Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 119
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Environ Res ; 183: 109197, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058142

RESUMO

There is a large body of evidence linking Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure with impaired lung function. However, it is not known whether exposure to pets modifies this relationship. To investigate if pet ownership changes the association between ETS exposure and lung function, a population-based sample of 7326 children, 7-14 years old, were randomly recruited from 24 districts in northeast China. Lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) was measured by spirometry, while pet ownership time periods and ETS exposure were collected by questionnaire. Two-level regression analysis was done, with covariates controlled for. The results showed pet exposure in certain early lifetime windows modified the associations of ETS exposure on decreased lung function in children. Among children exposed to current ETS, those exposed to pets in utero had greater reductions in lung function (for instance: OR for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) = 10.86; 95% CI: 3.80-30.97) than those not exposed to pets in utero (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.76-3.05) (pinteraction = 0.005). While, children exposed to current pet ownership reduced the lung function impairment induced by ETS exposure during the first 2 years of life and/or ETS exposure during pregnancy, especially for FVC impairment. For instance, OR (95%CI) for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) was 0.81 (0.56, 1.18) and 1.42 (1.15, 1.74), respectively, for children with or without current pet ownership exposed to ETS during the first 2 years of life (pinteraction = 0.010). Furthermore, pet type or number of pets did not significantly modify associations between ETS exposure and lung function. In conclusion, the timing of pet ownership modified associations between ETS exposure and lung function, pet ownership in utero and during the first 2 years of life significantly worsened the adverse impacts of passive smoking on lung function.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114160, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066060

RESUMO

Arsenic exposure contributed to the development of human diseases. Arsenic exerted multiple organ toxicities mainly by triggering oxidative stress. However, the signaling pathway underlying oxidative stress is unclear. We previously found that the expression of SFPQ, a splicing factor, was positively associated with urinary arsenic concentration in an arsenic-exposed population, suggesting an oxidative stress regulatory role for SFPQ. To test this hypothesis, we established cell models of oxidative stress in human hepatocyte cells (L02) treated with NaAsO2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis displayed a time- and dose-dependent increase with NaAsO2 treatment. SFPQ suppression resulted in a 36%-53% decrease in ROS generation, leading to enhanced cellular damage determined by 8-OHdG, comet tail moment, and micronucleus analysis. Particularly, SFPQ deficiency attenuated expression of the oxidase genes DUOX1, DUOX2, NCF2, and NOX2. A fluorescent-based RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (FREMSA) and dual-luciferase reporter system revealed that miR-92b-5p targeted DUOX2 mRNA degradation. An RNA immunoprecipitation assay showed an interaction between SFPQ and miR-92b-5p of the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). Notably, NaAsO2 treatment diminished the interaction between SFPQ and miR92b-5p, accompanied by decreased binding between miR-92b-5p and 3'-UTR of DUOX2. However, SFPQ deficiency suppressed the dissociation of miR-92b-5p from 3'-UTR of DUOX2, indicating that miR-92b-5p regulated the SFPQ-dependent DUOX2 expression. Taken together, we reveal that SFPQ responds to arsenic-induced oxidative stress by interacting with the miRISC. These findings offer new insight into the potential role of SFPQ in regulating cellular stress response.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066883

RESUMO

The Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program will evaluate environmental factors affecting children's health (perinatal, neurodevelopmental, obesity, respiratory, and positive health outcomes) by pooling cohorts composed of >50,000 children in the largest US study of its kind. Our objective was to identify opportunities for studying chemicals and child health using existing or future ECHO chemical exposure data. We described chemical-related information collected by ECHO cohorts and reviewed ECHO-relevant literature on exposure routes, sources, and environmental and human monitoring. Fifty-six ECHO cohorts have existing or planned chemical biomonitoring data for mothers or children. Environmental phenols/parabens, phthalates, metals/metalloids, and tobacco biomarkers are each being measured by ≥15 cohorts, predominantly during pregnancy and childhood, indicating ample opportunities to study child health outcomes. Cohorts are collecting questionnaire data on multiple exposure sources and conducting environmental monitoring including air, dust, and water sample collection that could be used for exposure assessment studies. To supplement existing chemical data, we recommend biomonitoring of emerging chemicals, nontargeted analysis to identify novel chemicals, and expanded measurement of chemicals in alternative biological matrices and dust samples. ECHO's rich data and samples represent an unprecedented opportunity to accelerate environmental chemical research to improve the health of US children.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 134843, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000326

RESUMO

China's rapid urbanization has led to an increasing level of exposure to air pollution and a decreasing level of exposure to vegetation among urban populations. Both trends may pose threats to psychological well-being. Previous studies on the interrelationships among greenness, air pollution and psychological well-being rely on exposure measures from remote sensing data, which may fail to accurately capture how people perceive vegetation on the ground. To address this research gap, this study aimed to explore relationships among neighbourhood greenness, air pollution exposure and psychological well-being, using survey data on 1029 adults residing in 35 neighbourhoods in Guangzhou, China. We used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and streetscape greenery (SVG) to assess greenery exposure at the neighbourhood level, and we distinguished between trees (SVG-tree) and grasses (SVG-grass) when generating streetscape greenery exposure metrics. We used two objective (PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations) measures and one subjective (perceived air pollution) measure to quantify air pollution exposure. We quantified psychological well-being using the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Results from multilevel structural equation models (SEM) showed that, for parallel mediation models, while the association between SVG-grass and psychological well-being was completely mediated by perceived air pollution and NO2, the relationship between SVG-tree and psychological well-being was completely mediated by ambient PM2.5, NO2 and perceived air pollution. None of three air pollution indicators mediated the association between psychological well-being and NDVI. For serial mediation models, measures of air pollution did not mediate the relationship between NDVI and psychological well-being. While the linkage between SVG-grass and psychological well-being scores was partially mediated by NO2-perceived air pollution, SVG-tree was partially mediated by both ambient PM2.5-perceived air pollution and NO2-perceived air pollution. Our results suggest that street trees may be more related to lower air pollution levels and better mental health than grasses are.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136859, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether exposure to pets influences the association between hypertension and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The current study aims to examine the interaction of pet ownership on ETS exposure and the development of hypertension in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 9354 children, 5 to 17 years of age, were recruited from 62 schools in seven northeastern cities. BP in children was measured and hypertension was defined as an average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or systolic blood pressure (SBP) at or above the 95th percentile for that child's age, sex, and height. Pet ownership in three different time periods (in utero, past 2 years, and currently) and ETS exposure data were collected from parents via a questionnaire. Two-level regressions were used for the data analyses. RESULTS: The data show consistent, significant interactions between exposure to pets and effects from ETS. Children who were not exposed to pets experienced stronger effects from ETS on hypertension when compared to those exposed to pets, and the protective effect of pet ownership became stronger with a greater number of pets in the home. Exposure to in utero ETS was associated with hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.54] only for those children without pet exposure in utero but not for those with pets (aOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.49-1.15) (pinteraction < 0.05). Moreover, household dog ownership was related to significantly lower effects of current ETS on hypertension (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61-1.05) compared with children without dogs (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11-1.44) (pinteraction = 0.001). Interaction associations between ETS and pet ownership were more robust for girls than for boys and for younger than older children. CONCLUSION: This study indicates an inverse relationship between pet ownership and ETS, potentially pointing to pet ownership as protecting against the development of hypertension in children.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113434, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on interaction effects between air pollution and influenza vaccination on allergic respiratory diseases. We conducted a large population-based study to evaluate the interaction effects between influenza vaccination and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was investigated during 2012-2013 in 94 schools from Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) in China. Questionnaires surveys were obtained from 56 137 children and adolescents aged 2-17 years. Influenza vaccination was defined as receipt of the influenza vaccine. We estimated air pollutants exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10)] using machine learning methods. We employed two-level generalized linear mix effects model to examine interactive effects between influenza vaccination and air pollution exposure on allergic respiratory diseases (asthma, asthma-related symptoms and allergic rhinitis), after controlling for important covariates. RESULTS: We found statistically significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on allergic respiratory diseases and related symptoms (doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze, wheeze, persistent phlegm and allergic rhinitis). The adjusted ORs for doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze and allergic rhinitis among the unvaccinated group per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 and PM2.5 were significantly higher than the corresponding ORs among the vaccinated group [For PM1, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.89 (95%CI: 1.57-2.27) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.36-2.00); current wheeze: OR: 1.50 (95%CI: 1.22-1.85) vs 1.10 (95%CI: 0.89-1.37); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.38 (95%CI: 1.15-1.66) vs 1.21 (95%CI: 1.00-1.46). For PM2.5, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.81 (95%CI: 1.52-2.14) vs 1.57 (95%CI: 1.32-1.88); current wheeze: OR: 1.46 (95%CI: 1.21-1.76) vs 1.11 (95%CI: 0.91-1.35); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.35 (95%CI: 1.14-1.60) vs 1.19 (95%CI: 1.00-1.42)]. The similar patterns were observed for wheeze and persistent phlegm. The corresponding p values for interactions were less than 0.05, respectively. We assessed the risks of PM1-related and PM2.5-related current wheeze were decreased by 26.67% (95%CI: 1.04%-45.66%) and 23.97% (95%CI: 0.21%-42.08%) respectively, which was attributable to influenza vaccination (both p for efficiency <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination may play an important role in mitigating the detrimental effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood allergic respiratory diseases. Policy targeted at increasing influenza vaccination may yield co-benefits in terms of reduced allergic respiratory diseases.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113422, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672364

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that residential greenness may be protective of high blood pressure, but there is scarcity of evidence on the associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children. We aimed to investigate this association in China. Our study included 9354 children from 62 schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities Study. Greenness around each child's school was measured by NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Particulate matter ≤ 1 µm (PM1) concentrations were estimated by spatiotemporal models and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were collected from air monitoring stations. Associations between greenness and blood pressure were determined by generalized linear and logistic mixed-effect models. Mediation by air pollution was assessed using mediation analysis. Higher greenness was consistently associated with lower blood pressure. An increase of 0.1 in NDVI corresponded to a reduction in SBP of 1.39 mmHg (95% CI: 1.86, -0.93) and lower odds of hypertension (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.82). Stronger associations were observed in children with higher BMI. Ambient PM1 and NO2 mediated 33.0% and 10.9% of the association between greenness and SBP, respectively. In summary, greater greenness near schools had a beneficial effect on blood pressure, particularly in overweight or obese children in China. The associations might be partially mediated by air pollution. These results might have implications for policy makers to incorporate more green space for both aesthetic and health benefits.

8.
Environ Int ; 135: 105365, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESA 6:2 and 8:2), one of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) used as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, are reproductive toxicants in vivo and in vitro. However, the associations between gestational exposure to Cl-PFESAs and birth outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA in maternal serum and birth outcomes. METHODS: We measured four PFAS, including 6:2 Cl-PFESA, 8:2 Cl-PFESA, PFOS, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in third-trimester maternal serum collected from 372 mother-child dyads participating in the Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study. Characteristics of mothers and infants were gathered from medical records and by interviewer-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: PFOS was the most abundant PFAS in maternal serum (median: 7.15 ng/mL), followed by 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median: 2.41 ng/mL). Greater maternal serum levels of all PFAS alternatives were significantly associated with lower birth weight, adjusted for confounding variables. For example, each ln-ng/mL greater concentration of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA was associated with a 54.44 g [95% confidence interval (CI): -95.66, -13.22] and 21.15 g (95% CI: -41.44, -0.86) lower birth weight, respectively. Greater continuous maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.73, 4.15) and PFOS (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.32) were also associated with higher risks for preterm birth, adjusted for confounders, with a possible threshold effect at the highest quartile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we report associations between maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA concentrations and adverse birth outcomes. Our findings suggest that PFOS alternatives may be reproductive toxicants in human populations and should be considered with caution before widespread use. Given the preliminary nature of our results, additional epidemiological and toxicological investigations are needed to more definitively assess the risks.

9.
Environ Int ; 135: 105388, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residing in greener areas has several health benefits, but no study to date has examined the effects of greenness on metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to assess associations between residential greenness and MetS prevalence in China, and to explore whether air pollution and physical activity mediated any observed associations. METHODS: We analyzed data from 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study during 2009. We defined MetS according to standard guidelines for Chinese populations. Residential greenness was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF). We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the associations between greenness and MetS, and mediation analyses to explore potential mechanisms underlying the associations. RESULTS: Higher greenness levels were associated with lower odds of MetS [e.g., for every interquartile range increase of NDVI500-m, SAVI500-m, and VCF500-m, the adjusted odds ratio of MetS was 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.93), 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.93), and 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.00), respectively]. The direction and the magnitude of the associations persisted in several sensitivity analyses. Stratified analyses showed that age and household income modified the associations, with greater effect estimates observed in participants younger than 65 years old or those with higher household income. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone mediated 2.1-20.3% of the associations between greenness and MetS; no evidence of mediation was observed for physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a beneficial association for residential greenness and MetS in Chinese urban dwellers, especially for participants younger than 65 years old and those with higher household income. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, but not physical activity, may only partially mediate the association.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134397, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677469

RESUMO

Children are vulnerable to air pollution-induced lung function deficits, and the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in children. To evaluate the joint effects of long-term PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) exposure and obesity on children's lung function, a cross-sectional sample of 6740 children (aged 7-14 years) was enrolled across seven northeastern Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013. Weight and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), were measured according to standardized protocols. Average PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure levels were estimated using a spatiotemporal model, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) exposure were estimated using data from municipal air monitoring stations. Two-level logistic regression and general linear models were used to analyze the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and air pollutants. The results showed that long-term air pollution exposure was associated with lung function impairment and there were significant interactions with BMI. Associations were stronger among obese and overweight than normal weight participants (the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PM1 and lung function impairments in three increasing BMI categories were 1.50 (1.07-2.11) to 2.55 (1.59-4.07) for FVC < 85% predicted, 1.44 (1.03-2.01) to 2.51 (1.53-4.11) for FEV1 < 85% predicted, 1.34 (0.97-1.84) to 2.04 (1.24-3.35) for PEF < 75% predicted, and 1.34 (1.01-1.78) to 1.93 (1.26-2.95) for MMEF < 75% predicted). Consistent results were detected in linear regression models for PM1, PM2.5 and SO2 on FVC and FEV1 impairments (PInteraction < 0.05). These modification effects were stronger among females and older participants. These results can provide policy makers with more comprehensive information for to develop strategies for preventing air pollution induced children's lung function deficits among children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre , Capacidade Vital
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 1-9, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have linked greater polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure to adverse neuropsychological effects in older adults, including learning, memory, and depressive symptoms. However, no studies among older adults have evaluated the association over time. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of serum PCB levels on neuropsychological function over a 14-year period in a cohort of older men and women from a PCB-contaminated area of New York State. METHODS: In 2000-2002, we assessed serum PCB levels and neuropsychological function (including the California Verbal Learning Test Trial 1 (CVLTT1) for verbal memory and learning, and the Beck Depression Index (BDI) for depressive symptoms) in 253 men and women, ages 55-74 years. A total of 116 (46%) persons repeated the PCB and neuropsychological assessment 14 years later. To assess the association over time, we used generalized estimating equations with clustering variables time, total PCB (∑PCB), and ∑PCB × time, and adjusted for baseline age, sex, smoking, and total serum-lipids. For statistically significant ∑PCB × time interactions, we evaluated the association between PCBs and either verbal memory and learning or depressive symptoms while holding ∑PCB constant at the 10th and 90th percentiles to clarify the direction of the interaction. RESULTS: Over the study period, serum ∑PCB levels (wet-weight) declined by 22%, and were associated with different patterns of change over time for memory (∑PCB × Time ß = 0.08 p = 0.009) and depressive symptoms (∑PCB × Time ß = -0.16 p = 0.013). Specifically, verbal memory and learning decreased (ß = -0.08 p = 0.008) and depressive symptoms increased (ß = 0.17 p = 0.008) among persons with low exposure (∑PCB levels at the 10th percentile), while persons with high exposure (90th percentile) showed non-significant improvements. DISCUSSION: In this cohort, declining ∑PCB levels were likely due at least in part to low rates of local fish consumption in recent decades, given the ban since 1976. The decreased verbal memory and learning and increased depressive symptoms over time among persons with low serum ∑PCB levels is consistent with studies of normative aging. However, the small improvements in those outcomes among those with high serum ∑PCB levels was unexpected. Healthy survivor selection bias or uncontrolled confounding may explain this result. It may also indicate that the neurotoxic impacts of PCBs in older adults are not permanent, but future studies are needed to confirm this possibility.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134721, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715478

RESUMO

Although epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations of ambient air pollution with depression, the results remained mixed. To clarify the nature of the association, we performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis with the Inverse Variance Heterogeneity (IVhet) model to estimate the effect of ambient air pollution on depression. Three English and four Chinese databases were searched for epidemiologic studies investigating associations of ambient particulate (diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10)) and gaseous (nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3)) air pollutants with depression. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. We identified 22 eligible studies from 10 countries of the world. Under the IVhet model, per 10 µg/m3 increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.97-1.29, I2: 51.6), PM10 (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.88-1.25, I2: 85.7), and NO2 (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.83-1.34, I2: 83.6), as well as short-term exposure to PM2.5 (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.99-1.04, I2: 51.6), PM10 (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.98-1.04, I2: 86.7), SO2 (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99-1.07, I2: 71.2), and O3 (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.99-1.03, I2: 82.2) was not significantly associated with depression. However, we observed significant association between short-term NO2 exposure (per 10 µg/m3 increase) and depression (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04, I2: 65.4). However, the heterogeneity was high for all of the pooled estimates, which reduced credibility of the cumulative evidence. Additionally, publication bias was detected for six of eight meta-estimates. In conclusion, short-term exposure to NO2, but not other air pollutants, was significantly associated with depression. Given the limitations, a larger meta-analysis incorporating future well-designed longitudinal studies, and investigations into potential biologic mechanisms, will be necessary for a more definitive result.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 135040, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726339

RESUMO

Living in greener places may protect against obesity, but epidemiological evidence is inconsistent and mainly comes from developed nations. We aimed to investigate the association between greenness and obesity in Chinese adults and to assess air pollution and physical activity as mediators of the association. We recruited 24,845 adults from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study in 2009. Central and peripheral obesity were defined by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), respectively, based on international obesity standards. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to quantify community greenness. Two-level logistic and generalized linear mixed regression models were used to evaluate the association between NDVI and obesity, and a conditional mediation analysis was used also performed. In the adjusted models, an interquartile range increase in NDVI500-m was significantly associated with lower odds of peripheral 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.87) and central obesity 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83-0.93). Higher NDVI values were also significantly associated with lower BMI. Age, gender, and household income significantly modified associations between greenness and obesity, with stronger associations among women, older participants, and participants with lower household incomes. Air pollution mediated 2.1-20.8% of the greenness-obesity associations, but no mediating effects were observed for physical activity. In summary, higher community greenness level was associated with lower odds of central and peripheral obesity, especially among women, older participants, and those with lower household incomes. These associations were partially mediated by air pollutants. Future well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Poluição do Ar , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exercício , Humanos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/tendências
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917862, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851349

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between greenness and childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective: To evaluate the association between greenness surrounding schools or kindergartens and symptoms of ADHD in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study was performed between April 2012 and January 2013 in 7 cities in northeastern China. This analysis included 59 754 children (aged 2-17 years) from 94 schools and kindergartens, who had resided in the study area for 2 years or longer. Data were analyzed from April 15, 2019, to October 10, 2019. Exposures: Greenness surrounding each child's school or kindergarten was estimated using 2 satellite image-derived vegetation indexes: the normalized difference vegetation index and the soil-adjusted vegetation index. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) scales were used to measure ADHD symptoms (9 inattention symptoms and 9 hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms). Parents or guardians rated the frequency of each of 18 ADHD symptoms during the preceding 6 months. Children with 6 or more symptoms of either inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity were defined as having ADHD symptoms. Generalized linear mixed models were applied to estimate the association between greenness and ADHD symptoms. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 59 754 study participants was 10.3 (3.6) years, and 29 494 (49.4%) were girls. A total of 2566 participants (4.3%) had ADHD symptoms. Greenness levels differed substantially across schools and kindergartens. The normalized difference vegetation index within 500 m of a school or kindergarten ranged from -0.09 to 0.77. Greater greenness levels were associated with lower odds of ADHD symptoms. In covariate-adjusted models, a 0.1-unit increase in normalized difference vegetation index or soil-adjusted vegetation index within 500 m of a school or kindergarten was significantly associated with lower odds of ADHD symptoms (odds ratios, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.83-0.91] and 0.80 [95% CI, 0.74-0.86], respectively; P < .001 for both). The associations were robust in a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that there may be a beneficial association between school-based greenness and ADHD symptoms in Chinese children. Future longitudinal and mechanistic studies are needed to confirm the findings of this cross-sectional analysis and further explore potential mechanisms of this association.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226562, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between sleep quality and depression, among Han and Manchu ethnicities, in a rural Chinese population. METHODS: A sample of 8,888 adults was selected using a multistage cluster and random sampling method. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Depressive symptoms were assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression was conducted to assess associations between sleep quality and depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of poor sleep quality and depression in the Manchus (20.74% and 22.65%) was significantly lower than that in the Hans (29.57% and 26.25%), respectively. Depressive participants had higher odds ratios of global and all sub PSQI elements than non-depressive participants, both among the Hans and the Manchus. Additive interactions were identified between depressive symptoms and ethnicity with global and four sub-PSQI elements, including subjective sleep quality, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed that the prevalence of poor sleep quality and depression among the Hans was greater than among the Manchus. Depression was associated with higher odds of poor sleep quality.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 63: 101586, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forecast of disease burden in lung cancer is an important health agenda. One of the main challenges is to predict the evolution of trends in disability-adjusted life year (DALY) of lung cancer so as to anticipate the future burden and to coordinate the supply of sufficient health services and care. METHODS: Using 2004-2013 cancer registry data in Guangzhou, we fitted Bayesian age-period-cohort models with age, period, and cohort effects to analyze trends of lung cancer among women, and then made forecast for DALY of lung cancer until 2030. RESULTS: During 2004-2013, there was an annual average of 10,582 DALYs for lung cancer (15.84% of total DALY). In 2014-2030, DALY is expected to reach 234,752 person-years for lung cancer (12.25% of total DALY), with an annual mean of 13,809 DALYs. Lung cancer crude DALY rate is projected to rise steadily from 257.56 (95% uncertainty interval: 165.97-361.22) in 2014 to 316.99 (219.96-419.41) per 100,000 women in 2030, and the rise is mainly seen in 45-64 years age group. Lung cancer DALY rate remains the highest in the 65-89 years age group. CONCLUSIONS: Women at 65-89 years carry the highest lung cancer burden among other age groups in Guangzhou. The DALY rate of lung cancer is projected to increase most precipitously for the 45-64 years age group. This indicates that concerted efforts are needed to develop adequate cancer services, and to reassess health resources for control and care of lung cancer in these populations.

17.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105160, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater levels of serum per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are known to be associated with higher uric acid which itself leads to a number of chronic diseases. However, whether this association varies across PFAS isomers which recently have been found to be associated with human health remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To address this research gap, we explored isomer-specific associations between serum PFAS and uric acid in Chinese adults. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of associations between serum PFAS isomer and serum uric acid in 1612 participants from the Isomer of C8 Health Project. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to analyze serum isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and other PFASs as continuous and categorical predictors of uric acid, adjusted for confounders. The association was also stratified by kidney function stage based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GF-1, GF-2, GF-3a, and GF-3b/4). RESULTS: We found positive associations between serum PFAS isomer concentrations and uric acid. Uric acid levels were greater for each log-unit increase in branched PFOA (ß = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.40), linear PFOA (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26), branched PFOS (ß = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17) and linear PFOS (ß = 0.06, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.14) concentration. The associations between PFAS and uric acid showed an inverted 'U' shaped pattern across kidney function stages. For example, uric acid level was greater with each log-unit increase in total-PFOA among GF-1 (ß = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.37), this relationship was greater in GF-3a (ß = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.89) and decreased in GF-3b/4 (ß = -0.22, 95% CI: -0.83, 0.39). We also found the odds of hyperuricemia increased linearly with increasing branched PFOA in quartiles (odds ratio = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.86, 3.85 at the highest quartile). CONCLUSION: We report novel results in which PFAS associations with uric acid varied according to isomer and adult kidney function. Besides, our findings are consistent with previous epidemiologic studies in finding a positive association between serum PFAS concentrations and serum uric acid, especially for PFOA. Our results indicate that more research is needed to more clearly assess the impact of PFAS isomers on human health, which will help to refine regulation policies for PFAS.

18.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 39(4): 665-673, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405720

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Is a mixture of preconception serum lipids and lipophilic micronutrients associated with clinical pregnancy and live births? DESIGN: In this prospective cohort study, blood serum was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval for 180 women undergoing IVF at an academic reproductive health centre. Concentrations of lipids (phospholipids, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides) and lipophilic micronutrients (α-, δ-, and γ-tocopherols, retinol, ß- and α-carotenes, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein and lycopene) were determined using diagnostic reagent kits and high-performance liquid chromatography. Poisson regression was used with robust variance estimation to evaluate changes in Z-scores for the mixture of serum lipid and lipophilic micronutrient concentrations as predictors of embryo implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth, adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, ovarian stimulation protocol and other measured lipid and lipophilic micronutrient concentrations. RESULTS: Each SD higher serum triglyceride concentration was associated with a lower chance of live birth (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.90) whereas a 1 SD higher serum α-tocopherol concentration, as part of a mixture of serum lipids and lipophilic micronutrients, was associated with a higher likelihood for a live birth (RR 1.61; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.36). Serum ß-carotene concentrations were associated with live birth in a non-linear fashion; low ß-carotene was associated with a lower chance of live birth and high ß-carotene with a higher chance of live birth. CONCLUSION: Although components of a mixture of lipids and lipophilic micronutrients were associated with live birth outcomes after IVF, a larger investigation is necessary to fully evaluate the potential clinical implications.

19.
Environ Res ; 176: 108541, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked with diabetes and elevated blood glucose in adults. However, there are few reports on the effects of PM on fasting blood glucose (FBG) among children. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the associations between medium-term exposure of ambient particles with diameters ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10) and FBG in a general population of children, and also to explore the modifying effects of diet. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 4234 children (aged 6-13 years) residing in Guangzhou, China, in 2017. Individual PM2.5 and PM10 exposures during the 186-day period before each physical examination were retrospectively estimated by an inverse distance weighting interpolation and time-weighted approach according to their home address, school address, and activity patterns. Linear mixed effect models were used to examine the relationships between PM2.5 and PM10 with FBG after adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: We found that per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10 levels during the 186-day period were associated with 2.3% (95% CI: 1.0%, 3.8%) higher FBG and 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5%, 1.4%) higher FBG, respectively. Stronger effect estimates were observed among subgroups of children with a family history of diabetes, and higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Also, we found significant interactions between PM2.5 concentration and family history of diabetes and SSBs intake on FBG. CONCLUSIONS: Medium-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher FBG levels in children, and that higher SSBs intake might modify these associations.

20.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184496

RESUMO

To evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and hyperuricemia, we prospectively followed 1748 traffic police officers without hyperuricemia at baseline (2009-2014) from 11 districts in Guangzhou, China. We calculated six-year average PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations using data collected from air monitoring stations. The hazard ratios for hyperuricemia per 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.28-1.68) for PM10, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.00-1.51) for SO2, and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) for NO2. We also identified changes in the ratio of serum uric acid to serum creatinine concentrations (ua/cre) per 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants as 11.54% (95% CI: 8.14%-14.93%) higher for PM10, 5.09% (95% CI: 2.76%-7.42%) higher for SO2, and 5.13% (95% CI: 2.35%-7.92%) higher for NO2, respectively. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with a higher incidence of hyperuricemia and an increase in ua/cre among traffic police officers.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA