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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715306

RESUMO

Damage-associated angiogenic factors (AF), including follistatin (FS) and soluble endoglin (sEng), are elevated in circulation at the onset of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that regimen-related tissue injury might also be associated with aberrant AF levels, and sought to determine the relevance of these AF on non-relapse mortality (NRM) in patients with and without acute GVHD. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed circulating levels of FS, sEng, angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -A and -B, placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble VEGF receptor [sVEGFR]-1 and -2, in plasma samples from patients enrolled on Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) 0402 (n=221), which tested GVHD prophylaxis after myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We found that the interaction between FS and sEng had an additive effect in their association with 1-year NRM. In multivariate analysis, patients with the highest levels of day +28 FS and sEng had a 14.9-fold hazard ratio (HR) of NRM (95% confidence interval 3.2-69.4, p<0.01) when compared to low levels of FS and sEng. We validated these findings using an external cohort of patients (n=106). Pre-HCT measurements of FS and sEng were not associated with NRM, suggesting that elevations in these factors early post-HCT may be consequences of early regimen-related toxicity. Determining the mechanisms responsible for patient- specific vulnerability to treatment toxicities and endothelial damage associated with specific AF elevation may guide interventions to reduce NRM post-HCT.

2.
Blood ; 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697815

RESUMO

T-cell activation releases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), inducing cytoplasmic calcium (Ca2+) influx. In turn, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B (Itpkb) phosphorylates IP3 to negatively regulate and thereby tightly control Ca2+ fluxes that are essential for mature T-cell activation, differentiation and protection from cell death. Itpkb pathway inhibition increases intracellular Ca2+, induces apoptosis of activated T-cells, and can control T-cell mediated autoimmunity. Here, we employed genetic and pharmacological approaches to inhibit Itpkb signaling as a means of controlling graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Murine induced Itpkb deleted (Itpkb-/-) T-cells had attenuated acute GVHD in two models without eliminating A20-luciferase B-cell lymphoma graft-versus-leukemia (GVL). A highly potent, selective inhibitor, GNF362, ameliorated acute GVHD without impairing GVL against two acute myeloid leukemia lines (MLL-AF9-eGFP; C1498-luciferase). Compared to FK506, GNF362 more selectively deleted donor alloreactive versus nominal antigen responsive T-cells. Consistent with these data and as compared to FK506, GNF362 had favorable acute GVHD and GVL properties against MLL-AF9-eGFP cells. In chronic GVHD preclinical models that have a distinct pathophysiology from acute GVHD, Itpkb-/- donor T-cells reduced active chronic GVHD in a multi-organ system model with bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) driven by germinal center reactions, resulting in target organ fibrosis. GNF362 treatment reduced active chronic GVHD in both BO and scleroderma models. Thus, intact Itpkb signaling is required to drive acute GVHD pathogenesis and sustain active chronic GVHD, pointing toward a novel clinical application to prevent acute or treat chronic GVHD.

3.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 2934-2948, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648315

RESUMO

Broader clinical application of umbilical cord blood (UCB), as a source of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), is limited by low CD34+ and T-cell numbers, contributing to slow lymphohematopoietic recovery, infection, and relapse. Studies have evaluated the safety, feasibility, and expedited neutrophil recovery associated with the transplantation of CD34+ HSPCs from ex vivo expansion cultures using the aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist StemRegenin-1 (SR1). In a phase 1/2 study of 17 patients who received combined SR1-expanded and unexpanded UCB units, a considerable advantage for enhancing T-cell chimerism was not observed. We previously showed that progenitor T (proT) cells generated in vitro from HSPCs accelerated T-cell reconstitution and restored immunity after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To expedite immune recovery, we hypothesized that SR1-expanded HSPCs together with proT cells could overcome the known T-cell immune deficiency that occurs post-HSCT. Here, we show that SR1-expanded UCB can induce >250-fold expansion of CD34+ HSPCs, which can generate large numbers of proT cells upon in vitro differentiation. When compared with nonexpanded naive proT cells, SR1 proT cells also showed effective thymus-seeding and peripheral T-cell functional capabilities in vivo despite having an altered phenotype. In a competitive transfer approach, both naive and SR1 proT cells showed comparable thymus-engrafting capacities. Single-cell RNA sequencing of peripheral CD3+ T cells from mice injected with either naive or SR1 proT cells revealed functional subsets of T cells with polyclonal T-cell receptor repertoires. Our findings support the use of SR1-expanded UCB grafts combined with proT-cell generation for decreasing T-cell immunodeficiency post-HSCT.

4.
JCI Insight ; 4(19)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578305

RESUMO

B7-H4 is a negative regulatory B7 family member. We investigated the role of host and donor B7-H4 in regulating acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Allogeneic donor T cells infused into B7-H4-/- versus WT recipients markedly accelerated GVHD-induced lethality. Chimera studies pointed toward B7-H4 expression on host hematopoietic cells as more critical than parenchymal cells in controlling GVHD. Rapid mortality in B7-H4-/- recipients was associated with increased donor T cell expansion, gut T cell homing and loss of intestinal epithelial integrity, increased T effector function (proliferation, proinflammatory cytokines, cytolytic molecules), and reduced apoptosis. Higher metabolic demands of rapidly proliferating donor T cells in B7-H4-/- versus WT recipients required multiple metabolic pathways, increased extracellular acidification rates (ECARs) and oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), and increased expression of fuel substrate transporters. During GVHD, B7-H4 expression was upregulated on allogeneic WT donor T cells. B7-H4-/- donor T cells given to WT recipients increased GVHD mortality and had function and biological properties similar to WT T cells from allogeneic B7-H4-/- recipients. Graft-versus-leukemia responses were intact regardless as to whether B7-H4-/- mice were used as hosts or donors. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the negative regulatory processes that control GVHD and provide support for developing therapeutic strategies directed toward the B7-H4 pathway.

5.
Blood ; 134(19): 1670-1682, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533918

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can subdue inflammation. In mice with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), donor MDSC infusion enhances survival that is only partial and transient because of MDSC inflammasome activation early posttransfer, resulting in differentiation and loss of suppressor function. Here we demonstrate that conditioning regimen-induced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release is a primary driver of MDSC dysfunction through ATP receptor (P2x7R) engagement and NLR pyrin family domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. P2x7R or NLRP3 knockout (KO) donor MDSCs provided significantly higher survival than wild-type (WT) MDSCs. Although in vivo pharmacologic targeting of NLRP3 or P2x7R promoted recipient survival, indicating in vivo biologic effects, no synergistic survival advantage was seen when combined with MDSCs. Because activated inflammasomes release mature interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), we expected that IL-1ß KO donor MDSCs would be superior in subverting GVHD, but such MDSCs proved inferior relative to WT. IL-1ß release and IL-1 receptor expression was required for optimal MDSC function, and exogenous IL-1ß added to suppression assays that included MDSCs increased suppressor potency. These data indicate that prolonged systemic NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition and decreased IL-1ß could diminish survival in GVHD. However, loss of inflammasome activation and IL-1ß release restricted to MDSCs rather than systemic inhibition allowed non-MDSC IL-1ß signaling, improving survival. Extracellular ATP catalysis with peritransplant apyrase administered into the peritoneum, the ATP release site, synergized with WT MDSCs, as did regulatory T-cell infusion, which we showed reduced but did not eliminate MDSC inflammasome activation, as assessed with a novel inflammasome reporter strain. These findings will inform future clinical using MDSCs to decrease alloresponses in inflammatory environments.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477785

RESUMO

To better understand the clinical phenotype of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in children, we examined the GVHD clinical stage, grade, and response to prednisone 60 mg/m2/day PO in a diverse group of 370 pediatric patients with acute GVHD treated from 1990 to 2016 at a single institution. Overall response [complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)] at day 28 occurred in 65%, (CR 52%; PR 13%). Initial GVHD grade did not predict day 28 response. However, the Minnesota GVHD Risk Score predicted response with 68% standard risk (SR)-GVHD patients achieving CR/PR at day 28 versus 48% high risk (HR)-GVHD patients (p < 0.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed that response rates were lower in patients with HR-GVHD [odds ratio (OR), 0.4, p < 0.01] and in recipients of HLA mismatched URD (OR 0.4, p = 0.03). Transplant-related mortality (TRM) at 2 years was greater in HR-GVHD patients, recipients of HLA-partially matched or mismatched unrelated donor (URD) grafts, but not umbilical cord blood (UCB). These data highlight the importance of including children in novel acute GVHD treatment trials. Compared with initial GVHD grade, the Minnesota GVHD Risk Score better demarcates risk of steroid failure and TRM in children and could be used for risk stratification in pediatric acute GVHD studies.

7.
Blood Adv ; 3(17): 2550-2561, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471324

RESUMO

Low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) generates a rapid rise in plasma IL-2 levels and CD4+CD25+CD127-Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell (CD4Treg) proliferation, but both decrease over time despite continued daily administration. To test whether IL-2 dose escalation at the time of anticipated falls in plasma levels could circumvent tachyphylaxis and enhance CD4Treg expansion, we conducted a phase 1 trial in 10 adult and 11 pediatric patients with steroid-refractory cGVHD (www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02318082). Daily IL-2 was initiated in children and adults (0.33 × 106 and 0.67 × 106 IU/m2 per day, respectively). Dose escalations were scheduled at weeks 2 and 4 to a maximum dose of 1 × 106 IU/m2 per day in children and 2 × 106 IU/m2 per day in adults. Patients continued at their maximum tolerated dose (MTD) until week 8. Children tolerated IL-2 dose escalation with partial responses (PRs) in 9 of 11 patients (82%) at multiple cGVHD sites, including lung. Patient-reported outcome scores for skin and lung improved significantly in pediatric patients. In contrast, 5 of 10 adults required dose reduction, and only 2 of 7 evaluable patients (29%) had PRs at week 8. CD4Tregs and natural killer cells expanded in both cohorts without significant changes in conventional CD4+ T cells (Tcons) or CD8+ T cells. Children achieved a higher median CD4Treg/Tcon ratio at week 8 (0.4 vs 0.18, P = .02) despite lower IL-2 doses. We show for the first time that low-dose IL-2 is safe and effective in children with advanced cGVHD. In adults, escalation above the previously defined MTD did not improve CD4Treg expansion or clinical response.

8.
Nat Immunol ; 20(10): 1360-1371, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477921

RESUMO

Follicular regulatory T (TFR) cells have specialized roles in modulating follicular helper T (TFH) cell activation of B cells. However, the precise role of TFR cells in controlling antibody responses to foreign antigens and autoantigens in vivo is still unclear due to a lack of specific tools. A TFR cell-deleter mouse was developed that selectively deletes TFR cells, facilitating temporal studies. TFR cells were found to regulate early, but not late, germinal center (GC) responses to control antigen-specific antibody and B cell memory. Deletion of TFR cells also resulted in increased self-reactive immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgE. The increased IgE levels led us to interrogate the role of TFR cells in house dust mite models. TFR cells were found to control TFH13 cell-induced IgE. In vivo, loss of TFR cells increased house-dust-mite-specific IgE and lung inflammation. Thus, TFR cells control IgG and IgE responses to vaccines, allergens and autoantigens, and exert critical immunoregulatory functions before GC formation.

9.
Immunity ; 51(5): 885-898.e7, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542340

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the principal determinant of lethality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here, we examined the mechanisms that initiate GVHD, including the relevant antigen-presenting cells. MHC class II was expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) within the ileum at steady state but was absent from the IECs of germ-free mice. IEC-specific deletion of MHC class II prevented the initiation of lethal GVHD in the GI tract. MHC class II expression on IECs was absent from mice deficient in the TLR adaptors MyD88 and TRIF and required IFNγ secretion by lamina propria lymphocytes. IFNγ responses are characteristically driven by IL-12 secretion from myeloid cells. Antibiotic-mediated depletion of the microbiota inhibited IL-12/23p40 production by ileal macrophages. IL-12/23p40 neutralization prevented MHC class II upregulation on IECs and initiation of lethal GVHD in the GI tract. Thus, MHC class II expression by IECs in the ileum initiates lethal GVHD, and blockade of IL-12/23p40 may represent a readily translatable therapeutic strategy.

10.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437443

RESUMO

Genome editing represents a promising strategy for therapeutic correction of COL7A1 mutations that cause recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). DNA cleavage followed by homology-directed repair (HDR) using an exogenous template has previously been used to correct COL7A1 mutations. HDR rates can be modest and the double-strand DNA breaks that initiate HDR commonly result in accompanying undesired insertions and deletions (indels). To overcome these limitations, we applied an A•T→G•C adenine base editor (ABE) to correct two different COL7A1 mutations in primary fibroblasts derived from RDEB patients. ABE enabled higher COL7A1 correction efficiencies than previously reported HDR efforts. Moreover, ABE obviated the need for a repair template and minimal indels or editing at off-target sites was detected. Base editing restored endogenous type VII collagen expression and function in vitro. We also treated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from RDEB fibroblasts with ABE. The edited iPSCs were differentiated into mesenchymal stromal cells, a cell population with therapeutic potential for RDEB. In a mouse teratoma model, skin derived from ABE-treated iPSCs showed proper deposition of C7 at the dermal-epidermal junction in vivo. These demonstrate that base editing provides an efficient and precise genome editing method for autologous cell engineering for RDEB.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220850, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393924

RESUMO

Gut dysbiosis has been associated with worse allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) outcomes. We reported an association between intrinsically vancomycin-resistant enterococci (iVRE: E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus) gut colonization and lower post-transplant mortality. In this study, using an expanded cohort, we evaluated whether our previously observed association is species-specific. We included allo-HCT recipients with ≥1 positive rectal swab or stool culture for iVRE between days -14 and +14 of transplant. To investigate whether iVRE modulate the gut microbiota, we performed agar diffusion assays. To investigate whether iVRE differ in their ability to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, we analyzed iVRE genomes for enzymes in the shikimate and tryptophan pathways. Sixty six (23 E. casseliflavus and 43 E. gallinarum) of the 908 allograft recipients (2011-2017) met our inclusion criteria. Overall survival was significantly higher in patients with E. casseliflavus (91% vs. 62% at 3 years, P = 0.04). In multivariable analysis, E. casseliflavus gut colonization was significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.91, P = 0.04). While agar assays were largely unremarkable, genome mining predicted that E. casseliflavus encodes a larger number of enzymes in the tryptophan metabolism pathway. In conclusion, E. casseliflavus gut colonization is associated with reduced post-HCT morality. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms for this association.

13.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393854

RESUMO

Steroid-refractory intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a frequently fatal condition with little known about mechanisms driving failed steroid responses in gut mucosa. To uncover novel molecular insights in steroid-refractory aGVHD, we compared gene expression profiles of rectosigmoid biopsies from patients at diagnosis of clinical stage 3-4 lower intestinal aGVHD (N=22), to repeat biopsies when the patients became steroid refractory (N=22), and normal controls (N=10). We also performed single gene analyses of factors associated with tolerance (programmed death ligand-1 [PDL1], indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase [IDO1], and T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains [TIGIT]) and found that significantly higher expression levels of these aGVHD inhibitory genes (PDL1, IDO1, TIGIT) at aGVHD onset became decreased in the steroid-refractory state. We examined genes triggered by microbial ligands to stimulate gut repair, amphiregulin (AREG) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and found that both AREG and AhR gene expression levels were increased at aGVHD onset and remained elevated in steroid-refractory aGVHD. We also identified higher expression levels of metallothioneines, metal-binding enzymes induced in stress responses, and M2 macrophage genes in steroid-refractory aGVHD. We observed no differences in T-cell subsets between onset and steroid-refractory aGVHD. Patients with a rapidly fatal course showed greater DNA damage and a distinct microbial signature at aGVHD onset, whereas patients with more prolonged survival exhibited a gene expression profile consistent with activation of Smoothened. Our results extend the paradigm beyond T cell-centric therapies for steroid-refractory GI aGVHD and highlight new mechanisms for therapeutic exploration.

14.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320554

RESUMO

Using multicenter data, we developed a novel acute graft-versus-host disease Risk Score which more accurately predicts response to steroid treatment, survival and transplant related mortality than other published risk scores based upon clinical grading criteria.(1) To validate this Risk Score in a contemporary cohort, we examined 355 recent University of Minnesota patients (2007-2016) diagnosed with acute graft-versus-host disease and treated with prednisone 60 mg/m2/day for 14 days, followed by an 8-week taper. Overall response [complete response + partial response] was higher in the 276 standard risk vs. 79 high risk graft-versus-host disease patients at day 14 (71% vs. 56%, p<0.01), day 28 (74% vs. 59%, p=0.02) and day 56 (68% vs. 49%, p<0.01) after steroid initiation. Day 28 response did not differ by initial graft-versus-host disease grade. In multiple regression analysis, patients with high risk graft-versus-host disease were less likely to respond at day 28 (odds ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9, p<0.01) and had higher risks of 2 year transplant related mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.8, 95% CI, 1.0-2.1, p=0.03) and overall mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.7, 95% CI, 1.2-2.4, p<0.01) than patients with standard risk graft-versus-host disease. This analysis confirms the Minnesota graft-versus-host disease Risk Score as a valuable bedside tool to define risk in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease. A tailored approach to upfront acute graft-versus-host disease therapy based upon the Minnesota Risk Score may improve outcomes and facilitate testing of novel treatments in these patients.

15.
Blood Adv ; 3(13): 1970-1980, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266741

RESUMO

In vivo expansion of haploidentical natural killer (NK) cell infusions with interleukin-2 (IL-2) can induce remission of refractory acute myeloid leukemia, but efficacy may be hampered by concurrent stimulation of host regulatory T cells. To overcome this limitation, we substituted the NK homeostatic factor IL-15 in 2 phase 1/2 trials. Forty-two patients received either intravenous (IV) (NCT01385423) or subcutaneous (SC) (NCT02395822) recombinant human IL-15 (rhIL-15) after lymphodepleting chemotherapy and haploidentical NK cells. Escalating doses of rhIL-15 (0.3-1.0 µg/kg) were given on 12 consecutive days in a phase 1 trial. Of 26 patients, 36% had robust in vivo NK-cell expansion at day 14, and 32% achieved complete remission. Hypothesizing that SC dosing of rhIL-15 would be safer and better tolerated, 16 patients received 10 once per day doses of SC rhIL-15 at 2.0 µg/kg on a phase 2 trial. NK-cell expansion at day 14 was seen in 27% of the patients, and 40% achieved remission. rhIL-15 induced better rates of in vivo NK-cell expansion and remission compared with previous trials with IL-2, but it was associated with previously unreported cytokine release syndrome (CRS) after SC but not IV dosing. CRS was observed in 56% of patients given SC rhIL-15 (with concurrent neurologic toxicity in 5 of 9 patients) and was responsive to steroids and tocilizumab. SC administration was associated with slower pharmacokinetic clearance and higher levels of IL-6 than IV dosing. These novel trials testing the use of IL-15 to potentiate cell therapy suggest that dosing schedules based on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics will preserve the therapeutic benefits of IL-15 and minimize CRS. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01385423 and #NCT02395822.

16.
Nature ; 572(7768): 254-259, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316209

RESUMO

Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) often achieve remission after therapy, but subsequently die of relapse1 that is driven by chemotherapy-resistant leukaemic stem cells (LSCs)2,3. LSCs are defined by their capacity to initiate leukaemia in immunocompromised mice4. However, this precludes analyses of their interaction with lymphocytes as components of anti-tumour immunity5, which LSCs must escape to induce cancer. Here we demonstrate that stemness and immune evasion are closely intertwined in AML. Using xenografts of human AML as well as syngeneic mouse models of leukaemia, we show that ligands of the danger detector NKG2D-a critical mediator of anti-tumour immunity by cytotoxic lymphocytes, such as NK cells6-9-are generally expressed on bulk AML cells but not on LSCs. AML cells with LSC properties can be isolated by their lack of expression of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) in both CD34-expressing and non-CD34-expressing cases of AML. AML cells that express NKG2DLs are cleared by NK cells, whereas NKG2DL-negative leukaemic cells isolated from the same individual escape cell killing by NK cells. These NKG2DL-negative AML cells show an immature morphology, display molecular and functional stemness characteristics, and can initiate serially re-transplantable leukaemia and survive chemotherapy in patient-derived xenotransplant models. Mechanistically, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) represses expression of NKG2DLs. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of PARP1 induces NKG2DLs on the LSC surface but not on healthy or pre-leukaemic cells. Treatment with PARP1 inhibitors, followed by transfer of polyclonal NK cells, suppresses leukaemogenesis in patient-derived xenotransplant models. In summary, our data link the LSC concept to immune escape and provide a strong rationale for targeting therapy-resistant LSCs by PARP1 inhibition, which renders them amenable to control by NK cells in vivo.

17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(11): 2297-2302, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325587

RESUMO

The prognosis of steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is poor, and predictors of response and survival are unclear. In an exploratory analysis of 203 steroid-refractory aGVHD patients with prospectively collected GVHD data who received antithymocyte globulin, etanercept, or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as second-line treatment, we determined the predictors of day 28 response, 2-year overall survival, and 2-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM). To minimize the risk of finding false-positive results, we used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, aggressively eliminating variables that are unlikely to be associated with outcome. Day 28 response to second-line therapy was 38% (complete response, 23%), with a 2-year overall survival of 25% and a 2-year NRM of 62%. Factors associated with response were GVHD prophylaxis, organ involvement, and initial aGVHD to steroid-refractory aGVHD interval. Specifically, compared with cyclosporine/MMF as GVHD prophylaxis, the odds ratio (OR) for calcineurin inhibitor/methotrexate was .8 and for cyclosporine/prednisone .6. The OR for aGVHD to steroid-refractory aGVHD interval ≥ 14 versus <14 days was 1.3. The ORs for skin only involvement and gut or liver only involvement when compared with multiorgan involvement were 1.4 and 1.2, respectively. The only variable associated with worse survival was age, with a hazard ratio (HR) per decade of 1.04 for overall mortality. Similarly, age was the only variable associated with NRM (HR per decade, 1.02). When compared with complete response, no response at day 28 increased the risk of death (HR, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.7). In conclusion, by means of an underused statistical technique in the field of transplantation, we identified predictors of response and survival in steroid-refractory aGVHD. Our results highlight the importance of developing novel treatment strategies because current treatments yield poor outcomes.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217761, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170216

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are required for the maintenance of immune tolerance and adoptive Treg infusion therapy has become a promising approach to suppress immune responses in diseases such as autoimmunity and transplant rejection. However, one critical challenge of Treg therapy is the requirement of in vitro expansion of functionally stable Tregs while preventing either the contamination of T effector and/or emergence of unstable pathogenic Tregs. Recent studies showing distinct metabolic requirements of T effectors and Tregs suggest that manipulation of cell metabolism may be an attractive strategy to achieve this goal. Here we show that human thymically derived Tregs (tTregs) and in vitro induced Tregs (iTregs) from naive T cells engage glycolysis equivalently upon activation. However, inhibiting glucose metabolism via 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) has distinct effects on each of these subsets. While 2DG treatment at the onset of activation significantly reduced the proliferation and expression of suppressive molecules such as ICOS and CTLA-4 in tTregs, its effect on FOXP3 expression was small. In contrast, 2DG treatment during iTreg induction modestly decreased their proliferation but strongly reduced both ICOS and FOXP3 expression. Importantly, both Treg subsets became insensitive to 2DG after day 3 post activation with little effect on either proliferation or FOXP3 expression while T conventional Th0 cells showed reduced proliferation under the same conditions. Moreover, 2DG treatment at day 3 did not impair the suppressive capabilities of Treg subsets. Collectively, these findings suggest that there is a distinct temporal requirement of glycolysis in each of the activated human Treg subsets and T conventional cells. Furthermore, 2DG treatment at the onset as a strategy to impair contaminating T effector cell proliferation is unfavorable for optimal Treg generation as well.

19.
J Immunol ; 203(2): 557-568, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182480

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the most serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Notch signals delivered during the first 48 h after transplantation drive proinflammatory cytokine production in conventional T cells (Tconv) and inhibit the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Short-term Notch inhibition induces long-term GVHD protection. However, it remains unknown whether Notch blockade blunts GVHD through its effects on Tconv, Tregs, or both and what early Notch-regulated molecular events occur in alloantigen-specific T cells. To address these questions, we engineered T cell grafts to achieve selective Notch blockade in Tconv versus Tregs and evaluated their capacity to trigger GVHD in mice. Notch blockade in Tconv was essential for GVHD protection as GVHD severity was similar in the recipients of wild-type Tconv combined with Notch-deprived versus wild-type Tregs. To identify the impact of Notch signaling on the earliest steps of T cell activation in vivo, we established a new acute GVHD model mediated by clonal alloantigen-specific 4C CD4+ Tconv. Notch-deprived 4C T cells had preserved early steps of activation, IL-2 production, proliferation, and Th cell polarization. In contrast, Notch inhibition dampened IFN-γ and IL-17 production, diminished mTORC1 and ERK1/2 activation, and impaired transcription of a subset of Myc-regulated genes. The distinct Notch-regulated signature had minimal overlap with known Notch targets in T cell leukemia and developing T cells, highlighting the specific impact of Notch signaling in mature T cells. Our findings uncover a unique molecular program associated with the pathogenic effects of Notch in T cells at the earliest stages of GVHD.

20.
Blood ; 134(9): 776-781, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243040

RESUMO

Soluble thrombomodulin plasma concentrations are elevated in steroid-resistant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), implying endothelial hypofunctioning for thrombomodulin-dependent generation of activated protein C's (APC) anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic functions. Recombinant thrombomodulin or APC administration decreases acute GVHD, manifested by intense inflammation and tissue destruction. Here, we administered recombinant murine wild-type (WT) APC to mice with established chronic GVHD (cGVHD), a less-inflammatory autoimmune-like disease. WT APC normalized bronchiolitis obliterans-induced pulmonary dysfunction. Signaling-selective APC variants (3A-APC [APC with lysine 191-193 replaced with 3 alanines] or 5A-APC [APC with lysine 191-193 replaced with 3 alanines and arginine 229/230 replaced with 2 alanines]) with normal cytoprotective properties, but greatly reduced anticoagulant activity, provided similar results. Mechanistically, WT APC and signaling-selective variants reduced T follicular helper cells, germinal center formation, immunoglobulin, and collagen deposition. WT APC can potentially cleave protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) at Arg41 or Arg46, the latter causing anti-inflammatory signaling. cGVHD was reduced in recipients of T cells from WT PAR1 or mutated Gln41-PAR1 donors but not from mutated Gln46-PAR1 donors. These data implicate donor T-cell APC-induced noncanonical cleavage at Arg46-PAR1, which is known to confer cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. Together, these data indicate that APC anticoagulant activity is dispensable, whereas anti-inflammatory signaling and cytoprotective cell signaling by APC are essential. Because a phase 2 ischemic stroke clinical trial did not raise any safety issues for 3A-APC treatment, our studies provide a foundational platform for testing in clinical cGVHD therapy.

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