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2.
Am Surg ; : 3134821995053, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if statewide marijuana laws impact upon the detection of drugs and alcohol in victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data collected at trauma centers in Arizona, California, Ohio, Oregon, New Jersey, and Texas between 2006 and 2018 was performed. The percentage of patients testing positive for marijuana tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was compared to the percentage of patients driving under the influence of alcohol (blood alcohol level >0.08 g/dL) that were involved in an MVC. RESULTS: The data were analyzed to evaluate the trends in THC and alcohol use in victims of MVC, related to marijuana legalization. The change in incidence of THC detection (percentage) over the time period where data were available are as follows: Arizona 9.5% (0.4 to 9.9), California 5.4% (20.8 to 26.2), Ohio 5.9% (6.7 to 12.6), Oregon 3% (3.0 to 6.0), New Jersey 2.3% (2.7 to 5.0), and Texas 15.3% (3.0 to 18.3). Alcohol use did not change over time in most states. There did not appear to be a relationship between the legalization of marijuana and the likelihood of finding THC in patients admitted after MVC. In fact, in Texas, where marijuana remains illegal, there was the largest change in detection of THC. CONCLUSIONS: There was no apparent increase in the incidence of driving under the influence of marijuana after legalization. In addition, the changes in marijuana legislation did not appear to impact alcohol use.

3.
Am Surg ; : 3134821995063, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596098

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Investigations have demonstrated that trocar site hernia (TSH) is an under-appreciated complication of laparoscopic surgery, occurring in as many as 31%. We determined the incidence of fascial defects prior to laparoscopic appendectomy and its impact relative to other risk factors upon the development of TSH. METHODS: TSH was defined as a fascial separation of ≥ 1 cm in the abdominal wall umbilical region on abdominal computerized tomography scan (CT) following laparoscopic appendectomy. Patients admitted to our medical center who had both a preoperative CT and postoperative CT for any reason (greater than 30 days after surgery) were reviewed for the presence of TSH from May 2010 to December 2018. CT scans were measured for fascial defects, while investigators were blinded to film timing (preoperative or postoperative) and patient identity. Demographic information was collected. RESULTS: 241 patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy had both preoperative and late postoperative CT. TSH was identified in 49 (20.3%) patients. Mean preoperative fascial gap was 3.3 ± 4.3 mm in those not developing a postoperative hernia versus 14.8 ± 7.3 mm in those with a postoperative hernia (P < .0001). Preoperative fascial defect on CT was predictive of TSH (P < .001, OR = 1.44), with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of .921 (95%CI: .88-.92). Other major risk factors for TSH were: age greater than 59 years (P < .031, OR = 2.48); and obesity, BMI > 30 (P < .012, OR = 2.14). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of trocar site hernia was one in five following laparoscopic appendectomy. The presence of a pre-existing fascial defect, advanced age, and obesity were strong predictors for the development of trocar site hernia.

4.
Cureus ; 12(9): e10558, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101805

RESUMO

Skin grafts generated from cultured autologous epidermal stem cells may have potential advantages when compared to traditional skin grafting. In this report, we will share our initial experience with a new technique for the treatment of difficult cutaneous wounds. Eight patients with traumatic or complex wounds underwent full-thickness skin harvesting and processing of epidermal stem cells, followed by the application of our novel management protocol. The patients were at high risk for non-healing and/or severe scar formation due to large traumatic de-gloving crush injuries, wounds from necrotizing fasciitis, or chronic wounds from osteomyelitis. We examined the percent graft success, recipient to donor size ratios, the median time to epithelialization, and two-point sensory discrimination. An international scale (The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale - POSAS) was used to evaluate wound cosmesis and included parameters such as pain, pruritus, vascularity, pigmentation, and thickness of the healing wound. In total, 10 out of 11 wounds had 100% survival of the graft, and one patient had an 80% graft take. The largest wound was 1600 cm2, and all wounds were harvested from small-donor sites, which were closed primarily. The mean wound to donor ratio was >25:1. Most wounds were fully epithelialized within 30 days. Neurologically, four out of six patients studied exhibited two-point discrimination similar to the adjacent native uninjured skin. The majority of patients reported their wounds to have limited pain or pruritus, and similar pigmentation to adjacent skin.

5.
Cureus ; 12(7): e9370, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850238

RESUMO

Background This study was performed to determine whether trauma patients are at an increased risk of developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) within the first 48 hours of hospitalization. Materials and methods A retrospective review was performed using a prospectively maintained database of patients admitted to a trauma center during a five-year time period. Patients hospitalized for greater than 48 hours who received a screening venous duplex for DVT were included in the study. Results There were 1067 venous duplex scans obtained, 689 (64.5%) within the first 48 hours of admission (early DVT group), 378 (35.4%) after the first 48 hours (late DVT group). Only 142 (13.2%) patients had a positive duplex scan for DVT, 55 (early group), 87 (late group). Comorbid conditions of congestive heart failure (P = 0.02), pelvic fractures (P = 0.04), and a lower initial systolic blood pressure on presentation (p = 0.04) were associated with early DVT. Head trauma (P < 0.01), mechanical ventilation (P < 0.001), and transfusion of blood products (P < 0.001), were predictors of DVT in the late group. Conclusions Trauma patients are at an increased risk of developing venous thrombosis early in the hospital course due to comorbidities associated with trauma. Whereas, venous thrombosis in trauma patients diagnosed after the first 48 hours of hospitalization appears to be associated with prolonged patient immobility.

6.
Obes Surg ; 30(9): 3333-3340, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION: Qualification for bariatric surgery is based upon strict medical guidelines, but individual insurance companies may introduce additional requirements for approval and coverage as they deem necessary. A mandatory preoperative medical weight loss management (MWM) program is commonly such a requirement. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to assess the effect of MWM programs on weight loss outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of all sleeve gastrectomies performed between 2012 and 2016 at our institution was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups: those who required a preoperative MWM program, and those who did not. A 1:1 greedy nearest-neighbor method matching algorithm was used to match patients based on age, BMI, smoking, gender, race, sleep apnea, and diabetes. Total weight loss and percent excess weight loss at 1 year for each group were compared. RESULTS: A total of 3059 sleeve gastrectomy patients were reviewed. Of these, 941 patients had adequate data points to be evaluated. The matching algorithm resulted in 530 patients for the final analysis, 265 patients in each group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, BMI, smoking, gender, race, sleep apnea, or diabetes. A paired t test found no significant differences between the MWM group and the control group at 1 year in both total weight loss (36.7 kg vs 36.2 kg) and in percent excess weight loss (56.5% vs 55.8%, p = 0.24). CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in weight loss outcomes after 1 year in patients required by insurance to participate in MWM programs compared to those who were not. The necessity of these programs should be questioned.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Laparoscopia , Obesidade Mórbida , Programas de Redução de Peso , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(3): 476-484, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigued surgeon performance has only been assessed in simulated sessions or retrospectively after a night on call. We hypothesized that objectively assessed fatigue of acute care surgeons affects patient outcome. METHODS: Five acute care surgery services prospectively identified emergency cases over 27 months. Emergency cases were defined by the surgeon identifying the patient as requiring immediate operation upon consultation or admission. Within 48 hours, surgeons reported sleep time accumulated before operation, if nonclinical delays to operation occurred, and patient volume during the shift. To maximize differences, fatigued surgeons were defined as performing a case after midnight without having slept in the prior 18 hours. Rested surgeons performed cases at or before 8 PM or after at least 3 hours of sleep before operation. A four-level ordinal scale was used to assign case complexity. Hierarchical logistic regression models were constructed to assess the impact of fatigue on mortality and major morbidity while controlling for center and patient level factors. RESULTS: Of 882 cases collected, 611 met criteria for fatigue or rested. Of these cases, 370 were performed at night and 182 by a fatigued surgeon. Rested surgeons were more likely to be operating on an older or female patient; other characteristics were similar. Mortality and major morbidity were similar between fatigued and rested surgeons (12.1% vs 12.1% and 46.9% vs 48.9%), respectively. After controlling for center and patient factors, surgeon fatigue did not affect mortality or major morbidity. Mortality variance was 6.30% and morbidity variance was 7.02% among centers. CONCLUSION: Acute care surgeons have similar outcomes in a fatigued or rested state. Work schedules for acute care surgeons should not be adjusted to shifts less than 24 hours for the sole purpose of improving patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Fadiga/complicações , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Cirurgiões/psicologia
9.
Cureus ; 10(11): e3649, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723648

RESUMO

Background Traumatic injury in a growing geriatric population is associated with higher mortality and complication rates. Geriatric consultation (GC) is vital in reducing risk factors that contribute to adverse outcomes. This study aims to determine if receiving a GC had an impact on high-risk medication usage. Methods Patients eligible for a GC, age ≥ 65, and length of stay > two days, were identified via a chart review from July 2013 to July 2014 at a Level II trauma center. This population was divided into those with and without a GC. Data collected included demographics, injury severity, medications, delirium, mortality, and readmissions. High-risk medications were defined using the Beers Criteria. Statistical analysis involved using appropriate standard tests to compare groups, including multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-nine of a total of 104 patients received a GC. Groups were comparable on injury severity score, co-morbidities, and high-risk medication use upon admissions. The GC group was 74% less likely to be discharged on high-risk medications than the non-GC group. Conclusion GC in elderly trauma patients reduces high-risk medication use upon discharge. Further studies are needed to explore how GC impacts readmission rates and mortality. A multidisciplinary trauma team, including a geriatrician, must exist to address the unique medical, psychological, functional, and social issues of a growing, aged trauma population.

10.
Ann Pharmacother ; 51(7): 577-583, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is inappropriately prescribed in more than 30% of non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients, leading to unnecessary adverse events as well as increases in economic burden. OBJECTIVE: There was an increasing trend in the prophylactic use of acid suppressive therapy (AST) in non-critically ill patients at our institution, which prompted this initiative aimed at reducing the inappropriate use of AST in non-ICU patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective interventional study that consisted of formulation of a guideline, education to the hospitalist service, and intervention by clinical pharmacists. All adult non-ICU patients admitted to the hospitalist service who were newly initiated on AST were considered for inclusion. The primary outcome was a comparison of the proportion of inpatient days with inappropriate AST. Secondary outcomes included a comparison of patients discharged on inappropriate AST and drug acquisition costs, successful pharmacy interventions, hospitalist interventions, incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) or gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, and drug costs averted through pharmacy intervention. RESULTS: There were 61 patients in the historical group and 81 patients in the interventional group. This intervention resulted in a 31% absolute reduction in inappropriate patient days of AST and a 24% absolute reduction in patients discharged on inappropriate AST. There were 23 successful interventions. There were no cases of CDI and 1 GI bleed. This intervention resulted in an 87% reduction in drug acquisition costs per patient. CONCLUSIONS: A collaboration between clinical pharmacists and a hospitalist service can significantly reduce the inappropriate use of AST in non-ICU patients.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/efeitos adversos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
11.
Pain Med ; 10(7): 1174-82, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19818029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the associations among pain, mental health concerns, and function in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). DESIGN: Retrospective review of self-reported, standardized clinical intake surveys. SETTING: A multidisciplinary deployment health clinic at a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. PATIENTS: The first 429 veterans of OEF/OIF presenting for clinical evaluation at a deployment health clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Function, measured with the Role Physical (RP) scale of the Veterans RAND (VR)-36 survey, was compared for veterans with and without chronic widespread pain (CWP). RESULTS: After controlling for age, sex, and positive screens for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the presence of CWP had a significant, clinically relevant, and independent effect on VR-36 RP (-6.2 points, DeltaR(2) = 0.052, P < 0.001). Mean VR-36 RP normed score was 43.3 (standard deviation 11.9). CWP was common (29%), as were positive mental health screens (PTSD 53%, depression 60%, alcohol misuse 63%). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of OEF/OIF veterans, the majority of whom reported good or better general health, CWP was common and related to poorer physical role function, independent of comorbid mental health concerns.


Assuntos
Distúrbios de Guerra/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Guerra do Golfo , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Occup Environ Med ; 49(5): 475-80, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17495689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We report the clinical concerns of US veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom evaluated at the New Jersey War-Related Illness and Injury Study Center (NJ WRIISC) between June 2004 and January 2006. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of veterans' health and exposure concerns. RESULTS: Veterans (n=56) reported an average of 4 (standard deviation [SD] = 2.1; range, 0-9) physical health concerns, and 2.7 (SD=2.3; range, 0-10) exposure concerns. The majority of veterans (55%) had a mental health concern, most commonly, posttraumatic stress disorder. The most common exposure concerns were depleted uranium, multiple vaccinations, and poor air quality. Greater proportions of Reserve veterans reported genitourinary concerns and exposure to smoke from burning trash than active duty veterans. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans of military operations in Southwest Asia have deployment-related health and exposure concerns that will need to be addressed by their ambulatory care physicians.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional , Veteranos , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Iraque , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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