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1.
Lancet ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relevance of blood lipid concentrations to long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease and the relevance of lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease outcomes is unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular disease risk associated with the full spectrum of bloodstream non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. We also created an easy-to-use tool to estimate the long-term probabilities for a cardiovascular disease event associated with non-HDL cholesterol and modelled its risk reduction by lipid-lowering treatment. METHODS: In this risk-evaluation and risk-modelling study, we used Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium data from 19 countries across Europe, Australia, and North America. Individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline and with robust available data on cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. The primary composite endpoint of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was defined as the occurrence of the coronary heart disease event or ischaemic stroke. Sex-specific multivariable analyses were computed using non-HDL cholesterol categories according to the European guideline thresholds, adjusted for age, sex, cohort, and classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. In a derivation and validation design, we created a tool to estimate the probabilities of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, dependent on age, sex, and risk factors, and the associated modelled risk reduction, assuming a 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol. FINDINGS: Of the 524 444 individuals in the 44 cohorts in the Consortium database, we identified 398 846 individuals belonging to 38 cohorts (184 055 [48·7%] women; median age 51·0 years [IQR 40·7-59·7]). 199 415 individuals were included in the derivation cohort (91 786 [48·4%] women) and 199 431 (92 269 [49·1%] women) in the validation cohort. During a maximum follow-up of 43·6 years (median 13·5 years, IQR 7·0-20·1), 54 542 cardiovascular endpoints occurred. Incidence curve analyses showed progressively higher 30-year cardiovascular disease event-rates for increasing non-HDL cholesterol categories (from 7·7% for non-HDL cholesterol <2·6 mmol/L to 33·7% for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 12·8% to 43·6% in men; p<0·0001). Multivariable adjusted Cox models with non-HDL cholesterol lower than 2·6 mmol/L as reference showed an increase in the association between non-HDL cholesterol concentration and cardiovascular disease for both sexes (from hazard ratio 1·1, 95% CI 1·0-1·3 for non-HDL cholesterol 2·6 to <3·7 mmol/L to 1·9, 1·6-2·2 for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 1·1, 1·0-1·3 to 2·3, 2·0-2·5 in men). The derived tool allowed the estimation of cardiovascular disease event probabilities specific for non-HDL cholesterol with high comparability between the derivation and validation cohorts as reflected by smooth calibration curves analyses and a root mean square error lower than 1% for the estimated probabilities of cardiovascular disease. A 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol concentrations was associated with reduced risk of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, and this risk reduction was greater the earlier cholesterol concentrations were reduced. INTERPRETATION: Non-HDL cholesterol concentrations in blood are strongly associated with long-term risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We provide a simple tool for individual long-term risk assessment and the potential benefit of early lipid-lowering intervention. These data could be useful for physician-patient communication about primary prevention strategies. FUNDING: EU Framework Programme, UK Medical Research Council, and German Centre for Cardiovascular Research.

2.
Clin Biochem ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine gender-specific reference limits of high-sensitivity (hs) cardiac troponins (cTn) and validity of hs assay designation for both genders. METHODS: After screening with a questionnaire, 827 presumably healthy individuals were further selected based on clinical criteria (n=740), clinical criteria plus cardiac imaging including stress magnetic resonance imaging or stress echocardiography (n=726), and extended cardio-pulmonary parameters (n=626). Blood samples were measured with hs-cTnT (Roche Diagnostics) on a cobas e602 analyzer as well as hs-cTnI (Abbott Diagnostics) on an ARCHITECTi2000SR. The impact of health definition, statistical methods, instrument selection and limit of detection (LoD) on overall and gender-specific 99th percentiles was assessed. RESULTS: Median age was 56 years (50.9% female) for the total study cohort. 99th percentiles for females and males ranged between 13.1-13.3 ng/L and 16.8-19.9 ng/L for hs-cTnT as well as 10.3-12.5 ng/L and 27.4-29.7 ng/L for hs-cTnI depending on health definition. Utilization of stricter health definition criteria reduced the difference of the gender-specific 99th percentiles between males and females for hs-cTnT to 3.7 ng/L (males 16.8 ng/L, females 13.1 ng/L), whereas the difference rather increased for hs-cTnI to 19.4 ng/L (males 29.7 ng/L, females 10.3 ng/L). Values >LoD could be measured in the majority of males and females using hs-TnT (81.4-83.3% and 96.5-96.9%, respectively). In contrast, values >LoD could not be observed in the majority of females using hs-cTnI (38.4-41.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In a well-phenotyped healthy cohort, reference values for hs-cTnT were slightly higher, whereas hs-cTnI cut-offs were considerably lower than previously observed. Gender differences were more pronounced in hs-cTnI than in hs-cTnT and were further reduced for hs-cTnT by application of stricter health definition criteria. Contrary to hs-cTnI, hs-cTnT fulfilled criteria for hs designation for both genders.

3.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319885458, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modifiable lifestyle risk factors (modRF) of coronary artery disease (CAD) are associated with increased inflammation represented by elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Lifestyle changes may influence the inflammatory burden in patients with CAD, relevantly modifying the target population for emerging anti-inflammatory compounds. AIMS: The aims of this study were to analyse the association of modRF and CRP levels in CAD patients, and to define a potential target population for anti-inflammatory treatment with and without the optimisation of modRF. METHODS: We included all patients with angiographically documented CAD from the observational cohort study INTERCATH. Patients with recent myocardial infarction, malignancy, infectious disease, and pre-existing immunosuppressive medication including a history of solid organ transplantation were excluded. Overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2), smoking, lack of physical activity (PA; <1.5 h/week), and poor diet (≤12 points of an established Mediterranean diet score (MDS), range 0-28 points) were considered as modRF. CRP was measured by a high-sensitivity assay (hsCRP) at baseline. We performed multivariable linear regressions with log-transformed hsCRP as the dependent variable. Based on these associations, we calculated potential hsCRP levels for each patient, assuming optimisation of the individual modRF. RESULTS: Of 1014 patients, 737 (73%) were male, the mean age was 69 years, and 483 (48%) had an hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/l. ModRF were significantly overrepresented in patients with hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/l compared to patients with an hsCRP < 2 mg/l (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2: 76% vs 61%; PA < 1.5 h/week: 69% vs 57%; MDS ≤ 12: 46% vs 37%; smoking: 61% vs 54%; p < 0.05 for all). hsCRP increased with the incremental number of modRF present (median hsCRP values for N = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 modRF: 1.1, 1.0, 1.6, 2.4, 2.8 mg/l, p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression adjusting for age, sex, intake of lipid-lowering medication, and diabetes mellitus revealed independent associations between log-transformed hsCRP and all modRF (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2: exp(ß) = 1.55, p < 0.001; PA < 1.5 h/week: exp(ß) = 1.33, p < 0.001; MDS ≤ 12: exp(ß) = 1.18, p = 0.018; smoking: exp(ß) = 1.18, p = 0.019). Individual recalculation of hsCRP levels assuming optimisation of modRF identified 183 out of 483 (38%) patients with hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/l who could achieve an hsCRP < 2 mg/l via lifestyle changes. CONCLUSION: modRF are strongly and independently associated with CRP levels in patients with CAD. A relevant portion of CAD patients with high inflammatory burden could achieve an hsCRP < 2 mg/l by lifestyle changes alone. This should be considered both in view of the cost and side-effects of pharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment and for the design of future clinical trials in this field.

5.
Europace ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740944

RESUMO

AIMS: Limited evidence is available on the temporal relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischaemic stroke and their impact on mortality in the community. We sought to understand the temporal relationship of AF and ischaemic stroke and to determine the sequence of disease onset in relation to mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Across five prospective community cohorts of the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) project we assessed baseline cardiovascular risk factors in 100 132 individuals, median age 46.1 (25th-75th percentile 35.8-57.5) years, 48.4% men. We followed them for incident ischaemic stroke and AF and determined the relation of subsequent disease diagnosis with overall mortality. Over a median follow-up of 16.1 years, N = 4555 individuals were diagnosed solely with AF, N = 2269 had an ischaemic stroke but no AF diagnosed, and N = 898 developed both, ischaemic stroke and AF. Temporal relationships showed a clustering of diagnosis of both diseases within the years around the diagnosis of the other disease. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses with time-dependent covariates subsequent diagnosis of AF after ischaemic stroke was associated with increased mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-7.54; P < 0.001] which was also apparent when ischaemic stroke followed after the diagnosis of AF (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.90-5.00; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The temporal relations of ischaemic stroke and AF appear to be bidirectional. Ischaemic stroke may precede detection of AF by years. The subsequent diagnosis of both diseases significantly increases mortality risk. Future research needs to investigate the common underlying systemic disease processes.

6.
Clin Chem ; 65(12): 1592-1601, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of patients are presenting worldwide to emergency departments with suspected myocardial infarction. The use of point-of-care troponin assays might enable faster decision-making in this high-risk population and reduce the burden on emergency facilities. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic performance of a point-of-care high-sensitivity troponin I assay. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study including patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected myocardial infarction from July 2013 to July 2016. A diagnostic algorithm for a high-sensitivity troponin I point-of-care assay was developed in a derivation data set with 669 patients and validated in an additional 610 patients. RESULTS: The derived 0/1 h algorithm for the point-of-care assay consisted of an admission troponin I <4 ng/L and a δ from 0 h to 1 h <3 ng/L for rule out and an admission troponin I ≥90 ng/L or a δ from 0 h to 1 h ≥20 ng/L for rule in of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Application to the validation cohort showed a negative predictive value of 99.7% (95% CI, 98.1%-100.0%) and 48.0% of patients ruled out, whereas 14.6% were ruled in with a positive predictive value of 86.5% (95% CI, 77.6%-92.8%). The diagnostic performance of the point-of-care high-sensitivity assay was highly comparable to guideline-recommended use of a laboratory-based high-sensitivity troponin assay. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical application of a 0/1 h diagnostic algorithm based on a high-sensitivity troponin I point-of-care assay is safe, and diagnostic performance is comparable to a laboratory-based high-sensitivity troponin I assay.

7.
JAMA Cardiol ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664431

RESUMO

Importance: Risk stratification for coronary heart disease (CHD) remains challenging because of the complex causative mechanism of the disease. Metabolomic profiling offers the potential to detect new biomarkers and improve CHD risk assessment. Objective: To evaluate the association between circulating metabolites and incident CHD in a large European cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based study used the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) case-cohort to measure circulating metabolites using a targeted approach in serum samples from 10 741 individuals without prevalent CHD. The cohort consisted of a weighted, random subcohort of the original cohort of more than 70 000 individuals. The case-cohort design was applied to 6 European cohorts: FINRISK97 (Finland), Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases/Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (MONICA/KORA; Germany), MONICA-Brianza and Moli-Sani (Italy), DanMONICA (Denmark), and the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (United Kingdom). Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations with time to CHD onset were assessed individually by applying weighted and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. The association of metabolites with CHD onset was examined by C indices. Results: In 10 741 individuals (4157 women [38.7%]; median [interquartile range] age, 56.5 [49.2-62.2] years), 2166 incident CHD events (20.2%) occurred over a median (interquartile range) follow-up time of 9.2 (4.5-15.0) years. Among the 141 metabolites analyzed, 24 were significantly associated with incident CHD at a nominal P value of .05, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), lysoPCs, amino acids, and sphingolipids. Five PCs remained significant after correction for multiple testing: acyl-alkyl-PC C40:6 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13 [95% CI, 1.07-1.18]), diacyl-PC C40:6 (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04-1.15]), acyl-alkyl-PC C38:6 (HR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.05-1.16]), diacyl-PC C38:6 (HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]) and diacyl-PC C38:5 (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.16]). Lower levels of these metabolites were associated with increased risk of incident CHD. The strength of the associations competes with those of classic risk factors (C statistics: acyl-alkyl-PC C40:6, 0.756 [95% CI, 0.738-0.774], diacyl-PC C40:6, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.736-0.772], acyl-alkyl-PC C38:6, 0.755 [95% CI, 0.736-0.773], diacyl-PC C38:6, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.736-0.772]), diacyl-PC C38:5, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.736-0.772]). Adding metabolites to a base risk model including classic risk factors high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity troponin I did not improve discrimination by C statistics. Conclusions and Relevance: Five PCs were significantly associated with increased risk of incident CHD and showed comparable discrimination with individual classic risk factors. Although these metabolites do not improve CHD risk assessment beyond that of classic risk factors, these findings hold promise for an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of CHD.

8.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 56(6): 1131-1139, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the differences in outcomes of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in low-risk patients. METHODS: All patients with a logistic EuroSCORE II <4% who underwent transfemoral TAVI between 2008 and 2016 (n = 955) or SAVR between 2009 and 2014 (n = 886) at our centre were included. One hundred and nine patients per group were available for propensity score matching. RESULTS: Mortality during the 30-day follow-up showed no differences (SAVR vs TAVI: 1.1% vs 1.8%, P = 1.0) but the rates of permanent pacemaker implantation (0.0 vs 14.8%, P < 0.001) and paravalvular leakage ≥ moderate (0.0 vs 7.0%, P = 0.017) were higher in TAVI patients. No difference was found regarding postoperative effective orifice area and transvalvular pressure gradients. Although, the 1-year survival was similar between both groups; 3- and 5-year survival was significantly inferior in the TAVI patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS: TAVI yielded similar short-term outcomes compared with SAVR despite higher rates of permanent pacemaker implantation and paravalvular leakage ≥ moderate, but inferior long-term survival. Poorer long-term outcomes of the TAVI patient cohort were attributable to a more comorbid TAVI population. This emphasizes the need for long-term results from randomized controlled trials before TAVI can be broadly expanded to younger low-risk patients.

9.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505902

RESUMO

: High-sensitivity troponin has proven to be a promising biomarker for the prediction of future adverse cardiovascular events. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) on admission in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) analyzed by a novel (Singulex Clarity cTnI) and established hs-TnI assay (ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI, Abbott). Hs-TnI was measured in a total of 2332 patients from two prospective cohort studies presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. The prognostic impact for overall and cardiovascular mortality of both hs-TnI assays was assessed in the total patient cohort as well as in the subgroups of patients with AMI (n = 518) and without AMI (non-AMI) (n = 1814). Patients presenting with highest hs-TnI levels showed higher overall and cardiovascular mortality rates compared to those with lower troponin levels, irrespective of the assay used. Both hs-TnI assays indicated association with overall mortality according to adjusted hazard ratio (HR) among the entire study population (HR for Singulex assay: 1.16 (95% CI 1.08-1.24) and HR for Abbott assay: 1.17 (95% CI 1.09-1.25)). This finding was particularly pronounced in non-AMI patients, whereas no association between hs-TnI and overall mortality was found in AMI patients for either assay. In non-AMI patients, both assays equally improved risk prediction for cardiovascular mortality beyond conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Hs-TnI is independently predictive for adverse outcomes in patients with suspected AMI, especially in the subset of patients without confirmed AMI. There was no difference between the established and the novel assay in the prediction of mortality.

10.
Circulation ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in cardiac troponin concentrations by age, sex and time between samples in patients with suspected myocardial infarction are not currently accounted for in diagnostic approaches. We aimed to combine these variables through machine learning to improve the assessment of risk for individual patients. METHODS: A machine learning algorithm (myocardial-ischemic-injury-index [MI3]) incorporating age, sex, and paired high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations, was trained on 3,013 patients and tested on 7,998 patients with suspected myocardial infarction. MI3 uses gradient boosting to compute a value (0-100) reflecting an individual's likelihood of a diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction and estimates the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for that individual. Assessment was by calibration and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC). Secondary analysis evaluated example MI3 thresholds from the training set that identified patients as low-risk (99% sensitivity) and high-risk (75% PPV), and performance at these thresholds was compared in the test set to the 99th percentile and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) rule-out pathways. RESULTS: Myocardial infarction occurred in 404 (13.4%) patients in the training set and 849 (10.6%) patients in the test set. MI3 was well calibrated with a very high AUC of 0.963 [0.956-0.971] in the test set and similar performance in early and late presenters. Example MI3 thresholds identifying low-risk and high-risk patients in the training set were 1.6 and 49.7 respectively. In the test set, MI3 values were <1.6 in 69.5% with a NPV of 99.7% (99.5%-99.8%) and sensitivity of 97.8% (96.7-98.7%), and were ≥49.7 in 10.6% with a PPV of 71.8% (68.9-75.0%) and specificity of 96.7% (96.3-97.1%). Using these thresholds, MI3 performed better than the ESC 0/3-hour pathway (sensitivity 82.5% [74.5-88.8%], specificity 92.2% [90.7-93.5%]) and the 99th percentile at any time-point (sensitivity 89.6% [87.4-91.6%]), specificity 89.3% [88.6-90.0%]). CONCLUSIONS: Using machine learning, MI3 provides an individualized and objective assessment of the likelihood of myocardial infarction, which can be used to identify low-risk and high-risk patients who may benefit from earlier clinical decisions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Unique Identifier: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12616001441404. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au.

11.
Jpn J Radiol ; 37(9): 642-650, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301000

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on left ventricular (LV) mass, myocardial strain and diastolic function in patients with treatment-resistant arterial hypertension by cardiac magnet resonance imaging on a 12-month follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients (38% female) were examined before and 12 months after RDN. LV morphology and strain were analyzed. Diastolic function was determined by early (EPFR) and atrial peak filling rates (APFR) derived from differential volume-time-curve analysis. Clinical visits included 24-h ambulant blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). RESULTS: Twelve months after RDN LV mass decreased from 80 ± 21 g/m2 to 74 ± 20 g/m2 (P < 0.05). Global radial (35 ± 12% vs. 41 ± 10%, P < 0.05) and longitudinal strain improved (- 15 ± 4% vs. - 17 ± 3%, P < 0.05). Global circumferential strain (- 16 ± 5% vs. - 18 ± 4%, P = 0.12) remained unchanged. The parameter of diastolic LV function PFRR (EPFR/APFR) improved following RDN (0.9 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.05). Individual changes of LV mass were associated with an increase of EPFR (r = - 0.54, P < 0.05) and a reduction of APFR by trend (r = 0.45, P = 0.08). Systolic ABPM showed a decrease by trend (152 mmHg vs. 148 mmHg, P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: After RDN we observed a reduction of LV mass, improvement of global strain and diastolic function.

12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319859975, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242053

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction after an endurance race by biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance in triathletes with and without myocardial fibrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty asymptomatic male triathletes (45 ± 10 years) with over 10 training hours per week and 55 ± 8 ml/kg per minute maximal oxygen uptake during exercise testing were studied before (baseline) and 2.4 ± 1.1 hours post-race. Baseline cardiac magnetic resonance included cine, T1/T2, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and extracellular volume imaging. Post-race non-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance included cine and T1/T2 mapping. Non-ischaemic myocardial fibrosis was present in 10 triathletes (LGE+) whereas 20 had no fibrosis (LGE-). At baseline, LGE + triathletes had higher peak exercise systolic blood pressure with 222 ± 21 mmHg compared to LGE- triathletes (192 ± 30 mmHg, P < 0.01). Post-race troponin T and creatine kinase MB were similarly increased in both groups, but there was no change in T2 and T1 from baseline to post-race with 54 ± 3 ms versus 53 ± 3 ms (P = 0.797) and 989 ± 21 ms versus 989 ± 28 ms (P = 0.926), respectively. However, post-race left atrial ejection fraction was significantly lower in LGE + triathletes compared to LGE- triathletes (53 ± 6% vs. 59 ± 6%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline atrial peak filling rates were lower in LGE - triathletes (121 ± 30 ml/s/m2) compared to LGE + triathletes (161 ± 34 ml/s/m2, P < 0.01). Post-race atrial peak filling rates increased in LGE- triathletes to 163 ± 46 ml/s/m2, P < 0.001), but not in LGE + triathletes (169 ± 50ml/s/m2, P = 0.747). CONCLUSION: Despite post-race troponin T release, we did not find detectable myocardial oedema by cardiac magnetic resonance. However, the unfavourable blood pressure response during exercise testing seemed to be associated with post-race cardiac dysfunction, which could explain the occurrence of myocardial fibrosis in triathletes.

13.
Biomarkers ; 24(6): 549-555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159594

RESUMO

Purpose: Established diagnostic thresholds for high-sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTn) might not apply for elderly patients as they are elevated irrespective of the presence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Aim of the present study was to investigate hs-cTnI in elderly patients with suspected AMI and to calculate optimized diagnostic cutoffs. Material and methods: Data from a prospective multi-centre study and from a second independent prospective single-centre cohort study were analysed. A number of 2903 patients were eligible for further analysis. Patients > 70 years were classified as elderly. hs-cTnI was measured upon admission. Results: Around 34.7% of 2903 patients were classified as elderly. Around 22.5% of elderly patients were finally diagnosed with AMI. Elderly patients had higher hs-cTnI levels at admission irrespective of the final diagnosis (p < 0.001). According to the AUROC, hs-cTnI was a strong marker for detection of AMI in elderly patients. Application of the 99th percentile cutoffs showed a substantially lower specificity in elderly. By using optimized thresholds, specificity was improved to levels as in younger patients in both cohorts but accompanied with a decrease in sensitivity. Conclusions: hs-cTnI levels have a lower specificity for detecting AMI in elderly patients. This lower specificity can be improved by using hs-cTnI thresholds optimized for elderly patients.

14.
Circ Res ; 125(3): 328-340, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159652

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are proposed novel biomarkers of myocardial injury. Their release kinetics have not been explored without confounding by heparin nor has their relationship to myocardial protein biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: To compare ncRNA types in heparinase-treated samples with established and emerging protein biomarkers for myocardial injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 158 circRNAs and 21 lncRNAs in human cardiac tissue identified 12 circRNAs and 11 lncRNAs as potential biomarkers with cardiac origin. Eleven miRNAs were included. At low spike-in concentrations of myocardial tissue, significantly higher regression coefficients were observed across ncRNA types compared with cardiac troponins and cMyBP-C (cardiac myosin-binding protein C). Heparinase treatment of serial plasma and serum samples of patients undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy removed spurious correlations between miRNAs in non-heparinase-treated samples. After transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy, muscle-enriched miRNAs (miR-1 and miR-133a) showed a steeper and earlier increase than cardiac-enriched miRNAs (miR-499 and miR-208b). Putative cardiac lncRNAs, including LIPCAR (long intergenic noncoding RNA predicting cardiac remodeling and survival), did not rise, refuting a predominant cardiac origin. Cardiac circRNAs remained largely undetectable. In a validation cohort of acute myocardial infarction, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed noninferiority of cardiac-enriched miRNAs, but miRNAs failed to identify cases presenting with low troponin values. cMyBP-C was validated as a biomarker with highly sensitive properties, and the combination of muscle-enriched miRNAs with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T and cMyBP-C returned the highest area under the curve values. CONCLUSIONS: In a comparative assessment of ncRNAs and protein biomarkers for myocardial injury, cMyBP-C showed properties as the most sensitive cardiac biomarker while miRNAs emerged as promising candidates to integrate ncRNAs with protein biomarkers. Sensitivity of current miRNA detection is inferior to cardiac proteins but a multibiomarker combination of muscle-enriched miRNAs with cMyBP-C and cardiac troponins could open a new path of integrating complementary characteristics of different biomarker types.

15.
Circ J ; 83(7): 1553-1562, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the effect of myocardial fibrosis on left ventricular (LV) function evaluated by feature-tracking strain analysis by cine cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in competitive male triathletes with normal ejection fraction (EF).Methods and Results:78 asymptomatic male triathletes with >10 weekly training hours (43±11 years) and 28 male age-matched controls were studied by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and cine CMR. Global and segmental radial, longitudinal and circumferential strains were analyzed using feature-tracking cine CMR. Focal non-ischemic LGE was observed in 15 of 78 triathletes (19%, LGE+) with predominance in the basal inferolateral segments. LVEF was normal in LGE+ (62±6%) and LGE- triathletes (62±5%, P=0.958). In contrast, global radial strain was lower in LGE+ triathletes at 40±7% compared with LGE- triathletes (45±7%, P<0.05). Reduced segmental radial strain occurred either in LGE+ segments or in directly adjacent segments. Strain analysis revealed regional differences in controls, with the highest radial and longitudinal strain in the inferolateral segments, which were typically affected by fibrosis in LGE+ triathletes. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced global and regional radial strain suggests a negative effect of myocardial fibrosis on LV function in LGE+ triathletes with normal EF. The observed regional differences in controls with the highest radial and longitudinal strain in the inferolateral segments may explain the typical occurrence of fibrosis in this myocardial region in triathletes.

16.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 56(6): 1031-1036, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for the treatment of cardiogenic shock has shown to improve survival but is associated with complications. However, if the patient cannot be weaned from ECLS, their therapy options are limited. Although durable left ventricular assist device implantation might be an option in such cases, an unclear neurological outcome is often a contraindication. We hypothesize that Impella 5.0 therapy provides sufficient circulatory support while avoiding ECLS-related complications, thereby allowing for an adequate evaluation of a patient's neurological state and facilitating further treatment options. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 22 ECLS patients (mean age 56.5 ± 10.7 years) with an unclear neurological status who underwent Impella 5.0 implantation between January 2016 and July 2018 in our institution. Neurological status was evaluated on a daily basis using the cerebral performance category score and the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (72.7%) were resuscitated before ECLS implantation and 13 patients (59.1%) had acute myocardial infarction. The mean duration on ECLS before Impella 5.0 implantation was 9.3 ± 1.7 days. All patients were successfully weaned from ECLS by Impella 5.0 implantation via the axillary artery. The mean duration on Impella 5.0 was 16.3 ± 4.7 days. In surviving patients, both quantitative measurements of cerebral performance improved after 30 days compared to the baseline (P < 0.01). Six patients (27.3%) were bridged to a durable left ventricular assist device. In 9 patients (40.9%), myocardial function recovered during Impella 5.0 support and the device was successfully explanted. The 30-day survival rate was 68.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Impella 5.0 support provides a bridge-to-decision option for patients following ECLS implantation and leads to left ventricular unloading. It allows further evaluation of a patient's neurological situation and facilitates further therapy. About two-thirds of patients survived with acceptable neurological outcomes.

17.
Biomolecules ; 9(5)2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108918

RESUMO

(1) Background: Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the extremities of chromosomes that maintain genetic stability. Telomere biology is relevant to several human disorders and diseases, specifically cardiovascular disease. To better understand the link between cardiovascular disease and telomere length, we studied the effect of relative telomere length (RTL) on cardiovascular risk factors in a large population-based sample. (2) Methods: RTL was measured by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in subjects of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (n = 4944). We then performed an association study of RTL with known cardiovascular risk factors of smoking status as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. (3) Results: A significant correlation was shown for RTL, with age as a quality control in our study (effect = -0.004, p = 3.2 × 10-47). Analysis of the relation between RTL and cardiovascular risk factors showed a significant association of RTL in patients who were current smokers (effect = -0.016, p = 0.048). No significant associations with RTL were seen for cardiovascular risk factors of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.127), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.713), triglycerides (p = 0.359), smoking (p = 0.328), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.615), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.949), or BMI (p = 0.903). In a subsequent analysis, we calculated the tertiles of RTL. No significant difference across RTL tertiles was detectable for BMI, blood pressure, lipid levels, or smoking status. Finally, we studied the association of RTL and cardiovascular risk factors stratified by tertiles of age. We found a significant association of RTL and LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age (effect = 0.0004, p = 0.006). (4) Conclusions: We determined the association of relative telomere length and cardiovascular risk factors in a population setting. An association of telomere length with age, current smoking status, as well as with LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age was found, whereas no associations were observed between telomere length and triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, or BMI.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5708, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952941

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to assess whether 6-week ranolazine application on top of guideline-based treatment impacts on the arginine/NO pathway and urinary isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α as marker of oxidative stress in patients directly after a myocardial infarction. 20 patients with unstable angina pectoris and proof of acute cardiac ischemia entered the study. 10 subjects received the study drug ranolazine in addition to standard treatment, the others received only standard treatment. Urine and venous blood were collected before and after treatment. At the end of the study and compared to baseline, homoarginine levels had increased in the control group. This was not the case in ranolazine-patients. Interestingly, in ranolazine-treated-patients arginine plasma levels were significantly higher at the end of the study than at baseline (difference +26 µmol/L, 95% CI 8.6 to 44 µmol/L). ADMA and SDMA levels were not different. Urine levels of the oxidative stress marker 8-iso-PGF2α tended to be lower in ranolazine-treated patients (-144 pmol/mg creatinine). Findings of this hypothesis-driven study give evidence that ranolazine treatment enhances arginine plasma levels and lowers oxidative stress.

19.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(12): 1386-1393, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) constitutes an unmet need in current daily clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels for 1-year mortality in patients with suspected AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: suPAR levels were determined in 1314 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. Patients were followed up for 12 months to assess all-cause mortality. Of 1314 patients included, 308 were diagnosed with AMI. Median suPAR levels did not differ between subjects with AMI compared to non-AMI (3.5 ng/ml vs. 3.2 ng/ml, p = 0.066). suPAR levels reliably predicted all-cause mortality after 1 year. Hazard ratio for 1-year mortality was 12.6 (p < 0.001) in the quartile with the highest suPAR levels compared to the first quartile. The prognostic value for 6-month mortality was comparable to an established risk prediction model, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, with an AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.72-0.86) for the GRACE score and 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.84) for suPAR. Addition of suPAR improved the GRACE score, as shown by integrated discrimination improvement statistics of 0.036 (p = 0.03) suggesting a further discrimination of events from non-events by the addition of suPAR. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR levels reliably predicted mortality in patients with suspected AMI. STUDY REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457).

20.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 204-213, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates differences between women and men in heart failure (HF) risk and mortality. BACKGROUND: Sex differences in HF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. METHODS: In 78,657 individuals (median 49.5 years of age; age range 24.1 to 98.7 years; 51.7% women) from community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani, Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe) consortium, the association between incident HF and mortality, the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular diseases, biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP]; N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) with incident HF, and their attributable risks were tested in women vs. men. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, fewer HF cases were observed in women (n = 2,399 [5.9%]) than in men (n = 2,771 [7.3%]). HF incidence increased markedly after 60 years of age, initially with a more rapid increase in men, whereas incidence in women exceeded that of men after 85 years of age. HF onset substantially increased mortality risk in both sexes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed the following sex differences for the association with incident HF: systolic blood pressure hazard ratio (HR) according to SD in women of 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.14) versus HR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.24) in men; heart rate HR of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.03) in women versus HR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13) in men; CRP HR of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.20) in women versus HR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.24 to 1.41) in men; and NT-proBNP HR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.74) in women versus HR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.05) in men. Population-attributable risk of all risk factors combined was 59.0% in women and 62.9% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Women had a lower risk for HF than men. Sex differences were seen for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, CRP, and NT-proBNP, with a lower HF risk in women.

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