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1.
Med Gas Res ; 12(1): 10-17, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472497

RESUMO

General anesthesia and surgery are associated with an increase in neural injury biomarkers. Elevations of these neural injury biomarkers in the perioperative period are associated with postoperative delirium. Xenon has been shown to be protective against a range of neurological insults in animal models. It remains to be seen if xenon anesthesia is neuroprotective in the perioperative setting in humans. Twenty-four participants scheduled for lithotripsy were randomized to receive either xenon or sevoflurane general anesthesia. There was no statistically significant difference in the concentrations of postoperative neural injury biomarkers between the xenon and sevoflurane group. Following the procedure there was a significant increase in the concentration from baseline of all three biomarkers at 1 hour post-induction with a return to baseline at 5 hours. General anesthesia for lithotripsy was associated with a significant increase at 1 hour post-induction in the neural injury biomarkers total tau, neurofilament light and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, a marker of tau phosphorylation. The protocol was approved by the St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne Ethics Committee (approval No. HREC/18/SVHM/221) on July 20, 2018 and was registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (registration No. ACTRN12618000916246) on May 31, 2018.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20375, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645914

RESUMO

To explore markers for synaptic function and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in late life depression (LLD), predementia AD and normal controls (NC). A cross-sectional study to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurogranin (Ng), Beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1), Ng/BACE1 ratio and Amyloid-ß 42/40 ratio, phosphorylated-tau and total-tau in LLD with (LLD AD) or without (LLD NoAD) AD pathology, predementia AD and normal controls (NC). We included 145 participants (NC = 41; predementia AD = 66 and LLD = 38). LLD comprised LLD AD (n = 16), LLD NoAD (n = 19), LLD with non-AD typical changes (n = 3, excluded). LLD AD (pADJ < 0.05) and predementia AD (pADJ < 0.0001) showed significantly higher Ng than NC. BACE1 and Ng/BACE1 ratio were altered similarly. Compared to LLD NoAD, LLD AD showed significantly higher Ng (pADJ < 0.001), BACE1 (pADJ < 0.05) and Ng/BACE1 ratio (pADJ < 0.01). All groups had significantly lower Aß 42/40 ratio than NC (predementia AD and LLD AD, p < 0.0001; LLD NoAD, p < 0.05). Both LLD groups performed similarly on tests of memory and executive function, but significantly poorer than NC. Synaptic function in LLD depended on AD pathology. LLD showed an association to Amyloid dysmetabolism. The LLD groups performed poorer cognitively than NC. LLD AD may be conceptualized as "predementia AD with depression".

4.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 169, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635138

RESUMO

We envisage the development of new Brain Health Services to achieve primary and secondary dementia prevention. These services will complement existing memory clinics by targeting cognitively unimpaired individuals, where the focus is on risk profiling and personalized risk reduction interventions rather than diagnosing and treating late-stage disease. In this article, we review key potentially modifiable risk factors and genetic risk factors and discuss assessment of risk factors as well as additional fluid and imaging biomarkers that may enhance risk profiling. We then outline multidomain measures and risk profiling and provide practical guidelines for Brain Health Services, with consideration of outstanding uncertainties and challenges. Users of Brain Health Services should undergo risk profiling tailored to their age, level of risk, and availability of local resources. Initial risk assessment should incorporate a multidomain risk profiling measure. For users aged 39-64, we recommend the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE) Dementia Risk Score, whereas for users aged 65 and older, we recommend the Brief Dementia Screening Indicator (BDSI) and the Australian National University Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index (ANU-ADRI). The initial assessment should also include potentially modifiable risk factors including sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors. If resources allow, apolipoprotein E ɛ4 status testing and structural magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted. If this initial assessment indicates a low dementia risk, then low intensity interventions can be implemented. If the user has a high dementia risk, additional investigations should be considered if local resources allow. Common variant polygenic risk of late-onset AD can be tested in middle-aged or older adults. Rare variants should only be investigated in users with a family history of early-onset dementia in a first degree relative. Advanced imaging with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) or amyloid PET may be informative in high risk users to clarify the nature and burden of their underlying pathologies. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are not recommended for this setting, and blood-based biomarkers need further validation before clinical use. As new technologies become available, advances in artificial intelligence are likely to improve our ability to combine diverse data to further enhance risk profiling. Ultimately, Brain Health Services have the potential to reduce the future burden of dementia through risk profiling, risk communication, personalized risk reduction, and cognitive enhancement interventions.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632537

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate potential interactions between dietary patterns and genetic factors modulating risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in relation to incident dementia. METHODS: Data were derived from the population-based Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies in Sweden, including 602 dementia-free 70-year-olds (examined 1992-93, or 2000-02; 64% women) followed for incident dementia until 2016. Two factors from a reduced rank regression analysis were translated into dietary patterns, one healthy (e.g., vegetables, fruit, and fish) and one western (e.g., red meat, refined cereals, and full-fat dairy products). Genetic risk was determined by APOE ε4 status and non-APOE AD-polygenic risk scores (AD-PRSs). Gene-diet interactions in relation to incident dementia were analysed with Cox regression models. The interaction p value threshold was < 0.1. RESULTS: There were interactions between the dietary patterns and APOE ε4 status in relation to incident dementia (interaction p value threshold of < 0.1), while no evidence of interactions were found between the dietary patterns and the AD-PRSs. Those with higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern had a reduced risk of dementia among ε4 non-carriers (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61; 0.98), but not among ε4 carriers (HR: 0.86; CI: 0.63; 1.18). Those with a higher adherence to the western dietary pattern had an increased risk of dementia among ε4 carriers (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05; 1.78), while no association was observed among ε4 non-carriers (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.81; 1.21). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that there is an interplay between dietary patterns and APOE ε4 status in relation to incident dementia.

6.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 13(1): e12242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692980

RESUMO

Introduction: Blood-based assays to measure brain amyloid beta (Aß) deposition are an attractive alternative to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based assays currently used in clinical settings. In this study, we examined different blood-based assays to measure Aß and how they compare among centers and assays. Methods: Aliquots from 81 plasma samples were distributed to 10 participating centers. Seven immunological assays and four mass-spectrometric methods were used to measure plasma Aß concentrations. Results: Correlations were weak for Aß42 while Aß40 correlations were stronger. The ratio Aß42/Aß40 did not improve the correlations and showed weak correlations. Discussion: The poor correlations for Aß42 in plasma might have several potential explanations, such as the high levels of plasma proteins (compared to CSF), sensitivity to pre-analytical sample handling and specificity, and cross-reactivity of different antibodies. Different methods might also measure different pools of plasma Aß42. We, however, hypothesize that greater correlations might be seen in future studies because many of the methods have been refined during completion of this study.

8.
JAMA Neurol ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661615

RESUMO

Importance: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a marker of reactive astrogliosis that increases in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). However, it is not known whether there are differences in blood GFAP levels across the entire AD continuum and whether its performance is similar to that of CSF GFAP. Objective: To evaluate plasma GFAP levels throughout the entire AD continuum, from preclinical AD to AD dementia, compared with CSF GFAP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational, cross-sectional study collected data from July 29, 2014, to January 31, 2020, from 3 centers. The Translational Biomarkers in Aging and Dementia (TRIAD) cohort (Montreal, Canada) included individuals in the entire AD continuum. Results were confirmed in the Alzheimer's and Families (ALFA+) study (Barcelona, Spain), which included individuals with preclinical AD, and the BioCogBank Paris Lariboisière cohort (Paris, France), which included individuals with symptomatic AD. Main Outcomes and Measures: Plasma and CSF GFAP levels measured with a Simoa assay were the main outcome. Other measurements included levels of CSF amyloid-ß 42/40 (Aß42/40), phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau181), neurofilament light (NfL), Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL40), and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) and levels of plasma p-tau181 and NfL. Results of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) were available in TRIAD and ALFA+, and results of tau PET were available in TRIAD. Results: A total of 300 TRIAD participants (177 women [59.0%]; mean [SD] age, 64.6 [17.6] years), 384 ALFA+ participants (234 women [60.9%]; mean [SD] age, 61.1 [4.7] years), and 187 BioCogBank Paris Lariboisière participants (116 women [62.0%]; mean [SD] age, 69.9 [9.2] years) were included. Plasma GFAP levels were significantly higher in individuals with preclinical AD in comparison with cognitively unimpaired (CU) Aß-negative individuals (TRIAD: Aß-negative mean [SD], 185.1 [93.5] pg/mL, Aß-positive mean [SD], 285.0 [142.6] pg/mL; ALFA+: Aß-negative mean [SD], 121.9 [42.4] pg/mL, Aß-positive mean [SD], 169.9 [78.5] pg/mL). Plasma GFAP levels were also higher among individuals in symptomatic stages of the AD continuum (TRIAD: CU Aß-positive mean [SD], 285.0 [142.6] pg/mL, mild cognitive impairment [MCI] Aß-positive mean [SD], 332.5 [153.6] pg/mL; AD mean [SD], 388.1 [152.8] pg/mL vs CU Aß-negative mean [SD], 185.1 [93.5] pg/mL; Paris: MCI Aß-positive, mean [SD], 368.6 [158.5] pg/mL; AD dementia, mean [SD], 376.4 [179.6] pg/mL vs CU Aß-negative mean [SD], 161.2 [67.1] pg/mL). Plasma GFAP magnitude changes were consistently higher than those of CSF GFAP. Plasma GFAP more accurately discriminated Aß-positive from Aß-negative individuals than CSF GFAP (area under the curve for plasma GFAP, 0.69-0.86; area under the curve for CSF GFAP, 0.59-0.76). Moreover, plasma GFAP levels were positively associated with tau pathology only among individuals with concomitant Aß pathology. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that plasma GFAP is a sensitive biomarker for detecting and tracking reactive astrogliosis and Aß pathology even among individuals in the early stages of AD.

9.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 151, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer's disease, amyloid- ß (A ß) peptides aggregate in the lowering CSF amyloid levels - a key pathological hallmark of the disease. However, lowered CSF amyloid levels may also be present in cognitively unimpaired elderly individuals. Therefore, it is of great value to explain the variance in disease progression among patients with A ß pathology. METHODS: A cohort of n=2293 participants, of whom n=749 were A ß positive, was selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to study heterogeneity in disease progression for individuals with A ß pathology. The analysis used baseline clinical variables including demographics, genetic markers, and neuropsychological data to predict how the cognitive ability and AD diagnosis of subjects progressed using statistical models and machine learning. Due to the relatively low prevalence of A ß pathology, models fit only to A ß-positive subjects were compared to models fit to an extended cohort including subjects without established A ß pathology, adjusting for covariate differences between the cohorts. RESULTS: A ß pathology status was determined based on the A ß42/A ß40 ratio. The best predictive model of change in cognitive test scores for A ß-positive subjects at the 2-year follow-up achieved an R2 score of 0.388 while the best model predicting adverse changes in diagnosis achieved a weighted F1 score of 0.791. A ß-positive subjects declined faster on average than those without A ß pathology, but the specific level of CSF A ß was not predictive of progression rate. When predicting cognitive score change 4 years after baseline, the best model achieved an R2 score of 0.325 and it was found that fitting models to the extended cohort improved performance. Moreover, using all clinical variables outperformed the best model based only on a suite of cognitive test scores which achieved an R2 score of 0.228. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that CSF levels of A ß are not strong predictors of the rate of cognitive decline in A ß-positive subjects when adjusting for other variables. Baseline assessments of cognitive function accounts for the majority of variance explained in the prediction of 2-year decline but is insufficient for achieving optimal results in longer-term predictions. Predicting changes both in cognitive test scores and in diagnosis provides multiple perspectives of the progression of potential AD subjects.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Biomarcadores , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Proteínas tau
10.
Neurology ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CSF synaptic biomarkers are altered in the early preclinical stage of the Alzheimer's continuum and associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors, primary pathology, and neurodegeneration markers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in the ALFA+ cohort, comprising middle-aged cognitively unimpaired participants. CSF neurogranin and GAP-43 were measured using immunoassays and SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin-1 using immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry. AD CSF biomarkers Aß42/40, p-tau and t-tau, and the neurodegeneration biomarker NfL were also measured. Participants underwent structural MRI, and fluorodeoxyglucose and Aß PET imaging. General linear modeling was used to test the associations between CSF synaptic biomarkers and risk factors, Aß pathology, tau pathology, and neurodegeneration markers. RESULTS: All CSF synaptic biomarkers increased with age. CSF neurogranin was higher in females, while CSF SNAP-25 was higher in APOE-ε4 carriers. All CSF synaptic biomarkers increased with higher Aß load (as measured by CSF Aß42/40 and Aß PET Centiloid values) and, importantly, the synaptic biomarkers were increased even in individuals in the earliest stages of Aß deposition. Higher CSF synaptic biomarkers were also associated with higher CSF p-tau and NfL. Higher CSF neurogranin and GAP-43 were significantly associated with higher brain metabolism, but lower cortical thickness in AD-related brain regions. CONCLUSION: CSF synaptic biomarkers increase in early preclinical stages of the Alzheimer's continuum even when a low burden of Aß pathology is present, and they differ in their association with age, sex, APOE-ε4, and markers of neurodegeneration.

11.
J Neurochem ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478561

RESUMO

Kappa free light chain (KFLC) index, a measure for intrathecal production of free kappa chains, has been increasingly recognized for its diagnostic potential in multiple sclerosis (MS) as a quantitative alternative to IgG oligoclonal bands (OCBs). Our objective was to investigate the sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy of KFLC index in MS. KFLC index was prospectively determined as part of the diagnostic workup in patients with suspected MS (n = 327) between May 2013 and February 2020. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS), and MS had markedly higher KFLC index (44.6, IQR 16-128) compared with subjects with other neuro-inflammatory disorders (ONID) and symptomatic controls (SC) (2.19, IQR 1.68-2.98, p < 0.001). KFLC index had a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.95) and specificity of 0.87 (95% CI 0.8-0.92) to discriminate CIS/RIS/MS from ONID and SC (AUC 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.97, p < 0.001). KFLC index and intrathecal fraction (IF) KFLC had similar accuracies to detect MS. Treatment with disease-modifying therapy (DMT) did not influence the level of KFLC index and it was not affected by demographic factors or associated with degenerative or inflammatory biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). KFLC index in MS diagnostics has methodological advantages compared to OCB and is independent to subjective interpretation. Moreover, it is an attractive diagnostic tool since the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of KFLC index are similar with that of OCBs and KFLCIF and better than for IgG index. We show that KFLC index was influenced neither by DMT nor by demographic factors or other inflammatory or degenerative processes in MS as determined by biomarkers in CSF.

12.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study involved a parallel comparison of the diagnostic and longitudinal monitoring potential of plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau181 and p-tau231), and neurofilament light (NFL) in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Plasma proteins were measured using Simoa assays in cognitively unimpaired older adults (CU), with either absence (Aß-) or presence (Aß+) of brain amyloidosis. RESULTS: Plasma GFAP, t-tau, p-tau181, and p-tau231 concentrations were higher in Aß+ CU compared with Aß- CU cross-sectionally. GFAP had the highest effect size and area under the curve (AUC) in differentiating between Aß+ and Aß- CU; however, no statistically significant differences were observed between the AUCs of GFAP, p-tau181, and p-tau231, but all were significantly higher than the AUC of NFL, and the AUC of GFAP was higher than the AUC of t-tau. The combination of a base model (BM), comprising the AD risk factors, age, sex, and apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) ε4 status with GFAP was observed to have a higher AUC (>90%) compared with the combination of BM with any of the other proteins investigated in the current study. Longitudinal analyses showed increased GFAP and p-tau181 in Aß+ CU and increased NFL in Aß- CU, over a 12-month duration. GFAP, p-tau181, p-tau231, and NFL showed significant correlations with cognition, whereas no significant correlations were observed with hippocampal volume. DISCUSSION: These findings highlight the diagnostic and longitudinal monitoring potential of GFAP and p-tau for preclinical AD.

13.
JAMA Neurol ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542571

RESUMO

Importance: Blood-based tests for brain amyloid-ß (Aß) pathology are needed for widespread implementation of Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers in clinical care and to facilitate patient screening and monitoring of treatment responses in clinical trials. Objective: To compare the performance of plasma Aß42/40 measured using 8 different Aß assays when detecting abnormal brain Aß status in patients with early AD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study included 182 cognitively unimpaired participants and 104 patients with mild cognitive impairment from the BioFINDER cohort who were enrolled at 3 different hospitals in Sweden and underwent Aß positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma collection from 2010 to 2014. Plasma Aß42/40 was measured using an immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry developed at Washington University (IP-MS-WashU), antibody-free liquid chromatography MS developed by Araclon (LC-MS-Arc), and immunoassays from Roche Diagnostics (IA-Elc); Euroimmun (IA-EI); and Amsterdam University Medical Center, ADx Neurosciences, and Quanterix (IA-N4PE). Plasma Aß42/40 was also measured using an IP-MS-based method from Shimadzu in 200 participants (IP-MS-Shim) and an IP-MS-based method from the University of Gothenburg (IP-MS-UGOT) and another immunoassay from Quanterix (IA-Quan) among 227 participants. For validation, 122 participants (51 cognitively normal, 51 with mild cognitive impairment, and 20 with AD dementia) were included from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative who underwent Aß-PET and plasma Aß assessments using IP-MS-WashU, IP-MS-Shim, IP-MS-UGOT, IA-Elc, IA-N4PE, and IA-Quan assays. Main Outcomes and Measures: Discriminative accuracy of plasma Aß42/40 quantified using 8 different assays for abnormal CSF Aß42/40 and Aß-PET status. Results: A total of 408 participants were included in this study. In the BioFINDER cohort, the mean (SD) age was 71.6 (5.6) years and 49.3% of the cohort were women. When identifying participants with abnormal CSF Aß42/40 in the whole cohort, plasma IP-MS-WashU Aß42/40 showed significantly higher accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.90) than LC-MS-Arc Aß42/40, IA-Elc Aß42/40, IA-EI Aß42/40, and IA-N4PE Aß42/40 (AUC range, 0.69-0.78; P < .05). Plasma IP-MS-WashU Aß42/40 performed significantly better than IP-MS-UGOT Aß42/40 and IA-Quan Aß42/40 (AUC, 0.84 vs 0.68 and 0.64, respectively; P < .001), while there was no difference in the AUCs between IP-MS-WashU Aß42/40 and IP-MS-Shim Aß42/40 (0.87 vs 0.83; P = .16) in the 2 subcohorts where these biomarkers were available. The results were similar when using Aß-PET as outcome. Plasma IPMS-WashU Aß42/40 and IPMS-Shim Aß42/40 showed highest coefficients for correlations with CSF Aß42/40 (r range, 0.56-0.65). The BioFINDER results were replicated in the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort (mean [SD] age, 72.4 [5.4] years; 43.4% women), where the IP-MS-WashU assay performed significantly better than the IP-MS-UGOT, IA-Elc, IA-N4PE, and IA-Quan assays but not the IP-MS-Shim assay. Conclusions and Relevance: The results from 2 independent cohorts indicate that certain MS-based methods performed better than most of the immunoassays for plasma Aß42/40 when detecting brain Aß pathology.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive performance of a given individual should be interpreted in the context of reference standards obtained in cognitively healthy populations. Recent evidence has shown that removing asymptomatic individuals with biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology from normative samples increases the sensitivity of norms to detect memory impairments. These kind of norms may be useful for defining subtle cognitive decline, the transitional cognitive decline between normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to provide norms for the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) and the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV in a sample of individuals aged 50-70 years with normal levels of amyloid (A) and tau (T) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. METHODS: The sample was composed of 248 individuals from the ALFA+ study with negative amyloid-ß and tau CSF biomarker levels. Regression-based norms were developed, including adjustments for age, education, and sex when applicable. RESULTS: We found that education was associated with the performance in all the variables of both tests while age had a marginal effect only in the delayed free recall of the FCSRT. Sex was also related to the performance in the FCSRT, with women outperforming men. Equations to calculate z-scores and normative percentile tables were created. As compared with previously published norms the reference data presented were more sensitive but less specific, as expected. CONCLUSION: The use of the norms provided in this work, in combination with the already published conventional norms, may contribute to detecting subtle memory impairment.

15.
Mol Cell Neurosci ; 116: 103670, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562592

RESUMO

Sulfatide (3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide, SM4) is a glycosphingolipid, highly multifunctional and particularly enriched in the myelin sheath of neurons. The role of sulfatide has been implicated in various biological fields such as the nervous system, immune system, host-pathogen recognition and infection, beta cell function and haemostasis/thrombosis. Thus, alterations in sulfatide metabolism and production are associated with several human diseases such as neurological and immunological disorders and cancers. The unique lipid-rich composition of myelin reflects the importance of lipids in this specific membrane structure. Sulfatide has been shown to be involved in the regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation and in the maintenance of the myelin sheath by influencing membrane dynamics involving sorting and lateral assembly of myelin proteins as well as ion channels. Sulfatide is furthermore essential for proper formation of the axo-glial junctions at the paranode together with axonal glycosphingolipids. Alterations in sulfatide metabolism are suggested to contribute to myelin deterioration as well as synaptic dysfunction, neurological decline and inflammation observed in different conditions associated with myelin pathology (mouse models and human disorders). Body fluid biomarkers are of importance for clinical diagnostics as well as for patient stratification in clinical trials and treatment monitoring. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is commonly used as an indirect measure of brain metabolism and analysis of CSF sulfatide might provide information regarding whether the lipid disruption observed in neurodegenerative disorders is reflected in this body fluid. In this review, we evaluate the diagnostic utility of CSF sulfatide as a biomarker for neurodegenerative disorders associated with dysmyelination/demyelination by summarising the current literature on this topic. We can conclude that neither CSF sulfatide levels nor individual sulfatide species consistently reflect the lipid disruption observed in many of the demyelinating disorders. One exception is the lysosomal storage disorder metachromatic leukodystrophy, possibly due to the genetically determined accumulation of non-metabolised sulfatide. We also discuss possible explanations as to why myelin pathology in brain tissue is poorly reflected by the CSF sulfatide concentration. The previous suggestion that CSF sulfatide is a marker of myelin damage has thereby been challenged by more recent studies using more sophisticated laboratory techniques for sulfatide analysis as well as improved sample selection criteria due to increased knowledge on disease pathology.

16.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 161, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in circadian rhythms are present in the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly contributing to its pathogenesis. However, it is unknown whether such alterations are associated with worse outcomes once individuals are diagnosed with symptomatic disease. We aimed to evaluate the association between the circadian rest-activity pattern and AD-related features in patients with mild-moderate AD. METHODS: We assessed the circadian rest-activity pattern of consecutive patients with mild-moderate AD through actigraphy for 14 days. Cerebrospinal fluid was obtained to determine the levels of important pathological markers including amyloid-beta protein (Aß42), phosphorylated tau (P-tau), total tau (T-tau), and neurofilament light (NF-L). Neuropsychological evaluation was conducted at the beginning of the study and after 12 months of follow-up. Linear regression models were performed considering the global population and Aß42+ patients only. RESULTS: The cohort included 100 patients with mild-moderate AD. The median age [p25;p75] was 76.0 [73.0;80.0] years and 63.0% were female. Older age (effect size [SE] of 0.324 [0.096]; p = 0.001) and male sex (0.780 [0.193]; p = 0.001) were associated with increased fragmentation and decreased synchronization of the rhythm, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and season of the year, increased levels of T-tau (effect size [95% CI] of 0.343 [0.139 to 0.547]; p = 0.001) and NF-L (0.444 [0.212 to 0.676]; p = 0.001) were associated with a higher amplitude of the rest-activity rhythm. Increased fragmentation of the rhythm at baseline was associated with greater cognitive decline after one year of follow-up independent of age, sex, T-tau/Aß42 ratio, educational level, and season of the year (- 0.715 [- 1.272 to - 0.157]; p = 0.013). Similar findings were obtained considering only the Aß42+ patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a potential role of the circadian rest-activity pattern in predicting the cognitive decline of patients with mild-moderate AD. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to elucidate whether there is causality among the observed associations.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Proteínas tau
17.
J Neurochem ; 159(2): 258-272, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473357

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory dysfunction and cognitive decline. Pathological aging (PA) describes patients who are amyloid-positive but cognitively unimpaired at time of death. Both AD and PA contain amyloid plaques dominated by amyloid ß (Aß) peptides. In this study, we investigated and compared synaptic protein levels, amyloid plaque load, and Aß peptide patterns between AD and PA. Two cohorts of post-mortem brain tissue were investigated. In the first, consisting of controls, PA, AD, and familial AD (FAD) individuals, synaptic proteins extracted with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered saline (TBS) were analyzed. In the second, consisting of tissue from AD and PA patients from three different regions (occipital lobe, frontal lobe, and cerebellum), a two-step extraction was performed. Five synaptic proteins were extracted using TBS, and from the remaining portion Aß peptides were extracted using formic acid. Subsequently, immunoprecipitation with several antibodies targeting different proteins/peptides was performed for both fractions, which were subsequently analyzed by mass spectrometry. The levels of synaptic proteins were lower in AD (and FAD) compared with PA (and controls), confirming synaptic loss in AD patients. The amyloid plaque load was increased in AD compared with PA, and the relative amount of Aß40 was higher in AD while for Aß42 it was higher in PA. In AD loss of synaptic function was associated with increased plaque load and increased amounts of Aß40 compared with PA cases, suggesting that synaptic function is preserved in PA cases even in the presence of Aß.

18.
Environ Int ; 157: 106864, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air quality contributes to incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) although the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are unclear. This study was aimed to examine the association between air pollution and concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers and amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition. Participants and methods The sample included 156 cognitively unimpaired adults aged 57 years (61 at biomarkers assessment) with increased risk of AD from the ALFA + Study. We examined CSF levels of Aß42, Aß40, p-Tau, t-Tau, neurofilament light (NfL) and cerebral amyloid load (Centiloid). A Land Use Regression model from 2009 was used to estimate residential exposure to air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2,) and particulate matter (PM2.5, PM2.5 abs, PM10). This model was considered a surrogate of long-term exposure until time of data collection in 2013-2014. Participants have resided in the same residence for at least the previous 3 years. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate associations between air pollutants and biomarkers. The effect modification by CSF Aß status and APOE-ε4 carriership was also assessed. RESULTS: A consistent pattern of results indicated that greater exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance was associated with higher levels of brain Aß deposition, while greater exposure to PM10 and PM2.5was associated with higher levels of CSF NfL. Most associations were driven by individuals that were Aß-positive. Although APOE-ε4 status did not significantly modify these associations, the effect of air pollutants exposure on CSF NfL levels was stronger in APOE-ε4 carriers. CONCLUSION: In a population of cognitively unimpaired adults with increased risk of AD, long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with higher levels in biomarkers of AD pathology. While further research is granted to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such associations, our results reinforce the role of air pollution as an environmental risk factor for AD.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença de Alzheimer , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Proteínas tau
19.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1276-1282, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493870

RESUMO

Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is a prevalent age-related polygenic disease that accounts for 50-70% of dementia cases. Currently, only a fraction of the genetic variants underlying Alzheimer's disease have been identified. Here we show that increased sample sizes allowed identification of seven previously unidentified genetic loci contributing to Alzheimer's disease. This study highlights microglia, immune cells and protein catabolism as relevant to late-onset Alzheimer's disease, while identifying and prioritizing previously unidentified genes of potential interest. We anticipate that these results can be included in larger meta-analyses of Alzheimer's disease to identify further genetic variants that contribute to Alzheimer's pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Microglia/citologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Tamanho da Amostra
20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(11): 1231-1241, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510001

RESUMO

Discovery and development of clinically useful biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias have been the focus of recent research efforts. While cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography or MRI-based neuroimaging markers have made the in vivo detection of AD pathology and its consequences possible, the high cost and invasiveness have limited their widespread use in the clinical setting. On the other hand, advances in potentially more accessible blood-based biomarkers had been impeded by lack of sensitivity in detecting changes in markers of the hallmarks of AD, including amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides and phosphorylated tau (P-tau). More recently, however, emerging technologies with superior sensitivity and specificity for measuring Aß and P-tau have reported high concordances with AD severity. In this focused review, we describe several emerging technologies, including immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry (IP-MS), single molecule array and Meso Scale Discovery immunoassay platforms, and appraise the current literature arising from their use to identify plaques, tangles and other AD-associated pathology. While there is potential clinical utility in adopting these technologies, we also highlight the further studies needed to establish Aß and P-tau as blood-based biomarkers for AD, including validation with existing large sample sets, new independent cohorts from diverse backgrounds as well as population-based longitudinal studies. In conclusion, the availability of sensitive and reliable measurements of Aß peptides and P-tau species in blood holds promise for the diagnosis, prognosis and outcome assessments in clinical trials for AD.

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