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1.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).

2.
Acta Radiol ; : 284185120980142, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast (RAASB) is a serious late consequence caused by breast cancer treatment. Initial symptoms are often inconspicuous, thus contributing to diagnostic delay. Most previous studies of the diagnostic aspects of RAASB are case reports. PURPOSE: To perform a complete review of the imaging findings and biopsy methods in a nationwide RAASB cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: RAASB patients were identified from a national cancer registry and additional patients were included from our hospital. All available information from imaging (mammogram [MGR], ultrasound [US], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and computed tomography [CT]) and biopsies was reviewed. The sensitivity of imaging and biopsy methods for detection of RAASB was calculated. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with RAASB were found. Fourteen MGR, 30 US, 24 MRI, and 25 CT studies were available for evaluation. The sensitivity of MGR, US, MRI, and CT for detection of RAASB was 43%, 50%, 92%, and 84%, respectively. Superior sensitivity was demonstrated for punch biopsy (84%) and incisional biopsy (93%) compared to fine-needle aspiration cytology (0%) and core needle biopsy (18%). CONCLUSION: MRI and CT have comparable sensitivity for detection of RAASB, while MGR and US are unreliable. However, negative findings in MRI or CT must be interpreted with caution. Punch biopsy and incisional biopsy are the preferred biopsy methods.

3.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

4.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(5): 752-763, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Radical excision of retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal soft tissue sarcomas may necessitate vessel resection and reconstruction. The aim of this study was to assess surgical results of retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas involving major blood vessels. METHODS: This was a retrospective single centre cohort study and a comprehensive review of literature. Patients with retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas treated by the oncovascular team in Helsinki University Hospital from 2010 to 2018 were reviewed for vascular and oncological outcomes. A comprehensive literature review of vascular reconstructions in patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma was performed. RESULTS: Vascular reconstruction was performed in 17 patients, 11 of whom required arterial reconstructions. Sixteen of the operations were sarcoma resections; the post-operative diagnosis for one patient was thrombosis instead of the presumed recurrent leiomyosarcoma. Early graft thrombosis occurred in two venous and one arterial reconstruction. Late thrombosis was detected in three (18%). The median follow up was 27 (range 0-82) months. Of the patients with sarcoma resections 5 (31%) died of sarcoma and further 4 (25%) developed local recurrence or new distant metastases. The comprehensive review of literature identified 37 articles with 110 patients, 89 of whom had inferior vena cava reconstruction only. Eight arterial reconstructions were described. Late graft thrombosis occurred in 14%. The follow up was 0-181 months, during which 57% remained disease free and 7% died of sarcoma. CONCLUSION: Vascular reconstructions enable radical resection of retroperitoneal and intra-abdominal sarcomas in patients with advanced disease. The complex operations are associated with an acceptable rate of serious peri-operative complications and symptomatic thrombosis of the repaired vessel is rare. However, further studies are needed to assess the performance of the vascular reconstructions in the long term.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/cirurgia , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artérias/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/patologia , Espaço Retroperitoneal/irrigação sanguínea , Espaço Retroperitoneal/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/sangue , Sarcoma/patologia , Trombose/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Veia Cava Inferior/cirurgia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859572

RESUMO

The most widely used patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure for soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients is the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS). The aim of the study was to validate and test the reliability of the TESS for patients with lower extremity STS based on Finnish population data. Patients were assessed using the TESS, the QLQ-C30 Function and Quality of life (QoL) modules, the 15D and the Musculoskeletal tumour Society (MSTS) score. The TESS was completed twice with a 2- to 4-week interval. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for test-retest reliability. Construct validity was tested for structural validity and convergent validity. Altogether 136 patients completed the TESS. A ceiling effect was noted as 21% of the patients scored maximum points. The ICC between first and second administration of the TESS was 0.96. The results of exploratory factor analysis together with high Cronbach's alpha (0.98) supported a unidimensional structure. The TESS correlated moderately with the MSTS score (rho = 0.59, p< 0.001) and strongly with the mobility dimension in the 15D HRQL instrument (rho = 0.76, p < 0.001) and the physical function in QLQ-C30 (rho = 0.83, p< 0.001). The TESS instrument is a comprehensive and reliable PRO measure. The TESS may be used as a validated single index score, for lower extremity STS patients for the measurement of a functional outcome. The TESS seems to reflect patients' HRQoL well after the treatment of lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas.

6.
Front Genet ; 11: 550, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714364

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in human physiology, and have been found to be associated with various cancers. Transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) are a subgroup of lncRNAs conserved in several species, and are often located in cancer-related regions. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of female cancer deaths. We investigated the association of genetic variants in lncRNA and T-UCR regions with breast cancer risk to uncover candidate loci for further analysis. Our focus was on low-penetrance variants that can be discovered in a large dataset. We selected 565 regions of lncRNAs and T-UCRs that are expressed in breast or breast cancer tissue, or show expression correlation to major breast cancer associated genes. We studied the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these regions with breast cancer risk in the 122970 case samples and 105974 controls of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium's genome-wide data, and also by in silico functional analyses using Integrated Expression Quantitative trait and in silico prediction of GWAS targets (INQUISIT) and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis. The eQTL analysis was carried out using the METABRIC dataset and analyses from GTEx and ncRNA eQTL databases. We found putative breast cancer risk variants (p < 1 × 10-5) targeting the lncRNA GABPB1-AS1 in INQUISIT and eQTL analysis. In addition, putative breast cancer risk associated SNPs (p < 1 × 10-5) in the region of two T-UCRs, uc.184 and uc.313, located in protein coding genes CPEB4 and TIAL1, respectively, targeted these genes in INQUISIT and in eQTL analysis. Other non-coding regions containing SNPs with the defined p-value and highly significant false discovery rate (FDR) for breast cancer risk association were discovered that may warrant further studies. These results suggest candidate lncRNA loci for further research on breast cancer risk and the molecular mechanisms.

7.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Liposarcomas form a diverse group of tumors that represent the majority of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas. Radical excision of these retroperitoneal liposarcomas is often challenging due to their large size and proximity to visceral organs and major vessels. Here we present the 30-year experience of our multidisciplinary sarcoma team in the treatment of these tumors and analysis of factors influencing survival. METHODS: Patients with retroperitoneal liposarcomas treated in Helsinki University Hospital from 1987 to 2017 were reviewed. Local recurrence-free survival, metastases-free survival, and disease-specific survival were assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis, and factors influencing survival were evaluated with Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients were identified. The median follow-up time was 5.4 years (interquartile range: 2.2-8.8 years). Local recurrence developed in 72% and metastases in 15% during follow-up. The 5-year disease-free survival was 31% and disease-specific survival was 66%. The multifactorial analysis revealed histological type and grade as predictors of disease-specific survival (P < .01) while multifocality carried a poor prognosis for local recurrence (P = .02) and higher histological grade for metastases (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal liposarcomas rarely metastasize but tend to recur locally. For tumors that have been resected with macroscopically clear margins, histological, type, and grade are significant predictors of survival.

8.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 423-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope. RESULTS: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula. CONCLUSIONS: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Mastectomia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
10.
Acta Oncol ; 59(7): 825-832, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347139

RESUMO

Background: Retrospective studies have suggested that chemotherapy-induced leukopenia is associated with improved recurrence-free or overall survival. The SBG 2000-1 trial was designed to verify the favorable prognosis associated with chemotherapy-induced leukopenia in early breast cancer. Patients not experiencing chemotherapy-induced leukopenia were randomized into standard dosed or individually escalated chemotherapy doses based on the grade of leukopenia after a first standard dose.Patients and methods: 1452 women in Sweden and Denmark with operable node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer aged 18-60 years were recruited to participate in this trial. Participants received a first FEC cycle at standard doses (600/60/600 mg/m2). Patients (n = 1052) with nadir leukopenia grade 0-2 after the first cycle were randomized between either 6 standard FEC or 6 tailored FEC courses with doses of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide escalated during courses 2 and 3 and thereafter aimed at achieving grade 3 leukopenia. Patients with nadir leukopenia grade 3-4 after the first course continued treatment with standard FEC. Results of the randomized comparison has been published previously. The present study focuses on chemotherapy-induced leukopenia as a covariable with outcome in randomized and non-randomized patients. The prognostic value of leukopenia after course 3, was studied in a Cox model adjusted for cumulative doses of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide. The association of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia with prognosis was a preplanned secondary endpoint for this trial.Results: The eight-year distant disease-free survival was 73%, 77%, 78% and 83% for patients with leucocyte nadir grade 0, 1, 2 and 3-4, respectively. Higher degree of leukopenia was highly significantly associated to improved distant disease-free survival (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96, p = .008) and overall survival (HR 0.87 (0.76-0.99, p = .032).Conclusion: This prospective study confirms that chemotherapy-induced leukopenia is a covariable with outcome in primary breast cancer, even after adjustment for chemotherapy doses.

11.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(5): 442-468, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115800

RESUMO

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
12.
In Vivo ; 34(2): 667-674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: As the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing, their long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important issue. The aim of the study is to follow up the HRQoL of breast cancer survivors (BCS) in a prospective randomized exercise intervention study and to compare HRQoL to that of the age-matched general female population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Following adjuvant treatment, 537 patients aged 35-68 and capable of exercise training were randomized to a 12-month exercise trial. In 182 of those patients, HRQoL was measured by the generic 15D at baseline and followed up for five years. Furthermore, the HRQoL of all BCS answering the 15D at five-year follow-up (n=390) was compared to that of a representative sample of the general population. RESULTS: After five years, the BCS' mean HRQoL demonstrated a statistically and clinically significant impairment compared to that of the general population (difference -0.023, p<0.001). The mean HRQoL of BCS followed up from baseline until five years did not improve significantly (change=0.007, p=0.27), whereas the dimensions of usual activities (0.043, p=0.004), depression (0.038, p=0.007), distress (0.030, p=0.036), and sexual activity (0.057, p=0.009) did. CONCLUSION: The HRQoL of BCS was still impaired five years following treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Acta Oncol ; 59(6): 660-665, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048533

RESUMO

Introduction: To minimize the radiation exposure of mostly young testicular cancer patients, it is essential to find out whether CT could be replaced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the staging and follow-up of the patients. In this trial, we examined whether abdominal MRI is as effective as computed tomography (CT) in the detection of retroperitoneal metastases of testicular cancer.Material and methods: This prospective study included 50 patients, 46 cases of retroperitoneal metastases and 4 controls without abdominal metastases (mean age 33, 5 years, range 20-65 years). Imaging of the retroperitoneum was performed using CT and 1.5 T MRI with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). One experienced radiologist re-analyzed all of the examinations without knowledge of clinical information. All metastatic or suspicious lymph nodes were noted and measured two-dimensionally from axial images. Nodal detection and the size of detected nodes on CT and MRI were compared.Results: There was no significant difference in the detection of retroperitoneal metastasis between CT and MRI. The sensitivity of MRI was 0.98. There was no statistically significant difference in the sizes of lymph nodes found in CT and MRI, and even very small lymph nodes could be detected in MRI as well as in CT.Conclusion: MRI with DWI is as good as CT in detection of retroperitoneal lymph node metastases regardless of lymph node size, and it can be used as part of follow-up of testicular cancer patients instead of ionizing radiation producing imaging methods.

14.
Nat Genet ; 52(1): 56-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911677

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Risco
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 10, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer (BC) has been associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined the incidence of IHD in a large population-based cohort of women with BC. METHODS: The Breast Cancer DataBase Sweden (BCBaSe) includes all women diagnosed with BC from 1992 to 2012 (n = 60,217) and age-matched women without a history of BC (n = 300,791) in three Swedish health care regions. Information on comorbidity, educational level, and incidence of IHD was obtained through linkage with population-based registries. The risk of IHD was estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression analyses and cumulative incidence by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Women with BC had a lower risk of IHD compared to women without BC with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.95). When women with left-sided BC were compared to right-sided BC, an increased HR for IHD of 1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.17) was seen. In women receiving RT, a HR of 1.18 (95% CI 1.06-1.31) was seen in left-sided compared to right-sided BC, and the HRs increased with more extensive lymph node involvement and with the addition of systemic therapy. The cumulative IHD incidence was increased in women receiving left-sided RT compared to right-sided RT, starting from the first years after RT and sustained with longer follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Women given RT for left-sided BC during 1992 to 2012 had an increased risk of IHD compared to women treated for right-sided BC. These women were treated in the era of three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT), and the results emphasize the importance of further developing and implementing RT techniques that lower the cardiac doses, without compromising the beneficial effects of RT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tempo
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 312, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949161

RESUMO

Identifying the underlying genetic drivers of the heritability of breast cancer prognosis remains elusive. We adapt a network-based approach to handle underpowered complex datasets to provide new insights into the potential function of germline variants in breast cancer prognosis. This network-based analysis studies ~7.3 million variants in 84,457 breast cancer patients in relation to breast cancer survival and confirms the results on 12,381 independent patients. Aggregating the prognostic effects of genetic variants across multiple genes, we identify four gene modules associated with survival in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and one in ER-positive disease. The modules show biological enrichment for cancer-related processes such as G-alpha signaling, circadian clock, angiogenesis, and Rho-GTPases in apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Germinativas , Apoptose , Relógios Circadianos , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(4): 1002-1010, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast (RAASB) is an aggressive malignancy that is increasing in incidence. Only a few previous population-based studies have reported the results of RAASB treatment. METHODS: A search for RAASB patients was carried out in the Finnish Cancer Registry, and treatment data were collected to identify prognostic factors for survival. RESULTS: Overall, 50 RAASB patients were identified. The median follow-up time was 5.4 years (range 0.4-15.6), and the 5-year overall survival rate was 69%. Forty-seven (94%) patients were operated on with curative intent. Among these patients, the 5-year local recurrence-free survival, distant recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 62%, 75%, and 74%, respectively. A larger planned surgical margin was associated with improved survival. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the majority of RAASB patients were eligible for radical surgical management in this population-based analysis. With radical surgery, the prognosis is relatively good.

19.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 674-685, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

20.
J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech ; 5(4): 589-592, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799487

RESUMO

Aortic sarcomas have not been linked to Lynch syndrome in humans, although other soft tissue malignancies have been. We report the case of a 31-year-old man with Lynch syndrome, who presented with abdominal pain and severe claudication. The clinical and diagnostic workup revealed near occlusion of the infrarenal aorta due to aortic angiosarcoma. En bloc resection of the visceral and infrarenal aorta with right nephrectomy was performed, facilitated by temporary extracorporeal bypass to the visceral arteries. The aorta was reconstructed with a bifurcated Dacron graft. At the 24-month follow-up examination, the patient was free of disease but was experiencing chronic diarrhea.

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