Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 172
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Mol Genet Metab ; 127(4): 361-367, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337602

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Biotinidase deficiency (BD), an autosomal recessive disease, is classified into profound (activity <10%) or partial BD (activity 10-30%). The most frequent variant in patients worldwide is c.1330G > C (p.Asp444His), which is associated with partial BD. In vivo studies indicate that this variant reduces the biotinidase activity by 50%. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of p.Asp444His and of five novel variants identified among Brazilian individuals showing low activity of biotinidase in serum. METHODS: The variants c.119 T > C (p.Leu40Pro), c.479G > A (p.Cys160Tyr), c.664G > A (p.Asp222Asn), c.1330G > C (p.Asp444His), c.1337 T > C (p.Leu446Pro), c.1466A > G (p.Asn489Ser) and the wild type (wt) BTD gene were expressed in HEK 293 cells. Biotinidase activity was quantified by colorimetric method in cells homogenates and culture medium. The wtBTD activity was considered 100%. RESULTS: The p.Leu40Pro, p.Cys160Tyr and p.Leu446Pro variants were associated to impaired biotinidase activity (activity in cells: 33%, 14%, 0%, respectively; activity in medium: 7%, 0.3%, 2%, respectively) and undetectable amount of protein in intra and extracellular space. The p.Asn489Ser variant had these effects restricted to the extracellular space (activity in medium: 43%), and the p.Asp222Asn variant showed normal activity. The expression of p.Asp444His variant resulted in detectable protein and slightly reduced activity only in cells (activity in cells: 46%; activity in medium: 115%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the p.Leu40Pro, p.Cys160Tyr and p.Leu446Pro variants are deleterious; the p.Asn489Ser is probably related to a mild biochemical phenotype; and p.Asp222Asn variant is probably not deleterious. The p.Asp444His variant seems to code for a protein with variable activity.

2.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 831-838, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240737

RESUMO

Classical homocystinuria is a recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene. The highest incidence of CBS deficiency in the world is found in the country of Qatar due to the combination of high rates of consanguinity and the presence of a founder mutation, c.1006C>T (p.R336C). This mutation does not respond to pyridoxine and is considered severe. Here we describe the creation of a mouse that is null for the mouse Cbs gene and expresses human p.R336C CBS from a zinc-inducible transgene (Tg-R336C Cbs -/- ). Zinc-treated Tg-R336C Cbs -/- mice have extreme elevation in both serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and liver tHcy compared with control transgenic mice. Both the steady-state protein levels and CBS enzyme activity levels in liver lysates from Tg-R336C Cbs -/- mice are significantly reduced compared to that found in Tg-hCBS Cbs -/- mice expressing wild-type human CBS. Treatment of Tg-R336C Cbs -/- mice with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib results in stabilization of liver CBS protein and an increase in activity to levels found in corresponding Tg-hCBS Cbs -/- wild type mice. Surprisingly, serum tHcy did not fully correct even though liver enzyme activity was as high as control animals. This discrepancy is explained by in vitro enzymatic studies of mouse liver extracts showing that p.R336C causes reduced binding affinity for the substrate serine by almost 7-fold and significantly increased dependence on pyridoxal phosphate in the reaction buffer. These studies demonstrate that the p.R336C alteration effects both protein stability and substrate/cofactor binding.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 818-830, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968424

RESUMO

Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is the most common inborn error of metabolism in Qatar, with an incidence of 1:1800, and is caused by the Qatari founder p.R336C mutation in the CBS gene. This study describes the natural history and clinical manifestations of HCU in the Qatari population. A single center study was performed between 2016 and 2017 in 126 Qatari patients, from 82 families. Detailed clinical and biochemical data were collected, and Stanford-Binet intelligence, quality of life and adherence to treatment assessments were conducted prospectively. Patients were assigned to one of three groups, according to the mode of diagnosis: (a) late diagnosis group (LDG), (b) family screening group (FSG), and (c) newborn screening group (NSG). Of the 126 patients, 69 (55%) were in the LDG, 44 (35%) in the NSG, and 13 (10%) in the FSG. The leading factors for diagnosis in the LDG were ocular manifestations (49%), neurological manifestations (45%), thromboembolic events (4%), and hyperactivity and behavioral changes (1%). Both FSG and NSG groups were asymptomatic at time of diagnosis. NSG had significantly higher intelligence quotient, quality of life, and adherence values compared with the LDG. The LDG and FSG had significantly higher methionine levels than the NSG. The LDG also had significantly higher total homocysteine levels than the NSG and FSG. Regression analysis confirmed these results even when adjusting for age at diagnosis, current age, or adherence. These findings increase the understanding of the natural history of HCU and highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. SYNOPSIS: A study in 126 Qatari patients with HCU, including biochemical, clinical, and other key assessments, reveals that patients with a late clinical diagnosis have a poorer outcome, hereby highlighting the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 128-139, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations. METHODS: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres. RESULTS: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408270

RESUMO

Homocystinuria is a rare inborn error of methionine metabolism caused by cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) deficiency. The prevalence of homocystinuria in Qatar is 1:1,800 births, mainly due to a founder Qatari missense mutation, c.1006C>T; p.R336C (p.Arg336Cys). We characterized the structure-function relationship of the p.R336C-mutant protein and investigated the effect of different chemical chaperones to restore p.R336C-CBS activity using three models: in silico, ΔCBS yeast, and CRISPR/Cas9 p.R336C knock-in HEK293T and HepG2 cell lines. Protein modeling suggested that the p.R336C induces severe conformational and structural changes, perhaps influencing CBS activity. Wild-type CBS, but not the p.R336C mutant, was able to restore the yeast growth in ΔCBS-deficient yeast in a complementation assay. The p.R336C knock-in HEK293T and HepG2 cells decreased the level of CBS expression and reduced its structural stability; however, treatment of the p.R336C knock-in HEK293T cells with betaine, a chemical chaperone, restored the stability and tetrameric conformation of CBS, but not its activity. Collectively, these results indicate that the p.R336C mutation has a deleterious effect on CBS structure, stability, and activity, and using the chemical chaperones approach for treatment could be ineffective in restoring p.R336C CBS activity.

6.
Neuropediatrics ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477030

RESUMO

Adenosine kinase (ADK) deficiency (OMIM [online mendelian inheritance in man]: 614300) is an autosomal recessive disorder of adenosine and methionine metabolism, with a unique clinical phenotype, mainly involving the central nervous system and dysmorphic features. Patients usually present early in life with sepsis-like symptoms, respiratory difficulties, and neonatal jaundice. Subsequently, patients demonstrate hypotonia and global developmental delay. Biochemically, methionine is elevated with normal homocysteine levels and the diagnosis is confirmed through molecular analysis of the ADK gene. There is no curative treatment; however, a methionine-restricted diet has been tried with variable outcomes. Herein, we report a 4-year-old Saudi female with global developmental delay, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. Interestingly, she has a tall stature, developmental dysplasia of the hip, optic nerve gliosis, and tigroid fundus. We found a mutation not reported previously and we compared the current case with previously reported cases. We alert clinicians to consider ADK deficiency in any neonate presenting with global developmental delay, hypotonia, dysmorphic features, and high methionine levels.

8.
Nutrients ; 10(4)2018 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587354

RESUMO

Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not completely understood. Cellular hypomethylation has been suggested to be a key pathophysiologic mechanism, since S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), the Hcy metabolic precursor and a potent inhibitor of methyltransferase activity, accumulates in the setting of hyperhomocysteinemia. In this study, the impact of folate and methionine on intracellular AdoHcy levels and protein arginine methylation status was studied. Human endothelial cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of folinic acid (FnA), a stable precursor of folate, with or without methionine restriction. The levels of intracellular AdoHcy and AdoMet, tHcy in the cell culture medium, and protein-incorporated methylarginines were evaluated by suitable liquid chromatography techniques. FnA supplementation, with or without methionine restriction, reduced the level of tHcy and did not affect intracellular AdoMet levels. Interestingly, FnA supplementation reduced intracellular AdoHcy levels only in cells grown under methionine restriction. Furthermore, these cells also displayed increased protein arginine methylation status. These observations suggest that folic acid supplementation may enhance cellular methylation capacity under a low methionine status. Our results lead us to hypothesize that the putative benefits of folic acid supplementation in restoring endothelial homeostasis, thus preventing atherothrombotic events, should be reevaluated in subjects under a methionine restriction diet.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Metionina/farmacologia , Metilação , S-Adenosil-Homocisteína/metabolismo
9.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(2): 160-170, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is a monogenic disease caused by the deficient activity of cystathionine ß-synthase (CßS). The objective of this study was to identify the CBS mutations in Brazilian patients with HCU. METHODS: gDNA samples were obtained for 35 patients (30 families) with biochemically confirmed diagnosis of HCU. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of CBS gene were sequenced. Gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR was performed in six patients. Novel missense point mutations were expressed in E. coli by site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS: Parental consanguinity was reported in 16 families, and pyridoxine responsiveness in five (15%) patients. Among individuals from the same family, all presented the same phenotype. Both pathogenic mutations were identified in 29/30 patients. Twenty-one different mutations were detected in nine exons and three introns; being six common mutations. Most prevalent were p.Ile278Thr (18.2%), p.Trp323Ter (11.3%), p.Thr191Met (11.3%), and c.828+1G>A (11.3%). Eight novel mutations were found [c.2T>C, c.209+1delG, c.284T>C, c.329A>T, c.444delG, c.864_868delGAG c.989_991delAGG, and c.1223+5G>T]. Enzyme activity in E. coli-expressed mutations was 1.5% for c.329A>T and 17.5% for c.284T>C. qRT-PCR analysis revealed reduced gene expression in all evaluated genotypes: [c.209+1delG; c.572C>T]; [c.2T>C; c.828+1G>A]; [c.828+1G>A; c.1126G>A]; [c.833T>C; c.989_991delAGG]; [c.1058C>T; c.146C>T]; and [c.444delG; c.444delG]. The expected phenotype according to the genotype (pyridoxine responsiveness) matched in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients studied were pyridoxine nonresponsive and presented early manifestations, suggesting severe phenotypes. Many private mutations were observed, but the four most prevalent mutations together accounted for over 50% of mutated alleles. A good genotype-phenotype relationship was observed within families and for the four most common mutations.


Assuntos
Cistationina beta-Sintase/genética , Homocistinúria/genética , Piridoxina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Sequência de Bases/genética , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Piridoxina/farmacologia
10.
Clin Chim Acta ; 473: 82-88, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe body composition, lipid metabolism and Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) indices in patients with classical homocystinuria (HCU). METHODS: Eleven treated HCU patients and 16 healthy controls were included. Body composition and bone mineral density were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Sulfur amino acids (SAA) and their derivatives (total homocysteine, cysteine, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and glutathione), lipids (free fatty acids, acylcarnitines, triglycerides and lipoproteins), glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and isoprostanes were measured in plasma. Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR. To estimate liver SCD-1 activity, SCD-16 [16:1(n-7)/16:0] and SCD-18 [18:1(n-9)/18:0] desaturation indices were determined. RESULTS: In HCU patients, SCD-16 index was significantly reduced (p=0.03). A trend of an association of SCD-16 index with cysteine was observed (r=0.624, p=0.054). HCU patients displayed lower lean mass (p<0.05), with no differences in fat mass percentage. Leptin and low-density lipoprotein concentrations were lower in HCU patients (p<0.05). Femur bone mineral density Z-scores were correlated with plasma cysteine (r=0.829; p=0.04) and total homocysteine (r=-0.829; p=0.04) in HCU patients. CONCLUSIONS: We report alterations in leptin and SCD-1 in HCU patients. These results agree with previous findings from epidemiologic and animal studies, and support a role for SAA on lipid homeostasis.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/sangue , Homocistinúria/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/sangue , Adulto , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Homocistinúria/metabolismo , Homocistinúria/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 12(1): 135, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764801

RESUMO

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare, autosomal-recessive mitochondrial disorder caused by TYMP mutations presenting with a multisystemic, often lethal syndrome of progressive leukoencephalopathy, ophthalmoparesis, demyelinating neuropathy, cachexia and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Hemodialysis (HMD) has been suggested as a treatment to reduce accumulation of thymidine and deoxyuridine. However, all studies so far have failed to measure the toxic metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the crucial compartment for CNS damage.Our study is the first prospective, longitudinal investigation, exploiting detailed serial testing of predefined clinical and molecular outcome parameters (including serial CSF assessments) in a 29-year-old MNGIE patient undergoing 1 year of extensive HMD. We demonstrate that HMD only transiently restores increased serum and urine levels of thymidine and deoxyuridine, but fails to reduce CSF levels of the toxic metabolites and is ineffective to influence neurological function. These findings have direct important implications for clinical practice: They prevent a burdensome, long-term invasive, but ultimately probably ineffective procedure in future MNGIE patients.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Desoxiuridina/sangue , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/terapia , Diálise Renal , Timidina/sangue , Adulto , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Desoxiuridina/urina , Humanos , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/genética , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/patologia , Mutação , Doenças Raras , Timidina/urina , Timidina Fosforilase
13.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 77(6): 410-414, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678543

RESUMO

Determining blood concentrations of the amino acids homocysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine in children is of value in the clinical practice. Over the past decades, the use of blood spot samples to examine amino acid concentrations is increasing rapidly. In children, the use of blood spot samples is especially of relevance, as this method is much less invasive than venous blood sampling. Currently, no paediatric reference values for amino acids in blood spots are available. The aim of the current study was to establish reference values for blood spot concentrations of total homocysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine in school-age children. Dried blood spots were obtained in a community sample of 104 healthy children, aged 6-12 years old (52% males). Blood spot concentrations of total homocysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine were determined by positive electrospray liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Parents of participants completed questions regarding demographic characteristics. Our sample consisted of healthy children from various ethnic backgrounds, with varying levels of socioeconomic status, in line with the composition of the Dutch society. Blood spot concentrations of total homocysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine were similar in males and females, and independent of age. In conclusion, paediatric reference values for blood spot concentrations of total homocysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine were established, which could be of use in the clinical practice.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Homocisteína/sangue , Fenilalanina/sangue , Triptofano/sangue , Tirosina/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência
15.
JIMD Rep ; 31: 101-106, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27207470

RESUMO

Glycine N-methyltransferase deficiency is an inherited disorder of methionine metabolism, reported so far in only four patients and characterised by permanent hypermethioninemia. This disorder has been considered as probably benign because moderate hepatomegaly in two patients was the only obvious symptom and mild to moderate elevation of aminotransferases the only laboratory abnormality. Our experience with the current novel patient points out that this disease, due to very high hypermethioninemia, is not harmless and that there may be diagnostic pitfalls in interpretation of biochemical hallmarks of the disease. Since the first description of glycine N-methyltransferase deficiency, other disorders of this metabolic pathway affecting the liver have been reported pointing to dysmethylation as the common pathogenetic mechanism. Therefore, we suggest the whole group to be named dysmethylating liver diseases.

16.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 40(1): 5-20, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27671891

RESUMO

Inherited methylation disorders are a group of rarely reported, probably largely underdiagnosed disorders affecting transmethylation processes in the metabolic pathway between methionine and homocysteine. These are methionine adenosyltransferase I/III, glycine N-methyltransferase, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and adenosine kinase deficiencies. This paper provides the first consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of methylation disorders. Following search of the literature and evaluation according to the SIGN-methodology of all reported patients with methylation defects, graded recommendations are provided in a structured way comprising diagnosis (clinical presentation, biochemical abnormalities, differential diagnosis, newborn screening, prenatal diagnosis), therapy and follow-up. Methylation disorders predominantly affect the liver, central nervous system and muscles, but clinical presentation can vary considerably between and within disorders. Although isolated hypermethioninemia is the biochemical hallmark of this group of disorders, it is not always present, especially in early infancy. Plasma S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine are key metabolites for the biochemical clarification of isolated hypermethioninemia. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia can be present in all methylation disorders. Methylation disorders do not qualify as primary targets of newborn screening. A low-methionine diet can be beneficial in patients with methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency if plasma methionine concentrations exceed 800 µmol/L. There is some evidence that this diet may also be beneficial in patients with S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and adenosine kinase deficiencies. S-adenosylmethionine supplementation may be useful in patients with methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency. Recommendations given in this article are based on general principles and in practice should be adjusted individually according to patient's age, severity of the disease, clinical and laboratory findings.


Assuntos
Homocisteína/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Metionina/metabolismo , Consenso , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/deficiência , Metilação , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , S-Adenosil-Homocisteína/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo
17.
Mol Aspects Med ; 53: 36-42, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876556

RESUMO

Nutritional and genetic deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 lead to elevation of cellular homocysteine (Hcy), which translates in increased plasma Hcy. The sources and role of elevated plasma Hcy in pathology continues to be a subject of intense scientific debate. Whether a cause, mediator or marker, little is known about the molecular mechanisms and interactions of Hcy with cellular processes that lead to disease. The use of folic acid reduces the incidence of neural tube defects, but the effect of Hcy-lowering interventions with folic acid in cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment remains controversial. The fact that levels of Hcy in plasma do not always reflect cellular status of this amino acid may account for the substantial gaps that exist between epidemiological, intervention and basic research studies. Understanding whether plasma Hcy is a mechanistic player or an epiphenomenon in pathogenesis requires further investigation, and this research is essential to improve the assessment and potential treatment of hyperhomocysteinemias.


Assuntos
Doença , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
18.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 40(1): 49-74, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27778219

RESUMO

Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency is a rare inherited disorder in the methionine catabolic pathway, in which the impaired synthesis of cystathionine leads to accumulation of homocysteine. Patients can present to many different specialists and diagnosis is often delayed. Severely affected patients usually present in childhood with ectopia lentis, learning difficulties and skeletal abnormalities. These patients generally require treatment with a low-methionine diet and/or betaine. In contrast, mildly affected patients are likely to present as adults with thromboembolism and to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. In this article, we present recommendations for the diagnosis and management of CBS deficiency, based on a systematic review of the literature. Unfortunately, the quality of the evidence is poor, as it often is for rare diseases. We strongly recommend measuring the plasma total homocysteine concentrations in any patient whose clinical features suggest the diagnosis. Our recommendations may help to standardise testing for pyridoxine responsiveness. Current evidence suggests that patients are unlikely to develop complications if the plasma total homocysteine concentration is maintained below 120 µmol/L. Nevertheless, we recommend keeping the concentration below 100 µmol/L because levels fluctuate and the complications associated with high levels are so serious.


Assuntos
Cistationina beta-Sintase/deficiência , Homocistinúria/dietoterapia , Homocistinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Betaína/metabolismo , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Metionina/metabolismo , Piridoxina/uso terapêutico
19.
Front Mol Biosci ; 3: 27, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27446930

RESUMO

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of <200 pmol/L) presents asymptomatically or with rather subtle generic symptoms that oftentimes are mistakenly ascribed to unrelated disorders. Numerous studies have now established that serum vitamin B12 has limited diagnostic value as a stand-alone marker. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B12. This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B12 status in various human disorders.

20.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0151100, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26938936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to explore the role of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) in blood in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given their impact on the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine, decreased concentrations of the AAAs tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine in blood may contribute to the expression of ADHD symptoms. Decreased AAA blood concentrations, in turn, may be related to lowered dietary protein intake or to abnormal AAA catabolism, as evidenced by increased urinary AAA concentrations. METHODS: Eighty-three children with ADHD (75% males) and 72 typically developing (TD) children (51% males), aged 6 to 13 years, participated in the study. AAA concentrations were assessed in blood spots and an 18-hour urinary sample. A nutritional diary was filled out by parents to calculate dietary protein intake. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. RESULTS: Children with ADHD showed normal AAA concentrations in blood spots and urine, as well as normal protein intake compared to controls. No associations between AAA concentrations and symptoms of ADHD or comorbid psychiatric disorders were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to explore AAA metabolism in children with ADHD using a well-defined and relatively large sample. We found that AAA deficiencies are not related to ADHD. The results do not support treatment with AAA supplements in children with ADHD. Future studies regarding the cause of serotonin and dopamine alterations in ADHD should focus on other explanations, such as effects of altered transport of AAAs.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Fenilalanina/sangue , Triptofano/sangue , Tirosina/sangue , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/urina , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/sangue , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/urina , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/sangue , Transtorno da Conduta/urina , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Fenilalanina/urina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triptofano/urina , Tirosina/urina
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA