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2.
Circulation ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650435

RESUMO

Background: There are limited data on the unique CVD, non-CVD, and mortality risks of primary prevention individuals with very high coronary artery calcium (CAC≥1000), especially in comparison to rates observed in secondary prevention populations. Methods: Our study population consisted of 6814 ethnically diverse individuals age 45-84 years, free of known CVD from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a prospective, observational, community-based cohort. Mean follow-up time was 13.6±4.4 years. Hazard ratios of CAC≥1000 were compared to both CAC=0 and CAC 400-999 for CVD, non-CVD, and mortality outcomes using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age, sex, and traditional risk factors. Using a sex-adjusted logarithmic model, we calculated event rates in MESA as a function of CAC, and compared to those observed in the placebo group of stable secondary prevention patients in the FOURIER clinical trial. Results: Compared to CAC 400-999, those with CAC≥1000 (N=257) had greater mean number of coronary vessels with CAC (3.4±0.5), greater total area of CAC (586.5±275.2 mm2), similar CAC density, and more extensive extra-coronary calcification. After full-adjustment, CAC≥1000 demonstrated a 4.71-(3.63-6.11), 7.57-(5.50-10.42), 4.86-(3.32-7.11), and 1.94-fold (1.57-2.41) increased risk for all CVD events, all CHD events, hard CHD events, and all-cause mortality, respectively, compared to CAC=0 and a 1.65-(1.25-2.16), 1.66-(1.22-2.25), 1.51-(1.03-2.23), and 1.34-fold (1.05-1.71) increased risk compared to CAC 400-999. With increasing CAC, hazard ratios increased for all event types, with no apparent upper CAC threshold. CAC≥1000 was associated with a 1.95-(1.57-2.41) and 1.43-fold (1.12-1.83) increased risk for a first non-CVD event compared to CAC=0 and CAC 400-999, respectively. CAC=1000 corresponded to an annualized 3-point MACE rate of 3.4 per 100 person-years, similar to that of the total FOURIER population (3.3), and higher than lower risk FOURIER subgroups. Conclusions: Individuals with very high CAC (≥1000) are a unique population at substantially higher risk for CVD events, non-CVD outcomes, and mortality than those with lower CAC, and similar 3-point MACE rates as a stable treated secondary prevention population. Future guidelines should consider a less distinct stratification algorithm between primary vs. secondary prevention patients in guiding aggressive preventive pharmacotherapy.

3.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784740

RESUMO

AIMS: Autoimmune systemic inflammatory diseases (SIDs) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, particularly myocardial infarction (MI). However, there are limited data on the prevalence and effects of SID among adults who experience an MI at a young age. We sought to determine the prevalence and prognostic implications of SID among adults who experienced an MI at a young age. METHODS AND RESULTS: The YOUNG-MI registry is a retrospective cohort study from two large academic centres, which includes patients who experienced a first MI at 50 years of age or younger. SID was ascertained through physician review of the electronic medical record (EMR). Incidence of death was ascertained through the EMR and national databases. The cohort consisted of 2097 individuals, with 53 (2.5%) possessing a diagnosis of SID. Patients with SID were more likely to be female (36% vs. 19%, P = 0.004) and have hypertension (62% vs. 46%, P = 0.025). Over a median follow-up of 11.2 years, patients with SID experienced an higher risk of all-cause mortality compared with either the full cohort of non-SID patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.07-3.57), P = 0.030], or a matched cohort based on age, gender, and CV risk factors [HR = 2.68, 95% CI (1.18-6.07), P = 0.018]. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who experienced a first MI at a young age, 2.5% had evidence of SID, and these individuals had higher rates of long-term all-cause mortality. Our findings suggest that the presence of SID is associated with worse long-term survival after premature MI.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR), reflecting the integrated effects of diffuse atherosclerosis and microvascular dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory disorders. BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and psoriasis (PsO) are common inflammatory conditions with excess cardiovascular (CV) risk compared to the general population. Systemic inflammation perturbs endothelial function and has been linked to coronary vasomotor dysfunction. However, the prognostic significance of this vascular dysfunction is not known. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with RA, SLE, and PsO undergoing clinically indicated rest and stress myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET). Patients with an abnormal myocardial perfusion study or left ventricular dysfunction were excluded. MFR was calculated as the ratio of myocardial blood flow (MBF, ml/min/g) at peak stress compared to that at rest. RESULTS: Among the 198 patients (median age: 65 years; 80% female), 20.7% had SLE, 31.8% had PsO, and 47.5% had RA. There were no differences in mean MFR between these conditions. Over a median follow-up of 7.8 years, there were 51 deaths and 63 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Patients in the lowest tertile (MFR <1.65) had higher all-cause mortality than the highest tertile, which remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, and the pre-test clinical risk score (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 5.4; p = 0.038). Similarly, compared to the highest MFR tertile, those in the lowest tertile had a lower MACE-free survival after adjusting for age, sex, and the pre-test clinical risk score (HR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7 to 7.6; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with systemic inflammatory disorders, impaired coronary vasodilator reserve was associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality.

6.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 14(2): e009203, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591816

RESUMO

Cardiac sarcoidosis is a component of an often multiorgan granulomatous disease of still uncertain cause. It is being recognized with increasing frequency, mainly as the result of heightened awareness and new diagnostic tests, specifically cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans. The purpose of this case-based review is to highlight the potentially life-saving importance of making the early diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis using these new tools and to provide a framework for the optimal care of patients with this disease. We will review disease mechanisms as currently understood, associated arrhythmias including conduction abnormalities, and atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias, guideline-directed diagnostic criteria, screening of patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis, and the use of pacemakers and defibrillators in this setting. Treatment options, including those related to heart failure, and those which may help clarify disease mechanisms are included.

7.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(1): 33-60, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419719

RESUMO

An Expert Panel of the National Lipid Association reviewed the evidence related to the use of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in clinical practice for adults seen for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Recommendations for optimal use of this test in adults of various races/ethnicities, ages and multiple domains of primary prevention, including those with a 10-year ASCVD risk <20%, those with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome, and those with severe hypercholesterolemia were provided. Recommendations were also made on optimal timing for repeat calcium scoring after an initial test, use of CAC scoring in those taking statins, and its role in informing the clinician patient discussion on the benefit of aspirin and anti-hypertensive drug therapy. Finally, a vision is provided for the future of coronary calcium scoring.

9.
Am J Med ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The AHA has defined Life's simple 7 (LS7) as a measure of overall Cardiovascular health . Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been concerned as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease .We evaluated the association between LS7 and NAFLD. METHODS: We evaluate participants form The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Cardiovascular health score was calculated from the Life's simple 7 metrics. A score of 0-8 was considered inadequate, 9-10 average, and 11-14, optimal. NAFLD was defined using non-contrast cardiac CT and a liver/spleen attenuation ratio (L/S) < 1. Multivariable regression were performed to evaluate the association. RESULTS: Our cross-sectional analysis of 3,901 participants showed 19% (n=747) had optimal cardiovascular health, 33% (n=1,270) had average and 48% (n=1,884) had inadequate. White participants were most likely to have an optimal score (51%, n=378) while African American participants had the lowest proportion with optimal scores (16%, n=120; p <0.001). The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 18% with a distribution of 7%, 14%, and 25% in the optimal, average, and inadequate score categories, respectively (p<0.001). Adjusted for risk factors, average and optimal health categories had lower odds of NAFLD compared to those with inadequate scores: odds ratio (OR) for average, 0.44 (95% CI 0.36-0.54); optimal, OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.14-0.26). This association was similar across gender, race and age groups. CONCLUSION: A more favorable cardiovascular health score was associated with a lower prevalence of NAFLD. This study may suggest a potential of Life's simple 7 in the prevention of liver disease.

10.
Clin Imaging ; 73: 20-22, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current evidence suggests a decrease in elective diagnostic imaging procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic with potentially severe long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to quantify recent trends in public interest and related online search behavior for a range of imaging modalities, and "nowcast" future scenarios with respect to imaging use. METHODS: We used Google Trends, a publicly available database to access search query data in systematic and quantitative fashion, to search for key terms related to clinical imaging. We queried the search volume for multiple imaging modalities, identified the most common terms, extracted data for the United States over the time range from August 1, 2016 to August 1, 2020. Results were given in relative terms, using the Google metric 'search volume index'. RESULTS: We report a decrease in public interest across all imaging modalities since March 2020 with a subsequent slow increase starting in May 2020. Mean relative search volume (RSV) has changed by -19.4%, -38.3%, and -51.0% for the search terms "Computed tomography", "Magnetic resonance imaging", and "Mammography", respectively, and comparing the two months prior to and following March 1, 2020. RSV has since steadily recuperated reaching all-year highs. CONCLUSION: Decrease in public interest coupled with delays and deferrals of diagnostic imaging will likely result in a high demand for healthcare in the coming months. To respond to this challenge, measures such as risk-stratification algorithms must be developed to allocate resources and avoid the risk of overstraining the healthcare system.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303383

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) provides a wealth of clinically meaningful information beyond anatomic stenosis alone, including the presence or absence of nonobstructive atherosclerosis and high-risk plaque features as precursors for incident coronary events. There is, however, no uniform agreement on how to identify and quantify these features or their use in evidence-based clinical decision-making. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography and North American Society of Cardiovascular Imaging addresses this gap and provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence on imaging of coronary atherosclerosis. In this statement, we provide standardized definitions for high-risk plaque (HRP) features and distill the evidence on the effectiveness of risk stratification into usable practice points. This statement outlines how this information should be communicated to referring physicians and patients by identifying critical elements to include in a structured CCTA report - the presence and severity of atherosclerotic plaque (descriptive statements, CAD-RADS™ categories), the segment involvement score, HRP features (e.g., low attenuation plaque, positive remodeling), and the coronary artery calcium score (when performed). Rigorous documentation of atherosclerosis on CCTA provides a vital opportunity to make recommendations for preventive care and to initiate and guide an effective care strategy for at-risk patients.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248903

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected patient care deliver throughout the world, resulting in a greater emphasis on efficiently and safety. In this article, we discuss the experiences of several North American centers in utilizing cardiac CT during the pandemic. We also provide a case-based overview which highlights the advantages of cardiac CT in evaluating the following scenarios: (1) patients with possible myocardial injury versus myocardial infarction; (2) patients with acute chest pain; (3) patients with stable chest pain; (4) patients with possible intracardiac thrombus; (5) patients with valvular heart disease. For each scenario, we also provide an overview of various societies recommendations which have highlighted the use of cardiac CT during different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. We hope that the advantages of cardiac CT that have been realized during the pandemic can help promote wider adoption of this technique and improved coverage and payment by payors.

14.
Am J Med ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227246

RESUMO

Vasculogenic erectile dysfunction has been aptly called the "canary in the coal mine" for cardiovascular disease as it almost always precedes other manifestations of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. It is common, associated with the presence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, and impacted by diet and lifestyle choices. This concise review provides an update on the use of dietary and other lifestyle interventions to improve vasculogenic erectile dysfunction and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the value, in terms of sample size and cost, of using the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score to enrich the study population of primary prevention randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with participants at high absolute risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. BACKGROUND: The feasibility of RCTs assessing the efficacy of novel add-on therapies for primary prevention among high-risk individuals treated with statins may be limited by sample size and cost. METHODS: We evaluated 3,075 statin-naive participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with estimated 10-year ASCVD risk of ≥7.5%. CAC of >100, CAC of >400, high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels of >2 and >3 mg/l, ankle-brachial index of <0.9, and triglyceride levels of >175 mg/dl were each evaluated as enrichment criteria on top of estimated ASCVD risk of ≥7.5%, ≥10%, ≥15% and ≥20%. For each criterion, using the observed 5-year incidence of CVD, we projected the incidence of CVD assuming a 28% relative risk reduction with high-intensity statin therapy and after addition of novel therapy with additive relative risk reductions of 15% and 25%. Sample size and cost of a hypothetical primary prevention 5-year RCT of a novel therapy on top of statins versus statins alone were then computed by using the projected incidences. Yearly costs per included participant of $6,000 to $9,000 and of $500/$600 per screened nonparticipant were assumed. RESULTS: CAC of >400, present in 15% to 23% participants, consistently identified the subgroups with highest 5-year incident events and outperformed the other features yielding the smallest projected sample size, ranging 33% to 58% lower than using risk estimations alone for participant selection. CAC of >400 also yielded the lowest projected RCT costs, at least $40 million lower than using risk estimations alone. CAC of >100 showed the second-best performance in most scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: High CAC scores used as study entry criteria can improve the efficiency and feasibility of primary prevention RCTs evaluating the incremental efficacy of novel add-on therapies.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168479

RESUMO

Cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) is a well-validated non-invasive imaging tool with an ever-expanding array of applications beyond the assessment of coronary artery disease. These include the evaluation of structural heart diseases, congenital heart diseases, peri-procedural electrophysiology applications, and the functional evaluation of ischemia. This breadth requires a robust and diverse training curriculum to ensure graduates of CCT training programs meet minimum competency standards for independent CCT interpretation. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography aims to supplement existing societal training guidelines by providing a curriculum and competency framework to inform the development of a comprehensive, integrated training experience for cardiology and radiology trainees in CCT.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to quantify and model conversion of a normal coronary artery calcium (CAC) scan to an abnormal CAC scan. BACKGROUND: Although the absence of CAC is associated with excellent prognosis, progression to CAC >0 confers increased risk. The time interval for repeated scanning remains poorly defined. METHODS: This study included 3,116 participants from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with baseline CAC = 0 and follow-up scans over 10 years after baseline. Prevalence of incident CAC, defined by thresholds of CAC >0, CAC >10, or CAC >100, was calculated and time to progression was derived from a Weibull parametric survival model. Warranty periods were modeled as a function of sex, race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk, and desired yield of repeated CAC testing. Further analysis was performed of the proportion of coronary events occurring in participants with baseline CAC = 0 that preceded and followed repeated CAC testing at different time intervals. RESULTS: Mean participants' age was 58 ± 9 years, with 63% women, and mean 10-year cardiovascular risk of 14%. Prevalence of CAC >0, CAC >10, and CAC >100 was 53%, 36%, and 8%, respectively, at 10 years. Using a 25% testing yield (number needed to scan [NNS] = 4), the estimated warranty period of CAC >0 varied from 3 to 7 years depending on sex and race/ethnicity. Approximately 15% of participants progressed to CAC >10 in 5 to 8 years, whereas 10-year progression to CAC >100 was rare. Presence of diabetes was associated with significantly shorter warranty period, whereas family history and smoking had small effects. A total of 19% of all 10-year coronary events occurred in CAC = 0 prior to performance of a subsequent scan at 3 to 5 years, whereas detection of new CAC >0 preceded 55% of future events and identified individuals at 3-fold higher risk of coronary events. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of individuals with baseline CAC = 0, study data provide a robust estimation of the CAC = 0 warranty period, considering progression to CAC >0, CAC >10, and CAC >100 and its impact on missed versus detectable 10-year coronary heart disease events. Beyond age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes also has a significant impact on the warranty period. The study suggests that evidence-based guidance would be to consider rescanning in 3 to 7 years depending on individual demographics and risk profile.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e016744, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998625

RESUMO

Background The American Heart Association 2020 Impact Goals aimed to promote population health through emphasis on cardiovascular health (CVH). We examined the association between nondietary CVH metrics and patient-reported outcomes among a nationally representative sample of US adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results We included adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey between 2006 and 2015. CVH metrics were scored 1 point for each of the following: not smoking, being physically active, normal body mass index, no hypertension, no diabetes mellitus, and no dyslipidemia, or 0 points if otherwise. Diet was not assessed in Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Patient-reported outcomes were obtained by telephone survey and included questions pertaining to patient experience and health-related quality of life. Regression models were used to compare patient-reported outcomes based on CVH, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. There were 177 421 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey participants (mean age, 45 [17] years) representing ~187 million US adults without cardiovascular disease. About 12% (~21 million US adults) had poor CVH. Compared with individuals with optimal CVH, those with poor CVH had higher odds of reporting poor patient-provider communication (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.24), poor healthcare satisfaction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.08-1.22), poor perception of health (odds ratio, 5.89; 95% CI, 5.35-6.49), at least 2 disability days off work (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30-1.48), and lower health-related quality of life scores. Conclusions Among US adults without cardiovascular disease, meeting a lower number of ideal CVH metrics is associated with poor patient-reported healthcare experience, poor perception of health, and lower health-related quality of life. Preventive measures aimed at optimizing ideal CVH metrics may improve patient-reported outcomes among this population.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032977

RESUMO

Cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) is a well-validated non-invasive imaging tool with an ever-expanding array of applications beyond the assessment of coronary artery disease. These include the evaluation of structural heart diseases, congenital heart diseases, peri-procedural electrophysiology applications, and the functional evaluation of ischemia. This breadth requires a robust and diverse training curriculum to ensure graduates of CCT training programs meet minimum competency standards for independent CCT interpretation. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography aims to supplement existing societal training guidelines by providing a curriculum and competency framework to inform the development of a comprehensive, integrated training experience for cardiology and radiology trainees in CCT.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 41(42): 4127-4137, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049774

RESUMO

AIMS: There are sex differences in presentation, treatment, and outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) but less is known about these differences in a younger patient population. The objective of this study was to investigate sex differences among individuals who experience their first MI at a young age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients presenting to two large academic medical centres with a Type 1 MI at ≤50 years of age between 2000 and 2016 were included. Cause of death was adjudicated using electronic health records and death certificates. In total, 2097 individuals (404 female, 19%) had an MI (mean age 44 ± 5.1 years, 73% white). Risk factor profiles were similar between men and women, although women were more likely to have diabetes (23.7% vs. 18.9%, P = 0.028). Women were less likely to undergo invasive coronary angiography (93.5% vs. 96.7%, P = 0.003) and coronary revascularization (82.1% vs. 92.6%, P < 0.001). Women were significantly more likely to have MI with non-obstructive coronary disease on angiography (10.2% vs. 4.2%, P < 0.001). They were less likely to be discharged with aspirin (92.2% vs. 95.0%, P = 0.027), beta-blockers (86.6% vs. 90.3%, P = 0.033), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers (53.4% vs. 63.7%, P < 0.001), and statins (82.4% vs. 88.4%, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality; however, women who survived to hospital discharge experienced a higher all-cause mortality rate (adjusted HR = 1.63, P = 0.01; median follow-up 11.2 years) with no significant difference in cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR = 1.14, P = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Women who experienced their first MI under the age of 50 were less likely to undergo coronary revascularization or be treated with guideline-directed medical therapies. Women who survived hospitalization experienced similar cardiovascular mortality with significantly higher all-cause mortality than men. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences is warranted.

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