in serum were detected only in a minority of patients. The current pathomechanistic concept focuses on the innate immune system. Clinical trials revealed that colchicine and anti-IL1ß-targeted medication were effective to control acute and recurrent attacks. Activation of the innate immune system in pericarditis suggests that autoinflammation contributes to acute and recurrent pericarditis. The efficacy of colchicine and anti-IL1ß-targeted medication in clinical trials indicates that acute and recurrent pericarditis should be regarded as an autoinflammatory disease. Therefore, idiopathic pericarditis should be considered as an autoinflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Pericardite/imunologia , Humanos , Pericardite/metabolismo
12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(5): 805-816, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate right ventricular function and pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC; ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure) at rest and during exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with normal mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), patients with SSc with mildly elevated mean PAP, and patients with SSc with manifest pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: Patients with SSc (n = 112) underwent clinical assessment and right-sided heart catheterization at rest and during exercise and were divided into 3 groups according to their resting mean PAP values: normal mean PAP (≤20 mm Hg), mildly elevated mean PAP (21-24 mm Hg), and PH (mean PAP ≥25 mm Hg). Results were compared between groups by analysis of variance followed by post hoc Student's t-test. RESULTS: Compared to patients with normal mean PAP, patients with mildly elevated mean PAP had a lower 6-minute walking distance (P = 0.008), lower cardiac index (P = 0.027) and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (P = 0.0002) during exercise, and lower PAC at rest (P = 0.016) and different stages of exercise (P = 0.033 for 25W and P = 0.024 for 75W). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that impaired 6-minute walking distance in SSc patients with mildly elevated mean PAP might be caused by reduced PAC during exercise and reduced right ventricular output reserve, presumably due to impaired coupling between the right ventricle and the pulmonary vasculature. These findings provide further evidence of the clinical relevance of mildly elevated mean PAP in patients with SSc.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade) , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Caminhada
14.
Eur J Rheumatol ; 5(4): 230-234, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 10%-20% of patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) show an inadequate response to colchicine. In our cohort study, patients with FMF with or without amyloidosis and with an inadequate response to colchicine were treated with anakinra or canakinumab. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory parameters, Mediterranean fever (MEFV) mutations, and patient-reported outcomes were analyzed in 31 patients treated with anakinra or canakinumab. RESULTS: In a cohort of 250 adult patients with FMF, 31 patients were treated with anakinra (n=29) or canakinumab (n=2). The median Pras FMF severity score was 8 (range, 5-14) and correlated with the presence of high-penetrance MEFV mutations (p.Met-694-Val or p.Met-680-Ile). The FMF severity score was 11 in patients with two high-penetrance MEFV mutations (68%), 9 in those with a single high-penetrance MEFV mutation (19%), and 7.5 in those without high-penetrance MEFV mutations (13%, p=0.2). FMF-related amyloid A amyloidosis was diagnosed in 12 (39%) patients. Anakinra was used daily in 20 patients, thrice a week in 7, and upon demand during attacks in 2. Two patients were treated with canakinumab. IL-1-blocking treatment showed a rapid (2±3 days) and persistent suppression of FMF symptoms and inflammatory parameters. The frequency of FMF attacks was significantly reduced (p<0.003). Both patient- and physician-reported FMF activity significantly improved (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: IL-1-blocking therapy was well tolerated over a median period of 2 years and reduced the frequency of FMF attacks in patients with colchicine-resistant FMF.

15.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 216, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess, whether right atrial (RA) and ventricular (RV) size is related to RV pump function at rest and during exercise in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS: We included 54 patients with invasively diagnosed PAH that had been stable on targeted medication. All patients underwent clinical assessments including right heart catheterization and echocardiography at rest and during exercise. RV output reserve was defined as increase of cardiac index (CI) from rest to peak exercise (∆CIexercise). Patients were classified according to the median of RA and RV-area. RV pump function and further clinical parameters were compared between groups by student's t-test. Uni- and multivariate Pearson correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Patients with larger RA and/or RV-areas (above a median of 16 and 20cm2, respectively) showed significantly lower ∆CIexercise, higher mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance at rest and NT-proBNP levels. Furthermore, patients with higher RV-areas presented with a significantly lower RV stroke volume and pulmonary arterial compliance at peak exercise than patients with smaller RV-size. RV area was identified as the only independent predictor of RV output reserve. CONCLUSION: RV and RA areas represent valuable and easily accessible indicators of RV pump function at rest and during exercise. Cardiac output reserve should be considered as an important clinical parameter. Prospective studies are needed for further evaluation.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Direito/fisiologia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2584, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487791

RESUMO

The activity and function of T-cells are influenced by the intra- and extracellular redox milieu. Oxidative stress induces hypo responsiveness of untransformed T-cells. Vice versa increased glutathione (GSH) levels or decreased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) prime T-cell metabolism for inflammation, e.g., in rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, balancing the T-cell redox milieu may represent a promising new option for therapeutic immune modulation. Here we show that sulforaphane (SFN), a compound derived from plants of the Brassicaceae family, e.g., broccoli, induces a pro-oxidative state in untransformed human T-cells of healthy donors or RA patients. This manifested as an increase of intracellular ROS and a marked decrease of GSH. Consistently, increased global cysteine sulfenylation was detected. Importantly, a major target for SFN-mediated protein oxidation was STAT3, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of TH17-related genes. Accordingly, SFN significantly inhibited the activation of untransformed human T-cells derived from healthy donors or RA patients, and downregulated the expression of the transcription factor RORγt, and the TH17-related cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, which play a major role within the pathophysiology of many chronic inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. The inhibitory effects of SFN could be abolished by exogenously supplied GSH and by the GSH replenishing antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Together, our study provides mechanistic insights into the mode of action of the natural substance SFN. It specifically exerts TH17 prone immunosuppressive effects on untransformed human T-cells by decreasing GSH and accumulation of ROS. Thus, SFN may offer novel clinical options for the treatment of TH17 related chronic inflammatory/autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Brassicaceae/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 534, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599781

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from nearly all mammalian cells and different EV populations have been described. Microvesicles represent large EVs (LEVs) released from the cellular surface, while exosomes are small EVs (SEVs) released from an intracellular compartment. As it is likely that different stimuli promote the release of distinct EV populations, we analyzed EVs from human lymphocytes considering the respective release stimuli (activation Vs. apoptosis induction). We could clearly separate two EV populations, namely SEVs (average diameter <200 nm) and LEVs (diameter range between 200 and 1000 nm). Morphology and size were analyzed by electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Apoptosis induction caused a massive release of LEVs, while activated T-cells released SEVs and LEVs in considerably lower amounts. The release of SEVs from apoptotic T-cells was comparable with LEV release from activated ones. LEVs contained signaling proteins and proteins of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton. SEVs carried cytoplasmic/endosomal proteins like the 70-kDa heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) or tumor susceptibility 101 (TSG101), microtubule-associated proteins, and ubiquitinated proteins. The protein expression profile of SEVs and LEVs changed substantially after the induction of apoptosis. After apoptosis induction, HSP70 and TSG101 (often used as exosome markers) were highly expressed within LEVs. Interestingly, in contrast to HSP70 and TSG101, gelsolin and eps15 homology domain-containing protein 3 (EHD3) turned out to be specific for SEVs irrespective of the stimulus causing the EV release. Finally, we detected several subunits of the proteasome (PSMB9, PSMB10) as well as the danger signal HMGB1 exclusively within apoptotic cell-released LEVs. Thus, we were able to identify new marker proteins that can be useful to discriminate between distinct LEV subpopulations. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009074.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Linfócitos T , Apoptose , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica
18.
Amyloid ; 25(1): 37-45, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate obesity as susceptibility factor in patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. METHODS: Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were obtained from 146 patients with AA amyloidosis. Control groups comprised 40 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 controls without any inflammatory disease. FINDINGS: Patients with AA amyloidosis had either familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) or long-standing rheumatic diseases as underlying inflammatory disease (n = 111, median age 46 years). However, in a significant proportion of patients with AA amyloidosis no primary disease was identified (idiopathic AA; n = 37, median age 60 years). Patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis were more obese and older than patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to FMF or rheumatic diseases. Serum leptin levels correlated with the body mass index (BMI) in all types of AA amyloidosis. Elevated leptin levels of more than 30 µg/l were detected in 18% of FMF/rheumatic + AA amyloidosis and in 40% of patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis (p = .018). Finally, the SAA1 polymorphism was confirmed as a susceptibility factor for AA amyloidosis irrespective of the type of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, age and the SAA1 polymorphism are susceptibility factors for idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Recent advances in treatment of FMF and rheumatic disorders will decrease the incidence of AA amyloidosis due to these diseases. Idiopathic AA, however, might be an emerging problem in the ageing and increasingly obese population.


Assuntos
Amiloidose , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amiloidose/sangue , Amiloidose/epidemiologia , Amiloidose/etiologia , Amiloidose/genética , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/sangue , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/complicações , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Doenças Reumáticas/sangue , Doenças Reumáticas/complicações , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/genética , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo
20.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 56(12): 2102-2108, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968868

RESUMO

Objective: To provide outcome data concerning pregnancies exposed to the Interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors prior to conception in both men and women, during pregnancy and breast feeding. Methods: Retrospective data were collected from members of the International Society for Systemic Autoinflammatory diseases and collated in a single centre. A uniform data collection sheet was used to obtain standardized data including maternal age and diagnosis, type, duration of and response to IL-1 blockade, pregnancy duration, delivery, mode of feeding and neonatal development. Results: There were 31 maternal-exposed pregnancies from seven countries and we report the first data on paternal exposure: six to anakinra and five to canakinumab, with no negative outcomes. We also report the first data on canakinumab-exposed pregnancies: eight pregnancies that resulted in the delivery of seven healthy infants of normal gestational age and birthweight. There were 23 anakinra-exposed pregnancies resulting in the birth of 21 healthy infants, and one baby with unilateral renal agenesis and ectopic neurohypophysis. There were two first trimester miscarriages affecting a mother with active disease. There were no serious neonatal infections. Fourteen infants were breast fed with no complications. There were no reports of developmental delay, with follow-up of up to 10 years (median 18 months). Conclusion: This series substantially increases the published experience of IL-1 blockade and reproduction including the first data on canakinumab and on paternal exposure to these agents. Data are generally reassuring, although the case of renal agenesis is the second reported in an anakinra-exposed pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Peso ao Nascer , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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