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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fevipiprant, an oral antagonist of the prostaglandin D2 receptor 2, reduced sputum eosinophils and improved lung function in phase 2 trials of patients with asthma. We aimed to investigate whether fevipiprant reduces asthma exacerbations in patients with severe asthma. METHODS: LUSTER-1 and LUSTER-2 were two phase 3 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, replicate 52-week studies; LUSTER-1 took place at 174 clinical sites in 25 countries and LUSTER 2 took place at 169 clinical sites in 19 countries. Fevipiprant or placebo was added to Global Initiative for Asthma Steps 4 and 5 therapy in adolescents and adults with severe asthma. Patients aged 12 years or older with uncontrolled asthma on dual or triple asthma therapy were randomly assigned by use of interactive response technology to one of three treatment groups (once-daily fevipiprant 150 mg, fevipiprant 450 mg, or placebo) in a 1:1:1 ratio within each of the randomisation strata: peripheral blood eosinophil counts (<250 cells per µL or ≥250 cells per µL), patient age (<18 years or ≥18 years), and use or non-use of oral corticosteroids as part of their standard of care asthma therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the annualised rate of moderate to severe asthma exacerbations with 150 mg or 450 mg doses of fevipiprant once daily compared with placebo over 52 weeks, in patients with high blood eosinophil counts (≥250 cells per µL) and in the overall study population. All patients who underwent randomisation and received at least one dose of study medication were included in efficacy and safety analyses. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02555683 (LUSTER-1) and NCT02563067 (LUSTER-2), and are complete and no longer recruiting. FINDINGS: Between Dec 11, 2015, and Oct 25, 2018, 894 patients were randomly assigned to fevipiprant 150 mg (n=301), fevipiprant 450 mg (n=295), or placebo (n=298) in LUSTER-1. Between Dec 3, 2015, and July 10, 2018, 877 patients were randomly assigned to fevipiprant 150 mg (n=296), fevipiprant 450 mg (n=294), or placebo (n=287) in LUSTER-2. In the high eosinophil population, in LUSTER-1 the annualised rate ratio of moderate to severe exacerbations compared with placebo was 1·04 (95% CI 0·77-1·41) for fevipiprant 150 mg and 0·83 (0·61-1·14) for fevipiprant 450 mg, and in LUSTER-2 it was 0·69 (0·50-0·96) for fevipiprant 150 mg and 0·72 (0·52-1·01) for fevipiprant 450 mg. In the overall population, in LUSTER-1 the annualised rate ratio of moderate to severe exacerbations compared with placebo was 0·96 (95% CI 0·75-1·22) for fevipiprant 150 mg and 0·78 (0·61-1·01) for fevipiprant 450 mg and in LUSTER-2 it was 0·82 (0·62-1·07) for fevipiprant 150 mg and 0·76 (0·58-1·00) for fevipiprant 450 mg. In the overall pooled population of both studies, serious adverse events occurred in 53 (9%) patients in the fevipiprant 150 mg group, 50 (9%) in the fevipiprant 450 mg group, and 50 (9%) in the placebo group. Adverse events leading to death occurred in two (<1%) patients in the fevipiprant 450 mg group and three (<1%) in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: Although neither trial showed a statistically significant reduction in asthma exacerbations after adjusting for multiple testing, consistent and modest reductions in exacerbations rates were observed in both studies with the 450 mg dose of fevipiprant. FUNDING: Novartis.

2.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(3)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963999

RESUMO

Background: Mepolizumab (100 mg delivered s.c. every 4 weeks) is indicated for add-on maintenance treatment for patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Mepolizumab has been shown to reduce exacerbations and the requirement for daily oral corticosteroids, and improve asthma control and symptoms. However, data on the durability of the response to mepolizumab during dosing periods are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy profile in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma over the 4-weekly dosing period for various fixed mepolizumab doses. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of data from the phase IIb/III DREAM study. Patients ≥12 years of age with severe eosinophilic asthma were randomised (1:1:1:1) to receive intravenous mepolizumab 75 mg (equivalent to 100 mg s.c.), 250 mg, 750 mg or placebo, plus standard of care, every 4 weeks for 52 weeks. The number of exacerbations and eDiary data (peak expiratory flow, rescue medication use and symptom scores) from two periods in each 4-weekly dosing interval (days 1-14 and 15-28) over the 52-week treatment period were analysed. Findings: eDiary data and the proportion of patients experiencing ≥1 exacerbation were similar during the first and second 2 weeks of a dosing period across all mepolizumab doses. Interpretation: These results demonstrate that the response to mepolizumab is sustained over the 4-weekly dosing period with no differences across a 10-fold dose range and supports the use of the current mepolizumab dosing regimen in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.

3.
J Biopharm Stat ; : 1-12, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941098

RESUMO

The Precision Interventions for Severe and/or Exacerbation-prone Asthma (PrecISE) study is an adaptive platform trial designed to investigate novel interventions to severe asthma. The study is conducted under a master protocol and utilizes a crossover design with each participant receiving up to five interventions and at least one placebo. Treatment assignments are based on the patients' biomarker profiles and precision health methods are incorporated into the interim and final analyses. We describe key elements of the PrecISE study including the multistage adaptive enrichment strategy, early stopping of an intervention for futility, power calculations, and the primary analysis strategy.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Chr17q12-21.2 region is the strongest and most consistently associated region with asthma susceptibility. The functional genes or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are not obvious due to linkage disequilibrium. OBJECTIVES: We sought to comprehensively investigate whole-genome sequence and RNA sequence from human bronchial epithelial cells to dissect functional genes/SNPs for asthma severity in the Severe Asthma Research Program. METHODS: Expression quantitative trait loci analysis (n = 114), correlation analysis (n = 156) of gene expression and asthma phenotypes, and pathway analysis were performed in bronchial epithelial cells and replicated. Genetic association for asthma severity (426 severe vs 531 nonsevere asthma) and longitudinal asthma exacerbations (n = 273) was performed. RESULTS: Multiple SNPs in gasdermin B (GSDMB) associated with asthma severity (odds ratio, >1.25) and longitudinal asthma exacerbations (P < .05). Expression quantitative trait loci analyses identified multiple SNPs associated with expression levels of post-GPI attachment to proteins 3, GSDMB, or gasdermin A (3.1 × 10-9 

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
6.
Thorax ; 75(9): 808-811, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482836

RESUMO

Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) reportedly promotes, or conversely, resolves inflammation in asthma. In this study of TRAIL and cell receptors in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy from subjects in the Severe Asthma Research Program at Wake Forest, the high TRAIL group had significant increases in all leucocytes, and was associated with increased type 1, type 2 and type 17 cytokines, but not type 9 interleukin 9. Two variants at loci in the TRAIL gene were associated with higher sputum levels of TRAIL. Increased TRAIL decoy receptor R3/DcR1 was observed on sputum leucocytes compared with death receptor R1/DR4, suggesting reduced apoptosis and prolonged cellular inflammation.

7.
World Allergy Organ J ; : 100126, 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276909

RESUMO

Managing patients with severe asthma during the coronavirus pandemic COVID-19 is a challenge. Authorities and physicians are still learning how COVID-19 affects people with underlying diseases, and severe asthma is not an exception. Unless relevant data emerges that changes our understanding of the relative safety of medications indicated in patients with asthma during this pandemic, clinicians must follow the recommendations of current evidence-based guidelines, preventing loss of control and exacerbations. Also, with the absence of data that would indicate any potential harm, current advice is to continue the administration of biologic agents during the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with asthma for whom such agents are clearly indicated and have been effective. For the patients with severe asthma infected by SARS-CoV-2, the decision to maintain or postpone biologic therapy until the patient recovers should be a case-by-case based decision supported by a multidisciplinary team. A registry of cases of COVID-19 in patients with severe asthma, including those treated with biologics, will help to address a clinical challenge where we have more questions than answers.

8.
World Allergy Organ J ; : 100126, 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380025

RESUMO

Managing patients with severe asthma during the coronavirus pandemic COVID-19 is a challenge. Authorities and physicians are still learning how COVID-19 affects people with underlying diseases, and severe asthma is not an exception. Unless relevant data emerges that changes our understanding of the relative safety of medications indicated in patients with asthma during this pandemic, clinicians must follow the recommendations of current evidence-based guidelines, preventing loss of control and exacerbations. Also, with the absence of data that would indicate any potential harm, current advice is to continue the administration of biologic agents during the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with asthma for whom such agents are clearly indicated and have been effective. For the patients with severe asthma infected by SARS-CoV-2, the decision to maintain or postpone biologic therapy until the patient recovers should be a case-by-case based decision supported by a multidisciplinary team. A registry of cases of COVID-19 in patients with severe asthma, including those treated with biologics, will help to address a clinical challenge where we have more questions than answers.

9.
World Allergy Organ J ; : 100126, 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426090

RESUMO

Managing patients with severe asthma during the coronavirus pandemic COVID-19 is a challenge. Authorities and physicians are still learning how COVID-19 affects people with underlying diseases, and severe asthma is not an exception. Unless relevant data emerges that changes our understanding of the relative safety of medications indicated in patients with asthma during this pandemic, clinicians must follow the recommendations of current evidence-based guidelines, preventing loss of control and exacerbations. Also, with the absence of data that would indicate any potential harm, current advice is to continue the administration of biologic agents during the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with asthma for whom such agents are clearly indicated and have been effective. For the patients with severe asthma infected by SARS-CoV-2, the decision to maintain or postpone biologic therapy until the patient recovers should be a case-by-case based decision supported by a multidisciplinary team. A registry of cases of COVID-19 in patients with severe asthma, including those treated with biologics, will help to address a clinical challenge where we have more questions than answers.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) mediate viral infection of host cells. We reasoned that differences in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 gene expression in sputum cells among asthma patients may identify subgroups at risk for COVID19 morbidity. METHODS: We analyzed gene expression for ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)(rhinovirus receptor as a comparator), in sputum cells from 330 participants in the Severe Asthma Research Program-3 and 79 healthy controls. RESULTS: Gene expression of ACE2 was lower than TMPRSS2, and expression levels of both genes was similar in asthma and health. Among asthma patients, male gender, African Americans race, and history of diabetes mellitus, was associated with higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was associated with lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, but treatment with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) did not decrease expression of either gene. These findings differed from those for ICAM-1, where gene expression was increased in asthma and less consistent differences were observed related to gender, race, and use of ICS. CONCLUSION: Higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in males, African Americans, and patients with diabetes mellitus provides rationale for monitoring these asthma subgroups for poor COVID19 outcomes. The lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with ICS use warrants prospective study of ICS use as a predictor of decreased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased COVID19 morbidity. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(8): 2653-2660.e4, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the differential response to long-acting bronchodilators in older versus younger adults with asthma. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the response to tiotropium Respimat differed in older versus younger patients with asthma. METHODS: Post hoc analyses of 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in adults with asthma were carried out. Two studies compared tiotropium Respimat 5 µg once daily with placebo, both added to high-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) plus long-acting ß2-agonist (ie, severe asthma). The other 2 evaluated tiotropium Respimat 2.5 or 5 µg once daily, salmeterol 50 µg twice daily, or placebo, all added to medium-dose ICS (moderate asthma). Data were analyzed in 2 pools: (1) severe and (2) moderate asthma. Efficacy end points: trough and peak FEV1; trough forced vital capacity; Asthma Control Questionnaire total score and responder percentage, all at week 24. One set of analyses was performed with age as a continuous covariate; the second was conducted in categories less than 40, 40 to 60, and more than 60 years, with treatment-by-age subgroup interaction P values obtained. Safety was analyzed in age categories. RESULTS: Across the age categories, treatment-by-age subgroup interaction P values for trough FEV1 were .13 and .77 for patients with severe and moderate asthma, respectively, not indicating significant impact of age on overall treatment effect, with this observation replicated in the 2 continuum analyses. The other end points (including safety) were also not impacted by age. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily tiotropium Respimat add-on to ICS or ICS/long-acting ß2-agonist therapy was effective and well tolerated in patients with asthma independent of age.

12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(1): 83-90, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348692

RESUMO

Rationale: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), and TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine 2) mediate viral infection of host cells. We reasoned that differences in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 gene expression in sputum cells among patients with asthma may identify subgroups at risk for COVID-19 morbidity.Objectives: To determine the relationship between demographic features and sputum ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in asthma.Methods: We analyzed gene expression for ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and for ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) (rhinovirus receptor as a comparator) in sputum cells from 330 participants in SARP-3 (Severe Asthma Research Program-3) and 79 healthy control subjects.Measurements and Main Results: Gene expression of ACE2 was lower than TMPRSS2, and expression levels of both genes were similar in asthma and health. Among patients with asthma, male sex, African American race, and history of diabetes mellitus were associated with higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was associated with lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, but treatment with triamcinolone acetonide did not decrease expression of either gene. These findings differed from those for ICAM-1, where gene expression was increased in asthma and less consistent differences were observed related to sex, race, and use of ICS.Conclusions: Higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in males, African Americans, and patients with diabetes mellitus provides rationale for monitoring these asthma subgroups for poor COVID-19 outcomes. The lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with ICS use warrants prospective study of ICS use as a predictor of decreased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased COVID-19 morbidity.


Assuntos
Asma , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Corticosteroides , Betacoronavirus , Demografia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Escarro
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(7): 2243-2253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe/difficult-to-treat disease occurs in 5% to 10% of patients with asthma, but accounts for more than 50% of related economic costs. Understanding factors associated with persistent very poorly controlled (VPC) asthma may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To characterize persistent VPC asthma after more than 10 years of standard of care. METHODS: The Epidemiology and Natural history of asthma: Outcomes and treatment Regimens (TENOR) II (N = 341) was a multicenter, observational study of patients with severe/difficult-to-treat asthma with a single, cross-sectional visit more than 10 years after TENOR I. Persistent VPC asthma was defined as VPC asthma at TENOR I and TENOR II enrollment; without VPC asthma was defined as well- or not well-controlled asthma at either or both visits. Multivariable logistic regression assessed long-term predictors of persistent VPC asthma using TENOR I baseline variables. RESULTS: Of 327 patients, nearly half (48.0%, n = 157) had persistent VPC asthma. Comorbidities and asthma triggers were more frequent in patients with persistent VPC asthma than in patients without VPC asthma. Total geometric mean IgE was higher in patients with persistent VPC asthma (89.3 IU/mL vs 55.7 IU/mL); there was no difference in eosinophil levels. Lung function was lower in patients with persistent VPC asthma (mean % predicted pre- and postbronchodilator FEV1, 63.0% vs 82.8% and 69.6% vs 87.2%, respectively). Exacerbations in the previous year were more likely in patients with persistent VPC asthma (29.7% vs 9.0%, respectively). Predictors of persistent VPC asthma were black versus white race/ethnicity, allergic trigger count (4 vs 0), systemic corticosteroid use, and postbronchodilator FEV1 (per 10% decrease). CONCLUSIONS: The burden of persistent VPC asthma is high in severe/difficult-to-treat disease; management of modifiable risk factors, maximization of lung function, and trigger avoidance may improve outcomes.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 2187-2193, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932420

RESUMO

Asthma resistance to glucocorticoid treatment is a major health problem with unclear etiology. Glucocorticoids inhibit adrenal androgen production. However, androgens have potential benefits in asthma. HSD3B1 encodes for 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (3ß-HSD1), which catalyzes peripheral conversion from adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to potent androgens and has a germline missense-encoding polymorphism. The adrenal restrictive HSD3B1(1245A) allele limits conversion, whereas the adrenal permissive HSD3B1(1245C) allele increases DHEA metabolism to potent androgens. In the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) III cohort, we determined the association between DHEA-sulfate and percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1PP). HSD3B1(1245) genotypes were assessed, and association between adrenal restrictive and adrenal permissive alleles and FEV1PP in patients with (GC) and without (noGC) daily oral glucocorticoid treatment was determined (n = 318). Validation was performed in a second cohort (SARP I&II; n = 184). DHEA-sulfate is associated with FEV1PP and is suppressed with GC treatment. GC patients homozygous for the adrenal restrictive genotype have lower FEV1PP compared with noGC patients (54.3% vs. 75.1%; P < 0.001). In patients with the homozygous adrenal permissive genotype, there was no FEV1PP difference in GC vs. noGC patients (73.4% vs. 78.9%; P = 0.39). Results were independently confirmed: FEV1PP for homozygous adrenal restrictive genotype in GC vs. noGC is 49.8 vs. 63.4 (P < 0.001), and for homozygous adrenal permissive genotype, it is 66.7 vs. 67.7 (P = 0.92). The adrenal restrictive HSD3B1(1245) genotype is associated with GC resistance. This effect appears to be driven by GC suppression of 3ß-HSD1 substrate. Our results suggest opportunities for prediction of GC resistance and pharmacologic intervention.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/enzimologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Progesterona Redutase/genética , Esteroide Isomerases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Androgênios/metabolismo , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Progesterona Redutase/metabolismo , Esteroide Isomerases/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 147-155, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Association studies between HLA and asthma were first reported in the 1970s, and yet, the precise role of HLA alleles in asthma is not fully understood. Numerous genome-wide association studies were recently conducted on asthma, but were always limited to simple genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and not complex HLA gene polymorphisms (alleles/haplotypes), therefore not capturing the biological relevance of this complex locus for asthma pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To run the first HLA-centric association study with asthma and specific asthma-related phenotypes in a large cohort of African-ancestry individuals. METHODS: We collected high-density genomics data for the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (N = 4993) participants. Using computer-intensive machine-learning attribute bagging methods to infer HLA alleles, and Easy-HLA to infer HLA 5-gene haplotypes, we conducted a high-throughput HLA-centric association study of asthma susceptibility and total serum IgE (tIgE) levels in subjects with and without asthma. RESULTS: Among the 1607 individuals with asthma, 972 had available tIgE levels, with a mean tIgE level of 198.7 IU/mL. We could not identify any association with asthma susceptibility. However, we showed that HLA-DRB1∗09:01 was associated with increased tIgE levels (P = 8.5 × 10-4; weighted effect size, 0.51 [0.15-0.87]). CONCLUSIONS: We identified for the first time an HLA allele associated with tIgE levels in African-ancestry individuals with asthma. Our report emphasizes that by leveraging powerful computational machine-learning methods, specific/extreme phenotypes, and population diversity, we can explore HLA gene polymorphisms in depth and reveal the full extent of complex disease associations.

18.
Chest ; 157(2): 258-267, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative enlargement of the pulmonary artery (PA) on chest CT imaging is associated with respiratory exacerbations in patients with COPD or cystic fibrosis. We sought to determine whether similar findings were present in patients with asthma and whether these findings were explained by differences in ventricular size. METHODS: We measured the PA and aorta diameters in 233 individuals from the Severe Asthma Research Program III cohort. We also estimated right, left, and total epicardial cardiac ventricular volume indices (eERVVI, eELVVI, and eETVVI, respectively). Associations between the cardiac and PA measures (PA-to-aorta [PA/A] ratio, eERVVI-to-eELVVI [eRV/eLV] ratio, eERVVI, eELVVI, eETVVI) and clinical measures of asthma severity were assessed by Pearson correlation, and associations with asthma severity and exacerbation rate were evaluated by multivariable linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression. RESULTS: Asthma severity was associated with smaller ventricular volumes. For example, those with severe asthma had 36.1 mL/m2 smaller eETVVI than healthy control subjects (P = .003) and 14.1 mL/m2 smaller eETVVI than those with mild/moderate disease (P = .011). Smaller ventricular volumes were also associated with a higher rate of asthma exacerbations, both retrospectively and prospectively. For example, those with an eETVVI less than the median had a 57% higher rate of exacerbations during follow-up than those with eETVVI greater than the median (P = .020). Neither PA/A nor eRV/eLV was associated with asthma severity or exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with asthma, smaller cardiac ventricular size may be associated with more severe disease and a higher rate of asthma exacerbations. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01761630; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 140-146.e9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality associated with childhood asthma are driven disproportionately by children with severe asthma. However, it is not known from longitudinal studies whether children outgrow severe asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study prospectively whether well-characterized children with severe asthma outgrow their asthma during adolescence. METHODS: Children with asthma were assessed at baseline with detailed questionnaires, allergy tests, and lung function tests and were reassessed annually for 3 years. The population was enriched for children with severe asthma, as assessed by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines, and subject classification was reassessed annually. RESULTS: At baseline, 111 (59%) children had severe asthma. Year to year, there was a decrease in the proportion meeting the criteria for severe asthma. After 3 years, only 30% of subjects met the criteria for severe asthma (P < .001 compared with enrollment). Subjects experienced improvements in most indices of severity, including symptom scores, exacerbations, and controller medication requirements, but not lung function. Surprisingly, boys and girls were equally likely to has resolved asthma (33% vs 29%). The odds ratio in favor of resolution of severe asthma was 2.75 (95% CI, 1.02-7.43) for those with a peripheral eosinophil count of greater than 436 cells/µL. CONCLUSIONS: In longitudinal analysis of this well-characterized cohort, half of the children with severe asthma no longer had severe asthma after 3 years; there was a stepwise decrease in the proportion meeting severe asthma criteria. Surprisingly, asthma severity decreased equally in male and female subjects. Peripheral eosinophilia predicted resolution. These data will be important for planning clinical trials in this population.

20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 540-554, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661293

RESUMO

Rationale: The role of PI (protease inhibitor) type Z heterozygotes and additional rare variant genotypes in the gene encoding alpha-1 antitrypsin, SERPINA1 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 1), in determining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and severity is controversial.Objectives: To comprehensively evaluate the effects of rare SERPINA1 variants on lung function and emphysema phenotypes in subjects with significant tobacco smoke exposure using deep gene resequencing and alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations.Methods: DNA samples from 1,693 non-Hispanic white individuals, 385 African Americans, and 90 Hispanics with ≥20 pack-years smoking were resequenced for the identification of rare variants (allele frequency < 0.05) in 16.9 kB of SERPINA1.Measurements and Main Results: White PI Z heterozygotes confirmed by sequencing (MZ; n = 74) had lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 (P = 0.007), FEV1/FVC (P = 0.003), and greater computed tomography-based emphysema (P = 0.02) compared with 1,411 white individuals without PI Z, S, or additional rare variants denoted as VR. PI Z-containing compound heterozygotes (ZS/ZVR; n = 7) had lower FEV1/FVC (P = 0.02) and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase (P = 0.009). Nineteen white heterozygotes for five non-S/Z coding variants associated with lower alpha-1 antitrypsin had greater computed tomography-based emphysema compared with those without rare variants. In African Americans, a 5' untranslated region insertion (rs568223361) was associated with lower alpha-1 antitrypsin and functional small airway disease (P = 0.007).Conclusions: In this integrative deep sequencing study of SERPINA1 with alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations in a heavy smoker and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cohort, we confirmed the effects of PI Z heterozygote and compound heterozygote genotypes. We demonstrate the cumulative effects of multiple SERPINA1 variants on alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, lung function, and emphysema, thus significantly increasing the frequency of SERPINA1 variation associated with respiratory disease in at-risk smokers.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/epidemiologia , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Focalização Isoelétrica , Masculino , Fluxo Máximo Médio Expiratório , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Capacidade Vital , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo
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