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1.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 131: 53-65, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005484

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial contractile dysfunction is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF). We have shown previously that a metabolic syndrome-based model of HFpEF and a model of hypertensive heart disease (HHD) have impaired left atrial (LA) function in vivo (rat). In this study we postulate, that left atrial cardiomyocyte (CM) and cardiac fibroblast (CF) paracrine interaction related to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signalling cascade is pivotal for the manifestation of atrial mechanical dysfunction in HF and that quantitative atrial remodeling is highly disease-dependent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Differential remodeling was observed in HHD and HFpEF as indicated by an increase of atrial size in vivo (HFpEF), unchanged fibrosis (HHD and HFpEF) and a decrease of CM size (HHD). Baseline contractile performance of rat CM in vitro was enhanced in HFpEF. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from their respective stretched CF (CM-SF), CM (at 21 weeks) of WT showed increased Ca2+ transient (CaT) amplitudes related to the paracrine activity of the inotrope endothelin (ET-1) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate induced Ca2+ release. Concentration of ET-1 was increased in CM-SF and atrial tissue from WT as compared to HHD and HFpEF. In HHD, CM-SF had no relevant effect on CaT kinetics. However, in HFpEF, CM-SF increased diastolic Ca2+ and slowed Ca2+ removal, potentially contributing to an in-vivo decompensation. During disease progression (i.e. at 27 weeks), HFpEF displayed dysfunctional excitation-contraction-coupling (ECC) due to lower sarcoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ content unrelated to CF-CM interaction or ET-1, but associated with enhanced nuclear [Ca2+]. In human patients, tissue ET-1 was not related to the presence of arterial hypertension or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial remodeling is a complex entity that is highly disease and stage dependent. The activity of fibrosis related to paracrine interaction (e.g. ET-1) might contribute to in vitro and in vivo atrial dysfunction. However, during later stages of disease, ECC is impaired unrelated to CF.

2.
J Physiol ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412286

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Cardiac alternans refers to a beat-to-beat alternation in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology and Ca2+ transient (CaT) amplitude, and represents a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia, including atrial fibrillation. We developed strategies to pharmacologically manipulate the AP waveform with the goal to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of CaT and contraction alternans in atrial tissue. With combined patch-clamp and intracellular Ca2+ measurements we investigated the effect of specific ion channel inhibitors and activators on alternans. In single rabbit atrial myocytes, suppression of Ca2+ -activated Cl- channels eliminated AP duration alternans, but prolonged the AP and failed to eliminate CaT alternans. In contrast, activation of K+ currents (IKs and IKr ) shortened the AP and eliminated both AP duration and CaT alternans. As demonstrated also at the whole heart level, activation of K+ conductances represents a promising strategy to suppress alternans, and thus reducing a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. ABSTRACT: At the cellular level alternans is observed as beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology and magnitude of the Ca2+ transient (CaT). Alternans is a well-established risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia, including atrial fibrillation. This study investigates whether pharmacological manipulation of AP morphology is a viable strategy to reduce the risk of arrhythmogenic CaT alternans. Pacing-induced AP and CaT alternans were studied in rabbit atrial myocytes using combined Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiological measurements. Increased AP duration (APD) and beat-to-beat alternations in AP morphology lowered the pacing frequency threshold and increased the degree of CaT alternans. Inhibition of Ca2+ -activated Cl- channels reduced beat-to-beat AP alternations, but prolonged APD and failed to suppress CaT alternans. In contrast, AP shortening induced by activators of two K+ channels (ML277 for Kv7.1 and NS1643 for Kv11.1) abolished both APD and CaT alternans in field-stimulated and current-clamped myocytes. K+ channel activators had no effect on the degree of Ca2+ alternans in AP voltage-clamped cells, confirming that suppression of Ca2+ alternans was caused by the changes in AP morphology. Finally, activation of Kv11.1 channel significantly attenuated or even abolished atrial T-wave alternans in isolated Langendorff perfused hearts. In summary, AP shortening suppressed or completely eliminated both CaT and APD alternans in single atrial myocytes and atrial T-wave alternans at the whole heart level. Therefore, we suggest that AP shortening is a potential intervention to avert development of alternans with important ramifications for arrhythmia prevention and therapy.

3.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 10(4): 331-340, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190376

RESUMO

Nutlin-3a is a MDM2 antagonist and preclinical drug that activates p53. Cells with MDM2 gene amplification are especially prone to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis, though the basis for this is unclear. Glucose metabolism can inhibit apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) produces NADPH that can protect cells from potentially lethal reactive oxygen species (ROS). We compared apoptosis and glucose metabolism in cancer cells with and without MDM2 gene amplification treated with Nutlin-3a. Apoptosis in MDM2-amplified cells was associated with a reduction in glycolysis and the PPP, reduced NADPH, increased ROS, and depletion of the transcription factor SP1, which normally promotes PPP gene expression. In contrast, glycolysis and the PPP were maintained or increased in MDM2 non-amplified cells treated with Nutlin-3a. This was dependent on p53-mediated AKT activation and was associated with maintenance of SP1 and continued expression of PPP genes. Knockdown or inhibition of AKT, SP1, or the PPP sensitized MDM2-non-amplified cells to apoptosis. The data indicate that p53 promotes AKT and SP1-dependent activation of the PPP that protects cells from Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. These findings provide insight into how glucose metabolism reduces Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis, and also provide a mechanism for the heightened sensitivity of MDM2-amplified cells to apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a.

4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 993: 343-361, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28900923

RESUMO

Many cellular functions of the vascular endothelium are regulated by fine-tuned global and local, microdomain-confined changes of cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Vasoactive agonist-induced stimulation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) typically induces Ca2+ release through IP3 receptor Ca2+ release channels embedded in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ store, followed by Ca2+ entry from the extracellular space elicited by Ca2+ store depletion and referred to as capacitative or store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). In vascular endothelial cells, SOCE is graded with the degree of store depletion and controlled locally in the subcellular microdomain where depletion occurs. SOCE provides distinct Ca2+ signals that selectively control specific endothelial functions: in calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells, the SOCE Ca2+ signal drives nitric oxide (an endothelium-derived relaxing factor of the vascular smooth muscle) production and controls activation and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFAT. Both cellular events are not affected by Ca2+ signals of comparable magnitude arising directly from Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, clearly indicating that SOCE regulates specific Ca2+-dependent cellular tasks by a unique and exclusive mechanism. This review discusses the mechanisms of intracellular Ca2+ regulation in vascular endothelial cells and the role of store-operated Ca2+ entry for endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation and nitric oxide signaling, endothelial oxidative stress response, and excitation-transcription coupling in the vascular endothelium.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/fisiologia , Animais , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Humanos
5.
J Gen Physiol ; 149(9): 857-865, 2017 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798277
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 53(3): 139-149, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28666575

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and its prevalence is rapidly rising with the aging of the population. Cardiac alternans, defined as cyclic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction force, action potential (AP) duration and intracellular Ca2+ release at constant stimulation rate, has been associated with the development of ventricular arrhythmias. Recent clinical data also provide strong evidence that alternans plays a central role in arrhythmogenesis in atria. The aim of this article is to review the mechanisms that are responsible for repolarization alternans and contribute to the transition from spatially concordant alternans to the more arrhythmogenic spatially discordant alternans in atria.

7.
Channels (Austin) ; 11(5): 368-369, 2017 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498780
8.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 105: 49-58, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257761

RESUMO

Alternans is a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia, including atrial fibrillation. At the cellular level alternans is observed as beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology and magnitude of the Ca2+ transient (CaT). It is widely accepted that the bi-directional interplay between membrane voltage and Ca2+ is crucial for the development of alternans, however recently the attention has shifted to instabilities in cellular Ca2+ handling, while the role of AP alternation remains poorly understood. This study provides new insights how beat- to-beat alternation in AP morphology affects occurrence of CaT alternans in atrial myocytes. Pacing-induced AP and CaT alternans were studied in rabbit atrial myocytes using combined Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiological measurements. To determine the role of AP morphology for the generation of CaT alternans, trains of two voltage commands in form of APs recorded during large and small alternans CaTs were applied to voltage-clamped cells. APs of longer duration (as observed during small amplitude alternans CaT) and especially beat-to-beat alternations in AP morphology (AP alternans) reduced the pacing frequency threshold and increased the degree of CaT alternans. AP morphology contributes to the development of CaT alternans by two mechanisms. First, the AP waveform observed during small alternans CaTs coincided with higher end-diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]SR), and AP alternans resulted in beat-to-beat alternations in end-diastolic [Ca2+]SR. Second, L-type Ca2+ current was significantly affected by AP morphology, where the AP waveform observed during large CaT elicited L-type Ca2+ currents of higher magnitude and faster kinetics, resulting in more efficient triggering of SR Ca2+ release. In conclusion, alternation in AP morphology plays a significant role in the development and stabilization of atrial alternans. The demonstration that CaT alternans can be controlled or even prevented by modulating AP morphology has important ramifications for arrhythmia prevention and therapy strategies.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Coelhos , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo
9.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 104: 9-16, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28131630

RESUMO

Functional impact of cardiac ryanodine receptor (type 2 RyR or RyR2) phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) remains highly controversial. In this study, we characterized a functional link between PKA-mediated RyR2 phosphorylation level and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release and leak in permeabilized rabbit ventricular myocytes. Changes in cytosolic [Ca2+] and intra-SR [Ca2+]SR were measured with Fluo-4 and Fluo-5N, respectively. Changes in RyR2 phosphorylation at two PKA sites, serine-2031 and -2809, were measured with phospho-specific antibodies. cAMP (10µM) increased Ca2+ spark frequency approximately two-fold. This effect was associated with an increase in SR Ca2+ load from 0.84 to 1.24mM. PKA inhibitory peptide (PKI; 10µM) abolished the cAMP-dependent increase of SR Ca2+ load and spark frequency. When SERCA was completely blocked by thapsigargin, cAMP did not affect RyR2-mediated Ca2+ leak. The lack of a cAMP effect on RyR2 function can be explained by almost maximal phosphorylation of RyR2 at serine-2809 after sarcolemma permeabilization. This high RyR2 phosphorylation level is likely the consequence of a balance shift between protein kinase and phosphatase activity after permeabilization. When RyR2 phosphorylation at serine-2809 was reduced to its "basal" level (i.e. RyR2 phosphorylation level in intact myocytes) using kinase inhibitor staurosporine, SR Ca2+ leak was significantly reduced. Surprisingly, further dephosphorylation of RyR2 with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) markedly increased SR Ca2+ leak. At the same time, phosphorylation of RyR2 at serine 2031 did not significantly change under identical experimental conditions. These results suggest that RyR2 phosphorylation by PKA has a complex effect on SR Ca2+ leak in ventricular myocytes. At an intermediate level of RyR2 phosphorylation SR Ca2+ leak is minimal. However, complete dephosphorylation and maximal phosphorylation of RyR2 increases SR Ca2+ leak.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Coelhos
10.
J Physiol ; 595(12): 3835-3845, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28028837

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: In atrial myocytes excitation-contraction coupling is strikingly different from ventricle because atrial myocytes lack a transverse tubule membrane system: Ca2+ release starts in the cell periphery and propagates towards the cell centre by Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ store. The cytosolic Ca2+ sensitivity of the ryanodine receptor (RyRs) Ca2+ release channel is low and it is unclear how Ca2+ release can be activated in the interior of atrial cells. Simultaneous confocal imaging of cytosolic and intra-SR calcium revealed a transient elevation of store Ca2+ that we termed 'Ca2+ sensitization signal'. We propose a novel paradigm of atrial ECC that is based on tandem activation of the RyRs by cytosolic and luminal Ca2+ through a 'fire-diffuse-uptake-fire' (or FDUF) mechanism: Ca2+ uptake by SR Ca2+ pumps at the propagation front elevates Ca2+ inside the SR locally, leading to luminal RyR sensitization and lowering of the cytosolic Ca2+ activation threshold. ABSTRACT: In atrial myocytes Ca2+ release during excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is strikingly different from ventricular myocytes. In many species atrial myocytes lack a transverse tubule system, dividing the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ store into the peripheral subsarcolemmnal junctional (j-SR) and the much more abundant central non-junctional (nj-SR) SR. Action potential (AP)-induced Ca2+ entry activates Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release (CICR) from j-SR ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels. Peripheral elevation of [Ca2+ ]i initiates CICR from nj-SR and sustains propagation of CICR to the cell centre. Simultaneous confocal measurements of cytosolic ([Ca2+ ]i ; with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator rhod-2) and intra-SR ([Ca2+ ]SR ; fluo-5N) Ca2+ in rabbit atrial myocytes revealed that Ca2+ release from j-SR resulted in a cytosolic Ca2+ transient of higher amplitude compared to release from nj-SR; however, the degree of depletion of j-SR [Ca2+ ]SR was smaller than nj-SR [Ca2+ ]SR . Similarly, Ca2+ signals from individual release sites of the j-SR showed a larger cytosolic amplitude (Ca2+ sparks) but smaller depletion (Ca2+ blinks) than release from nj-SR. During AP-induced Ca2+ release the rise of [Ca2+ ]i detected at individual release sites of the nj-SR preceded the depletion of [Ca2+ ]SR , and during this latency period a transient elevation of [Ca2+ ]SR occurred. We propose that Ca2+ release from nj-SR is activated by cytosolic and luminal Ca2+ (tandem RyR activation) via a novel 'fire-diffuse-uptake-fire' (FDUF) mechanism. This novel paradigm of atrial ECC predicts that Ca2+ uptake by sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) at the propagation front elevates local [Ca2+ ]SR , leading to luminal RyR sensitization and lowering of the activation threshold for cytosolic CICR.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Acoplamento Excitação-Contração/fisiologia , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Coelhos , Sarcolema/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo
11.
Channels (Austin) ; 10(6): 507-17, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27356267

RESUMO

Cardiac alternans, defined beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit ventricular myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. A strong correlation between beat-to-beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT alternans was observed. During CaT alternans application of voltage clamp protocols in form of pre-recorded APs revealed a prominent Ca(2+)-dependent membrane current consisting of a large outward component coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2, followed by an inward current during AP repolarization. Approximately 85% of the initial outward current was blocked by Cl(-) channel blocker DIDS or lowering external Cl(-) concentration identifying it as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current (ICaCC). The data suggest that ICaCC plays a critical role in shaping beat-to-beat alternations in AP morphology during alternans.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/química , Canais de Cloreto/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Coelhos
12.
J Physiol ; 594(3): 699-714, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26662365

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Cardiac alternans--periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic calcium transient (CaT) amplitude--is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, it remains an unresolved issue whether beat-to-beat alternations in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i ) or AP morphology are the primary cause of pro-arrhythmic alternans. Here we show that in atria AP alternans occurs secondary to CaT alternans. CaT alternans leads to complex beat-to-beat changes in Ca(2+)-regulated ion currents that determine alternans of AP morphology. We report the novel finding that alternans of AP morphology is largely sustained by the activity of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs). Suppression of the CaCCs significantly reduces AP alternans, while CaT alternans remains unaffected. The demonstration of a major role of CaCCs in the development of AP alternans opens new possibilities for atrial alternans and arrhythmia prevention. Cardiac alternans, described as periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit atrial myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. Beat-to-beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT amplitude revealed a strong quantitative correlation. Application of voltage clamp protocols in the form of pre-recorded APs (AP-clamp) during pacing-induced CaT alternans revealed a Ca(2+)-dependent current consisting of a large outward component (4.78 ± 0.58 pA pF(-1) in amplitude) coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2 that was followed by an inward current (-0.42 ± 0.03 pA pF(-1); n = 21) during AP repolarization. Approximately 90% of the initial outward current was blocked by substitution of Cl(-) ions or application of the Cl(-) channel blocker DIDS identifying it as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current (ICaCC). The prominent AP prolongation at action potential duration at 30% repolarization level during the small alternans CaT was due to reduced ICaCC. Inhibition of Cl(-) currents abolished AP alternans, but failed to affect CaT alternans, indicating that disturbances in Ca(2+) signalling were the primary event leading to alternans, and ICaCC played a decisive role in shaping the beat-to-beat alternations in AP morphology observed during alternans.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Cálcio/fisiologia , Canais de Cloreto/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Animais , Átrios do Coração/citologia , Masculino , Coelhos
13.
Oncotarget ; 6(27): 23135-56, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26337205

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor p53 regulates downstream targets that determine cell fate. Canonical p53 functions include inducing apoptosis, growth arrest, and senescence. Non-canonical p53 functions include its ability to promote or inhibit autophagy and its ability to regulate metabolism. The extent to which autophagy and/or metabolic regulation determines cell fate by p53 is unclear. To address this, we compared cells resistant or sensitive to apoptosis by the p53 activator Nutlin-3a. In resistant cells, glycolysis was maintained upon Nutlin-3a treatment, and activated p53 promoted prosurvival autophagy. In contrast, in apoptosis sensitive cells activated p53 increased superoxide levels and inhibited glycolysis through repression of glycolytic pathway genes. Glycolysis inhibition and increased superoxide inhibited autophagy by repressing ATG genes essential for autophagic vesicle maturation. Inhibiting glycolysis increased superoxide and blocked autophagy in apoptosis-resistant cells, causing p62-dependent caspase-8 activation. Finally, treatment with 2-DG or the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 sensitized resistant cells to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings reveal novel links between glycolysis and autophagy that determine apoptosis-sensitivity in response to p53. Specifically, the findings indicate 1) that glycolysis plays an essential role in autophagy by limiting superoxide levels and maintaining expression of ATG genes required for autophagic vesicle maturation, 2) that p53 can promote or inhibit autophagy depending on the status of glycolysis, and 3) that inhibiting protective autophagy can expand the breadth of cells susceptible to Nutlin-3a induced apoptosis.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Glicólise , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Apoptose , Autofagia , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Senescência Celular , Cloroquina/química , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Macrolídeos/química , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oxigênio/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
14.
Circ Res ; 117(3): 234-8, 2015 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26185209

RESUMO

Mitochondrial biology is the sum of diverse phenomena from molecular profiles to physiological functions. A mechanistic understanding of mitochondria in disease development, and hence the future prospect of clinical translations, relies on a systems-level integration of expertise from multiple fields of investigation. Upon the successful conclusion of a recent National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute initiative on integrative mitochondrial biology in cardiovascular diseases, we reflect on the accomplishments made possible by this unique interdisciplinary collaboration effort and exciting new fronts on the study of these remarkable organelles.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais/organização & administração , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Previsões , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Invenções , Computação em Informática Médica , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Biologia de Sistemas , Terapias em Estudo , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Estados Unidos , Universidades
15.
Channels (Austin) ; 9(3): 129-38, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25891132

RESUMO

In rabbit atrial myocytes Ca signaling has unique features due to the lack of transverse (t) tubules, the spatial arrangement of mitochondria and the contribution of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-induced Ca release (IICR). During excitation-contraction coupling action potential-induced elevation of cytosolic [Ca] originates in the cell periphery from Ca released from the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (j-SR) and then propagates by Ca-induced Ca release from non-junctional (nj-) SR toward the cell center. The subsarcolemmal region between j-SR and the first array of nj-SR Ca release sites is devoid of mitochondria which results in a rapid propagation of activation through this domain, whereas the subsequent propagation through the nj-SR network occurs at a velocity typical for a propagating Ca wave. Inhibition of mitochondrial Ca uptake with the Ca uniporter blocker Ru360 accelerates propagation and increases the amplitude of Ca transients (CaTs) originating from nj-SR. Elevation of cytosolic IP3 levels by rapid photolysis of caged IP3 has profound effects on the magnitude of subcellular CaTs with increased Ca release from nj-SR and enhanced CaTs in the nuclear compartment. IP3 uncaging restricted to the nucleus elicites 'mini'-Ca waves that remain confined to this compartment. Elementary IICR events (Ca puffs) preferentially originate in the nucleus in close physical association with membrane structures of the nuclear envelope and the nucleoplasmic reticulum. The data suggest that in atrial myocytes the nucleus is an autonomous Ca signaling domain where Ca dynamics are primarily governed by IICR.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Coelhos
16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 106(2): 237-48, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25742913

RESUMO

AIMS: The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) plays a central role for tissue damage and cell death during ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R). We investigated the contribution of mitochondrial inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a potent activator of Ca(2+)-induced mPTP opening, towards mPTP activation and cardiac cell death in I/R. METHODS AND RESULTS: A significant increase in mitochondrial free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization (ΔΨm), and mPTP activity, but no cell death, was observed after 20 min of ischaemia. The [Ca(2+)]m increase during ischaemia was partially prevented by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) inhibitor Ru360 and completely abolished by the combination of Ru360 and the ryanodine receptor type 1 blocker dantrolene, suggesting two complimentary Ca(2+) uptake mechanisms. In the absence of Ru360 and dantrolene, mPTP closing by polyP depletion or CSA decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, suggesting that during ischaemia Ca(2+) can enter mitochondria through mPTP. During reperfusion, a burst of endogenous polyP production coincided with a decrease in [Ca(2+)]m, a decline in superoxide generation, and an acceleration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. An increase in H2O2 correlated with restoration of mitochondrial pHm and an increase in cell death. mPTP opening and cell death on reperfusion were prevented by antioxidants Trolox and MnTBAP [Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride]. Enzymatic polyP depletion did not affect mPTP opening during reperfusion, but increased ROS generation and cell death, suggesting that polyP plays a protective role in cellular stress response. CONCLUSIONS: Transient Ca(2+)/polyP-mediated mPTP opening during ischaemia may serve to protect cells against cytosolic Ca(2+) overload, whereas ROS/pH-mediated sustained mPTP opening on reperfusion induces cell death.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Isquemia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Polifosfatos/metabolismo , Coelhos
17.
Circ Res ; 116(5): 846-56, 2015 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25532796

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Alternans is a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia, including atrial fibrillation. At the cellular level alternans manifests as beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential duration (APD), and magnitude of the Ca(2+) transient (CaT). Electromechanical and CaT alternans are highly correlated, however, it has remained controversial whether the primary cause of alternans is a disturbance of cellular Ca(2+) signaling or electrical membrane properties. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a primary failure of intracellular Ca(2+) regulation or disturbances in membrane potential and AP regulation are responsible for the occurrence of alternans in atrial myocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pacing-induced APD and CaT alternans were studied in single rabbit atrial and ventricular myocytes using combined [Ca(2+)]i and electrophysiological measurements. In current-clamp experiments, APD and CaT alternans strongly correlated in time and magnitude. CaT alternans was observed without alternation in L-type Ca(2+) current, however, elimination of intracellular Ca(2+) release abolished APD alternans, indicating that [Ca(2+)]i dynamics have a profound effect on the occurrence of CaT alternans. Trains of 2 distinctive voltage commands in form of APs recorded during large and small alternans CaTs were applied to voltage-clamped cells. CaT alternans was observed with and without alternation in the voltage command shape. During alternans AP-clamp large CaTs coincided with both long and short AP waveforms, indicating that CaT alternans develop irrespective of AP dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: The primary mechanism underlying alternans in atrial cells, similarly to ventricular cells, resides in a disturbance of Ca(2+) signaling, whereas APD alternans are a secondary consequence, mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent AP modulation.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Acoplamento Excitação-Contração/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/fisiologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos , Células Cultivadas , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Transporte de Íons , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Coelhos , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo
18.
J Physiol ; 593(6): 1459-77, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25416623

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Impaired calcium (Ca(2+)) signalling is the main contributor to depressed ventricular contractile function and occurrence of arrhythmia in heart failure (HF). Here we report that in atrial cells of a rabbit HF model, Ca(2+) signalling is enhanced and we identified the underlying cellular mechanisms. Enhanced Ca(2+) transients (CaTs) are due to upregulation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor induced Ca(2+) release (IICR) and decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration. Enhanced IICR, however, together with an increased activity of the sodium-calcium exchange mechanism, also facilitates spontaneous Ca(2+) release in form of arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves and spontaneous action potentials, thus enhancing the arrhythmogenic potential of atrial cells. Our data show that enhanced Ca(2+) signalling in HF provides atrial cells with a mechanism to improve ventricular filling and to maintain cardiac output, but also increases the susceptibility to develop atrial arrhythmias facilitated by spontaneous Ca(2+) release. ABSTRACT: We studied excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-dependent Ca(2+) release in normal and heart failure (HF) rabbit atrial cells. Left ventricular HF was induced by combined volume and pressure overload. In HF atrial myocytes diastolic [Ca(2+)]i was increased, action potential (AP)-induced Ca(2+) transients (CaTs) were larger in amplitude, primarily due to enhanced Ca(2+) release from central non-junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and centripetal propagation of activation was accelerated, whereas HF ventricular CaTs were depressed. The larger CaTs were due to enhanced IP3 receptor-induced Ca(2+) release (IICR) and reduced mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering, consistent with a reduced mitochondrial density and Ca(2+) uptake capacity in HF. Elementary IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release events (Ca(2+) puffs) were more frequent in HF atrial myoctes and were detected more often in central regions of the non-junctional SR compared to normal cells. HF cells had an overall higher frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) waves and a larger fraction of waves (termed arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves) triggered APs and global CaTs. The higher propensity of arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves resulted from the combined action of enhanced IICR and increased activity of sarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange depolarizing the cell membrane. In conclusion, the data support the hypothesis that in atrial myocytes from hearts with left ventricular failure, enhanced CaTs during ECC exert positive inotropic effects on atrial contractility which facilitates ventricular filling and contributes to maintaining cardiac output. However, HF atrial cells were also more susceptible to developing arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves which might form the substrate for atrial rhythm disorders frequently encountered in HF.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Acoplamento Excitação-Contração , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/citologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Coelhos
19.
Front Physiol ; 5: 260, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25101001

RESUMO

We provide a comprehensive review of the role of ß-hydroxybutyrate (ß-OHB), its linear polymer poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) in mammalian health and disease. ß-OHB is a metabolic intermediate that constitutes 70% of ketone bodies produced during ketosis. Although ketosis has been generally considered as an unfavorable pathological state (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis in type-1 diabetes mellitus), it has been suggested that induction of mild hyperketonemia may have certain therapeutic benefits. ß-OHB is synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA by ß-OHB dehydrogenase and can be used as alternative energy source. Elevated levels of PHB are associated with pathological states. In humans, short-chain, complexed PHB (cPHB) is found in a wide variety of tissues and in atherosclerotic plaques. Plasma cPHB concentrations correlate strongly with atherogenic lipid profiles, and PHB tissue levels are elevated in type-1 diabetic animals. However, little is known about mechanisms of PHB action especially in the heart. In contrast to ß-OHB, PHB is a water-insoluble, amphiphilic polymer that has high intrinsic viscosity and salt-solvating properties. cPHB can form non-specific ion channels in planar lipid bilayers and liposomes. PHB can form complexes with polyP and Ca(2+) which increases membrane permeability. The biological roles played by polyP, a ubiquitous phosphate polymer with ATP-like bonds, have been most extensively studied in prokaryotes, however polyP has recently been linked to a variety of functions in mammalian cells, including blood coagulation, regulation of enzyme activity in cancer cells, cell proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial ion transport and energy metabolism. Recent evidence suggests that polyP is a potent activator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in cardiomyocytes and may represent a hitherto unrecognized key structural and functional component of the mitochondrial membrane system.

20.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 41(7): 524-32, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25040398

RESUMO

Cardiac alternans refers to a condition in which there is a periodic beat-to-beat oscillation in electrical activity and the strength of cardiac muscle contraction at a constant heart rate. Clinically, cardiac alternans occurs in settings that are typical for cardiac arrhythmias and has been causally linked to these conditions. At the cellular level, alternans is defined as beat-to-beat alternations in contraction amplitude (mechanical alternans), action potential duration (APD; electrical or APD alternans) and Ca(2+) transient amplitude (Ca(2+) alternans). The cause of alternans is multifactorial; however, alternans always originate from disturbances of the bidirectional coupling between membrane voltage (Vm ) and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ). Bidirectional coupling refers to the fact that, in cardiac cells, Vm depolarization and the generation of action potentials cause the elevation of [Ca(2+) ]i that is required for contraction (a process referred to as excitation-contraction coupling); conversely, changes of [Ca(2+) ]i control Vm because important membrane currents are Ca(2+) dependent. Evidence is mounting that alternans is ultimately caused by disturbances of cellular Ca(2+) signalling. Herein we review how two key factors of cardiac cellular Ca(2+) cycling, namely the release of Ca(2+) from internal stores and the capability of clearing the cytosol from Ca(2+) after each beat, determine the conditions under which alternans occurs. The contributions from key Ca(2+) -handling proteins (i.e. surface membrane channels, ion pumps and transporters and internal Ca(2+) release channels) are discussed.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Miocárdio/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo
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