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1.
Food Microbiol ; 94: 103650, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279075

RESUMO

The positive impact of certain non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the aromatic profile of wines has been well documented in literature and their industrial use in association with S. cerevisiae is now recommended. Competition between non-Saccharomyces species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for various nutrients, especially nitrogen sources, greatly impacts the production of aroma compounds. In this study, we further explored the impact of different nitrogen nutrition strategies on the production of carbon and sulphur volatile compounds of three non-Saccharomyces strains, namely Pichia burtonii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Zygoascus meyerae sequentially inoculated with S. cerevisiae in Sauvignon blanc and Shiraz grape musts. Nitrogen additions were implemented according the specific requirement of each species. At the end of fermentation, we observed specific metabolic signatures for each strain in response to the nature of the nitrogen source suggesting strain-specific metabolic fluxes present. Overall, these results confirmed and further explored the interconnection between nitrogen sources and aroma metabolism (including that of higher alcohols, fatty acids, esters and volatile sulphur compounds), and their variations according to species and the nature of the nitrogen source. The knowledge generated provides new insights to modulate the aroma profile of wines produced with non-Saccharomyces species.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355112

RESUMO

Nitrogen is among the essential nutriments that govern interactions between yeast species in the wine environment. A thorough knowledge of how these yeasts assimilate the nitrogen compounds of grape juice is an important prerequisite for a successful co- or sequential fermentation. In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of 18 nitrogen sources for sustaining the growth and fermentation of two Starm. bacillaris strains displaying metabolic properties, compared to the reference yeast S. cerevisiae The analysis of growth and fermentation parameters provided a comprehensive picture of Starm. bacillaris preferences with respect to nitrogen sources for sustained growth and fermentation. Important differences were observed in S. cerevisiae regarding rates, final population and CO2 production. In particular, Lys and His supported substantial Starm. bacillaris growth and fermentation contrary to S. cerevisiae, while only 3 nitrogen sources, Arg, NH4+ and Ser, promoted S. cerevisiae growth more efficiently than that of Starm. bacillaris strains. Furthermore, Starm. bacillaris strains displayed a higher fermentative activity than S. cerevisiae during the first phase of culture with Gly or Thr, when the former species consumed solely fructose. Finally, no correlation has been shown between the ability of nitrogen sources to support growth and their fermentation efficiency. The specificities of Starm. bacillaris regarding nitrogen sources preferences are related to its genetic background, but further investigations are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. These data are essential elements to be taken into account in order to make the best use of the potential of the two species.IMPORTANCE Mixed fermentations combining non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae strains are increasingly implemented in the wine sector as they offer promising opportunities to diversify the flavour profile of end-products. However, competition for nutrients between species can cause fermentation problems, which is a severe hindrance to the development of these approaches. With the knowledge provided in this study on the nitrogen preferences of Starm. bacillaris, winemakers will be able to set up a nitrogen nutrition scheme adapted to the requirement of each species during mixed fermentation, through must supplementation with relevant nitrogen compounds. This will prevent nitrogen depletion or competition between yeasts for nitrogen sources, and consequently potential issues during fermentation. The data of this study highlight the importance of an appropriate nitrogen resource management during co- or sequential fermentation for fully exploiting the phenotypic potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts.

3.
Microorganisms ; 8(6)2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560056

RESUMO

Non-Saccharomyces yeast strains have become increasingly prevalent in the food industry, particularly in winemaking, because of their properties of interest both in biological control and in complexifying flavour profiles in end-products. However, unleashing the full potential of these species would require solid knowledge of their physiology and metabolism, which is, however, very limited to date. In this study, a quantitative analysis using 15N-labelled NH4Cl, arginine, and glutamine, and 13C-labelled leucine and valine revealed the specificities of the nitrogen metabolism pattern of two non-Saccharomyces species, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. In T. delbrueckii, consumed nitrogen sources were mainly directed towards the de novo synthesis of proteinogenic amino acids, at the expense of volatile compounds production. This redistribution pattern was in line with the high biomass-producer phenotype of this species. Conversely, in M. pulcherrima, which displayed weaker growth capacities, a larger proportion of consumed amino acids was catabolised for the production of higher alcohols through the Ehrlich pathway. Overall, this comprehensive overview of nitrogen redistribution in T. delbrueckii and M. pulcherrima provides valuable information for a better management of co- or sequential fermentation combining these species with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 316: 108441, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778839

RESUMO

Even though non-Saccharomyces yeasts were regarded as spoilage microorganisms for a long time, their abilities to improve and diversify the aromatic profile of wines are now well recognized. Consequently, their use in combination with S. cerevisiae strains during winemaking has attracted substantial attention over the last decade. However, our limited understanding of the metabolism and physiology of these species remains a barrier to promoting efficient exploitation of their full potential. In this study, we further explored the metabolism involved in the production of fermentative volatile compounds of two commercial non-Saccharomyces strains, T. delbrueckii Biodiva™ and M. pulcherrima Flavia®, in comparison with the reference wine yeast S. cerevisiae Lalvin EC1118®. After growing these strains in the presence of 24 different N-compounds, particular attention was paid to the influence of the nitrogen source on the profile of aroma compounds synthesized by these yeasts (higher alcohols and acids, medium-chain fatty acids and their acetate or ethyl esters derivatives). A comprehensive analysis of the dataset showed that these three species were able to produce all the fermentative aromas, regardless of the nitrogen source, demonstrating the key contribution of the central carbon metabolism to the formation of volatile molecules. Nevertheless, we also observed some specific phenotypic traits for each of the strains in their assimilation capacities for the various nitrogen nutrients as well as in their response to the nature of the nitrogen source in terms of the production of volatile molecules. These observations revealed the intricacy and interconnection between the networks involved in nitrogen consumption and aroma production. These differences are likely related to the genetic backgrounds of the strains. Overall, this study expands our understanding of the metabolic processes responsible for the formation of volatile compounds during wine fermentation and their variations according to species and the nature of the nitrogen source. This knowledge provides a new platform for the more efficient exploitation of non-Saccharomyces strains during winemaking, improving the management of the fermentation.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Odorantes , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Odorantes/análise , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia
5.
Environ Microbiol ; 21(11): 4076-4091, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336027

RESUMO

In grape must, nitrogen is available as a complex mixture of various compounds (ammonium and amino acids). Wine yeasts assimilate these multiple sources in order to suitably fulfil their anabolic requirements during alcoholic fermentation. Nevertheless, the order of uptake and the intracellular fate of these sources are likely to differ between strains and species. Using a two-pronged strategy of isotopic filiation and RNA sequencing, the metabolic network of nitrogen utilization and its regulation in Kluyveromyces marxianus were described, in comparison with those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The data highlighted differences in the assimilation of ammonium and arginine between the two species. The data also revealed that the metabolic fate of certain nitrogen sources differed, thereby resulting in the production of various amounts of key wine aroma compounds. These observations were corroborated by the gene expression analysis.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Kluyveromyces/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Kluyveromyces/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(16)2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858207

RESUMO

Over the last few years, the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to improve the sensory quality of wine has been well recognized. In particular, the use of Starmerella bacillaris in mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reported as an appropriate way to enhance glycerol formation and reduce ethanol production. However, during sequential fermentation, many factors, such as the inoculation timing, strain combination, and physical and biochemical interactions, can affect yeast growth, the fermentation process, and/or metabolite synthesis. Among them, the availability of yeast-assimilable nitrogen (YAN), due to its role in the control of growth and fermentation, has been identified as a key parameter. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic specificities and the nitrogen requirements would be valuable to better exploit the potential of Starm. bacillaris during wine fermentation. In this study, marked differences in the consumption of the total and individual nitrogen sources were registered between the two species, while the two Starm. bacillaris strains generally behaved uniformly. Starm. bacillaris strains are differentiated by their preferential uptake of ammonium compared with amino acids that are poorly assimilated or even produced (alanine). Otherwise, the non-Saccharomyces yeast exhibits low activity through the acetaldehyde pathway, which triggers an important redistribution of fluxes through the central carbon metabolic network. In particular, the formation of metabolites deriving from the two glycolytic intermediates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate is substantially increased during fermentations by Starm. bacillaris This knowledge will be useful to better control the fermentation process in mixed fermentation with Starm. bacillaris and S. cerevisiaeIMPORTANCE Mixed fermentations using a controlled inoculation of Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures represent a feasible way to modulate wine composition that takes advantage of both the phenotypic specificities of the non-Saccharomyces strain and the ability of S. cerevisiae to complete wine fermentation. However, according to the composition of grape juices, the consumption by Starm. bacillaris of nutrients, in particular of nitrogen sources, during the first stages of the process may result in depletions that further limit the growth of S. cerevisiae and lead to stuck or sluggish fermentations. Consequently, understanding the preferences of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for the nitrogen sources available in grape must together with their phenotypic specificities is essential for an efficient implementation of sequential wine fermentations with Starm. bacillaris and S. cerevisiae species. The results of our study demonstrate a clear preference for ammonium compared to amino acids for the non-Saccharomyces species. This finding underlines the importance of nitrogen sources, which modulate the functional characteristics of inoculated yeast strains to better control the fermentation process and product quality.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Fermentação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/análise
7.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 18(5)2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741618

RESUMO

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently the most important yeast involved in food fermentations, particularly in oenology. However, several other yeast species occur naturally in grape must that are highly promising for diversifying and improving the aromatic profile of wines. If the nitrogen requirement of S. cerevisiae has been described in detail, those of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain poorly studied despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. With a view to improving the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking, we explored the fermentation performances, the utilisation of nitrogen sources and the volatile compound production of 10 strains of non-conventional yeasts in pure culture. Two different conditions were tested: one mimicking the grape juice's nitrogen composition and one with all the nitrogen sources at the same level. We highlighted the diversity in terms of nitrogen preference and amount consumed among the yeast strains. Some nitrogen sources (arginine, glutamate, glycine, tryptophan and γ-aminobutyric acid) displayed the largest variations between strains throughout the fermentation. Several non-Saccharomyces strains produced important aroma compounds such as higher alcohols, acetate and ethyl esters in significantly higher quantities than S. cerevisiae.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Vinho/microbiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo , Acetatos/análise , Álcoois/análise , Ésteres/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
8.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 196, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487584

RESUMO

The sequential inoculation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice is becoming an increasingly popular practice to diversify wine styles and/or to obtain more complex wines with a peculiar microbial footprint. One of the main interactions is competition for nutrients, especially nitrogen sources, that directly impacts not only fermentation performance but also the production of aroma compounds. In order to better understand the interactions taking place between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and S. cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, sequential inoculations of three yeast species (Pichia burtonii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Zygoascus meyerae) with S. cerevisiae were performed individually in a synthetic medium. Different species-dependent interactions were evidenced. Indeed, the three sequential inoculations resulted in three different behaviors in terms of growth. P. burtonii and Z. meyerae declined after the inoculation of S. cerevisiae which promptly outcompeted the other two species. However, while the presence of P. burtonii did not impact the fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae, that of Z. meyerae rendered the overall kinetics very slow and with no clear exponential phase. K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae both declined and became undetectable before fermentation completion. The results also demonstrated that yeasts differed in their preference for nitrogen sources. Unlike Z. meyerae and P. burtonii, K. marxianus appeared to be a competitor for S. cerevisiae (as evidenced by the uptake of ammonium and amino acids), thereby explaining the resulting stuck fermentation. Nevertheless, the results suggested that competition for other nutrients (probably vitamins) occurred during the sequential inoculation of Z. meyerae with S. cerevisiae. The metabolic footprint of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts determined after 48 h of fermentation remained until the end of fermentation and combined with that of S. cerevisiae. For instance, fermentations performed with K. marxianus were characterized by the formation of phenylethanol and phenylethyl acetate, while those performed with P. burtonii or Z. meyerae displayed higher production of isoamyl alcohol and ethyl esters. When considering sequential inoculation of yeasts, the nutritional requirements of the yeasts used should be carefully considered and adjusted accordingly. Finally, our chemical data suggests that the organoleptic properties of the wine are altered in a species specific manner.

9.
J Vis Exp ; (131)2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443074

RESUMO

Studies in the field of microbiology rely on the implementation of a wide range of methodologies. In particular, the development of appropriate methods substantially contributes to providing extensive knowledge of the metabolism of microorganisms growing in chemically defined media containing unique nitrogen and carbon sources. In contrast, the management through metabolism of multiple nutrient sources, despite their broad presence in natural or industrial environments, remains virtually unexplored. This situation is mainly due to the lack of suitable methodologies, which hinders investigations. We report an experimental strategy to quantitatively and comprehensively explore how metabolism operates when a nutrient is provided as a mixture of different molecules, i.e., a complex resource. Here, we describe its application for assessing the partitioning of multiple nitrogen sources through the yeast metabolic network. The workflow combines information obtained during stable isotope tracer experiments using selected 13C- or 15N-labeled substrates. It first consists of parallel and reproducible fermentations in the same medium, which includes a mixture of N-containing molecules; however,a selected nitrogen source is labeled each time. A combination of analytical procedures (HPLC, GC-MS) is implemented to assess the labeling patterns of targeted compounds and to quantify the consumption and recovery of substrates in other metabolites. An integrated analysis of the complete dataset provides an overview of the fate of consumed substrates within cells. This approach requires an accurate protocol for the collection of samples-facilitated by a robot-assisted system for online monitoring of fermentations-and the achievement of numerous time-consuming analyses. Despite these constraints, it allowed understanding, for the first time, the partitioning of multiple nitrogen sources throughout the yeast metabolic network. We elucidated the redistribution of nitrogen from more abundant sources toward other N-compounds and determined the metabolic origins of volatile molecules and proteinogenic amino acids.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Fluxo de Trabalho
10.
Microb Biotechnol ; 10(6): 1649-1662, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28695583

RESUMO

Nitrogen and lipids are key nutrients of grape must that influence the production of fermentative aromas by wine yeast, and we have previously shown that a strong interaction exists between these two nutrients. However, more than 90% of the acids and higher alcohols (and their acetate ester derivatives) were derived from intermediates produced by the carbon central metabolism (CCM). The objective of this study was to determine how variations in nitrogen and lipid resources can modulate the contribution of nitrogen and carbon metabolisms for the production of fermentative aromas. A quantitative analysis of metabolism using 13 C-labelled leucine and valine showed that nitrogen availability affected the part of the catabolism of N-containing compounds, the formation of α-ketoacids from CCM and the redistribution of fluxes around these precursors, explaining the optimum production of higher alcohols occurring at an intermediate nitrogen content. Moreover, nitrogen content modulated the total production of acids and higher alcohols differently, through variations in the redox state of cells. We also demonstrated that the phytosterol content, modifying the intracellular availability of acetyl-CoA, can influence the flux distribution, especially the formation of higher alcohols and the conversion of α-ketoisovalerate to α-ketoisocaproate.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Marcação por Isótopo , Leucina/química , Leucina/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Valina/química , Valina/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 83(5)2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115380

RESUMO

During fermentative growth in natural and industrial environments, Saccharomyces cerevisiae must redistribute the available nitrogen from multiple exogenous sources to amino acids in order to suitably fulfill anabolic requirements. To exhaustively explore the management of this complex resource, we developed an advanced strategy based on the reconciliation of data from a set of stable isotope tracer experiments with labeled nitrogen sources. Thus, quantifying the partitioning of the N compounds through the metabolism network during fermentation, we demonstrated that, contrary to the generally accepted view, only a limited fraction of most of the consumed amino acids is directly incorporated into proteins. Moreover, substantial catabolism of these molecules allows for efficient redistribution of nitrogen, supporting the operative de novo synthesis of proteinogenic amino acids. In contrast, catabolism of consumed amino acids plays a minor role in the formation of volatile compounds. Another important feature is that the α-keto acid precursors required for the de novo syntheses originate mainly from the catabolism of sugars, with a limited contribution from the anabolism of consumed amino acids. This work provides a comprehensive view of the intracellular fate of consumed nitrogen sources and the metabolic origin of proteinogenic amino acids, highlighting a strategy of distribution of metabolic fluxes implemented by yeast as a means of adapting to environments with changing and scarce nitrogen resources.IMPORTANCE A current challenge for the wine industry, in view of the extensive competition in the worldwide market, is to meet consumer expectations regarding the sensory profile of the product while ensuring an efficient fermentation process. Understanding the intracellular fate of the nitrogen sources available in grape juice is essential to the achievement of these objectives, since nitrogen utilization affects both the fermentative activity of yeasts and the formation of flavor compounds. However, little is known about how the metabolism operates when nitrogen is provided as a composite mixture, as in grape must. Here we quantitatively describe the distribution through the yeast metabolic network of the N moieties and C backbones of these nitrogen sources. Knowledge about the management of a complex resource, which is devoted to improvement of the use of the scarce N nutrient for growth, will be useful for better control of the fermentation process and the sensory quality of wines.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Nitrogênio/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/análise , Indústria Alimentícia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Marcação por Isótopo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(1): 174-83, 2016 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26475113

RESUMO

Redox homeostasis is a fundamental requirement for the maintenance of metabolism, energy generation, and growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The redox cofactors NADH and NADPH are among the most highly connected metabolites in metabolic networks. Changes in their concentrations may induce widespread changes in metabolism. Redox imbalances were achieved with a dedicated biological tool overexpressing native NADH-dependent or engineered NADPH-dependent 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, in the presence of acetoin. We report that targeted perturbation of the balance of cofactors (NAD(+)/NADH or, to a lesser extent, NADP(+)/NADPH) significantly affected the production of volatile compounds. In most cases, variations in the redox state of yeasts modified the formation of all compounds from the same biochemical pathway (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, and their derivatives) or chemical class (ethyl esters), irrespective of the cofactors. These coordinated responses were found to be closely linked to the impact of redox status on the availability of intermediates of central carbon metabolism. This was the case for α-keto acids and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which are precursors for the synthesis of many volatile compounds. We also demonstrated that changes in the availability of NADH selectively affected the synthesis of some volatile molecules (e.g., methionol, phenylethanol, and propanoic acid), reflecting the specific cofactor requirements of the dehydrogenases involved in their formation. Our findings indicate that both the availability of precursors from central carbon metabolism and the accessibility of reduced cofactors contribute to cell redox status modulation of volatile compound formation.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Oxirredução , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Vitis/microbiologia
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 99(5): 2291-304, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412578

RESUMO

Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura
14.
Food Microbiol ; 25(1): 99-104, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17993382

RESUMO

Malolactic fermentation (MLF), which is conducted by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), has a significant influence on the stability and organoleptic quality of wine. Recent studies have shown that when MLF is carried out in oak wood barrels, LAB were also able to interact with wood and increase volatile compound contents such as vanillin during MLF. The release of these compounds indicates that LAB may convert vanillin precursors present in oak wood. In this work, the effect of commercial glycosidases on the released vanillin was firstly studied. This aldehyde is present in wood extracts in monoglycosidic forms where the major glycones are arabinose and xylose. Other aglycons released during MLF in barrels, syringaldehyde and whisky-lactones, can be considered as other sources of aroma. Secondly, strains selected with high activities toward glycoside substrates could hydrolyse vanillin glycoside precursors from oak wood with the same efficiency as commercial enzymes.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Cocos Gram-Positivos/metabolismo , Paladar , Vinho/análise , Benzaldeídos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Cocos Gram-Positivos/enzimologia , Hidrólise , Lactatos/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/enzimologia , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Quercus/enzimologia , Quercus/metabolismo
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