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1.
Environ Res ; 203: 111820, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343551

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widely distributed suspected obesogens that cross the placenta. However, few data are available to assess potential fetal effects of PFAS exposure on children's adiposity in diverse populations. To address the data gap, we estimated associations between gestational PFAS concentrations and childhood adiposity in a diverse mother-child cohort. We considered 6 PFAS in first trimester blood plasma, measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, collected from non-smoking women with low-risk singleton pregnancies (n = 803). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat mass, fat-free mass, and % body fat were ascertained in 4-8 year old children as measures of adiposity. We estimated associations of individual gestational PFAS with children's adiposity and overweight/obesity, adjusted for confounders. There were more non-Hispanic Black (31.7 %) and Hispanic (42.6 %) children with overweight/obesity, than non-Hispanic white (18.2 %) and Asian/Pacific Islander (16.4 %) children (p < 0.0001). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 5.3 ng/mL) and perfluorooctanoic acid (2.0 ng/mL) had the highest median concentrations in maternal blood. Among women without obesity (n = 667), greater perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was associated with their children having higher WC z-score (ß = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.14; p = 0.02), fat mass (ß = 0.55 kg, 95%CI: 0.21, 0.90; p = 0.002), and % body fat (ß = 0.01 %; 95%CI: 0.003, 0.01; p = 0.004), although the association of PFUnDA with fat mass attenuated at the highest concentrations. Among women without obesity, the associations of PFAS and their children's adiposity varied significantly by self-reported race-ethnicity, although the direction of the associations was inconsistent. In contrast, among the children of women with obesity, greater, PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were associated with less adiposity (n = 136). Our results suggest that specific PFAS may be developmental obesogens, and that maternal race-ethnicity may be an important modifier of the associations among women without obesity.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adiposidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez
3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107006, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the effects of greenness on childhood visual impairment is scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess whether greenness surrounding schools was associated with visual impairment prevalence and visual acuity levels in Chinese schoolchildren and whether the associations might be explained by reduced air pollution. METHODS: In September 2013, we recruited 61,995 children and adolescents 6-18 years of age from 94 schools in seven provinces/municipalities in China. Greenness exposure was assessed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) from July to August 2013. Visual impairment was defined as at least one visual acuity level (dimensionless) lower than 4.9 (Snellen 5/6 equivalent). Three-year annual averages of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤1µm (PM1) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at each school were assessed using machine learning methods. We used generalized linear mixed models to estimate the associations between greenness and prevalent visual impairment and visual acuity levels and used mediation analyses to explore the potential mediating role of air pollution. RESULTS: In the adjusted model, an interquartile range increase in NDVI500m was associated with lower odds of prevalent visual impairment [odds ratio (OR)=0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.97]. The same increase in NDVI500m was also associated with 0.012 (95% CI: 0.008, 0.015) and 0.011 (95% CI: 0.007, 0.015) increases in visual acuity levels for left- and right-eye, respectively. Our results also suggested that PM1 and NO2 significantly mediated the association between NDVI500m and visual impairment. Similar effect estimates were observed for SAVI500m, and our estimates were generally robust in several sensitivity analyses. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest higher greenness surrounding schools might reduce the risk of visual impairment, possibly owing in part to lower PM1 and NO2 in vegetated areas. Further longitudinal studies with more precise greenness assessment are warranted to confirm these findings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8429.

4.
Hum Reprod Open ; 2021(3): hoab023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337160

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Are follicular fluid (FF), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations associated with IVF outcomes among women undergoing IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: There was a non-linear association between higher FF Hg concentration and a lower likelihood of biochemical pregnancy and live birth. Higher FF Pb concentration was also associated with a lower probability of live birth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous research suggests that toxic elements may affect fertility among couples conceiving with and without assistance. However, the results have been inconsistent, possibly related in part to exposure misclassification. Very few studies have used ovarian FF to measure toxic elements, as it requires an invasive collection procedure, yet it may offer a more accurate estimate of a biologically effective dose than blood or urine. STUDY DESIGN SIZE DURATION: This is a prospective study of 56 women undergoing IVF, from October 2015 to June 2017. FF was collected for analysis on the day of oocyte retrieval. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING METHODS: As, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined in 197 FF specimens, using inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry. FF glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, arylesterase and paraoxonase (PON1p) activities were measured using kinetic enzyme assays. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Non-linear associations were detected, in which the probabilities of biochemical pregnancy (P = 0.05) and live birth (P = 0.05) were lower in association with FF Hg greater than ∼0.51 µg/l Hg, adjusted for age, race, cigarette smoking and recent seafood consumption. Higher FF Pb was also associated with a lower likelihood of live birth (relative risk (RR) = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.00; P = 0.05). We also found a suggestive, although imprecise, antagonizing mediating effect of PON1p activity on the association between FF Pb and live birth (-28.3%; 95% CI: -358%, 270%). LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: The results should be interpreted judiciously given the limited sample size and difficulty accounting for correlated data in generalized additive models and mediation analyses. Additionally, women undergoing IVF are highly selected with respect to age and socioeconomic status, and so the generalizability of the results may be limited. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Overall, the results suggest that FF Hg was associated with a lower likelihood of biochemical pregnancy and live birth, with a potential threshold effect, and that higher FF Pb was associated with a lower probability of live birth. These results may help to guide clinical recommendations for limiting the exposure of patients to Hg and Pb and ultimately improve IVF success rates. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This work was funded in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), grant number 1R56ES023886-01, to the University at Albany (M.S.B.), and in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), grant number 1U2CES026542-01, to the Wadsworth Center (P.J.P.). The authors declare no competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

5.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440469

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine effect modification of maternal risk factor exposures and congenital heart disease (CHD) by maternal folic acid supplementation (FAS)/non-FAS. We included 8379 CHD cases and 6918 CHD-free controls from 40 clinical centers in Guangdong Province, Southern China, 2004-2016. Controls were randomly chosen from malformation-free fetuses and infants and frequency matched to the echocardiogram-confirmed cases by enrollment hospital and year of birth. We used multiple regression models to evaluate interactions between FAS/non-FAS and risk factors on CHDs and major CHD categories, adjusted for confounding variables. We detected statistically significant additive and multiplicative interactions between maternal FAS/non-FAS and first-trimester fever, viral infection, and threatened abortion on CHDs. An additive interaction on CHDs was also identified between non-FAS and living in a newly renovated home. We observed a statistically significant dose-response relationship between non-FAS and a greater number of maternal risk factors on CHDs. Non-FAS and maternal risk factors interacted additively on multiple critical CHDs, conotruncal defects, and right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Maternal risk factor exposures may have differential associations with CHD risk in offspring, according to FAS. These findings may inform the design of targeted interventions to prevent CHDs in highly susceptible population groups.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207279

RESUMO

A marked reduction in fertility and an increase in adverse reproductive outcomes during the last few decades have been associated with occupational and environmental chemical exposures. Exposure to different types of pesticides may increase the risks of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disease, but also of reduced fertility and birth defects. Both occupational and environmental exposures to pesticides are important, as many are endocrine disruptors, which means that even very low-dose exposure levels may have measurable biological effects. The aim of this review was to summarize the knowledge collected between 2000 and 2020, to highlight new findings, and to further interpret the mechanisms that may associate pesticides with infertility, abnormal sexual maturation, and pregnancy complications associated with occupational, environmental and transplacental exposures. A summary of current pesticide production and usage legislation is also included in order to elucidate the potential impact on exposure profile differences between countries, which may inform prevention measures. Recommendations for the medical surveillance of occupationally exposed populations, which should be facilitated by the biomonitoring of reduced fertility, is also discussed.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/induzido quimicamente , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva
8.
Environ Res ; 200: 111386, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of how prenatal exposure to environmental mixtures influences birth weight or other adverse outcomes is essential in protecting child health. OBJECTIVE: We illustrate a novel exposure continuum mapping (ECM) framework that combines the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm with generalized additive modeling (GAM) in order to integrate spatially-correlated learning into the study mixtures of environmental chemicals. We demonstrate our method using biomarker data on chemical mixtures collected from a diverse mother-child cohort. METHODS: We obtained biomarker concentrations for 16 prevalent endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) collected in the first-trimester from a large, ethnically/racially diverse cohort of healthy pregnant women (n = 604) during 2009-2012. This included 4 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 4 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 4 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). We applied a two-stage exposure continuum mapping (ECM) approach to investigate the combined impact of the EDCs on birth weight. First, we analyzed our EDC data with SOM in order to reduce the dimensionality of our exposure matrix into a two-dimensional grid (i.e., map) where nodes depict the types of EDC mixture profiles observed within our data. We define this map as the 'exposure continuum map', as the gridded surface reflects a continuous sequence of exposure profiles where adjacent nodes are composed of similar mixtures and profiles at more distal nodes are more distinct. Lastly, we used GAM to estimate a joint-dose response based on the coordinates of our ECM in order to capture the relationship between participant location on the ECM and infant birth weight after adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), education, serum cotinine, total plasma lipids, and infant sex. Single chemical regression models were applied to facilitate comparison. RESULTS: We found that an ECM with 36 mixture profiles retained 70% of the total variation in the exposure data. Frequency analysis showed that the most common profiles included relatively low concentrations for most EDCs (~10%) and that profiles with relatively higher concentrations (for single or multiple EDCs) tended to be rarer (~1%) but more distinct. Estimation of a joint-dose response function revealed that lower birth weights mapped to locations where profile compositions were dominated by relatively high PBDEs and select OCPs. Higher birth weights mapped to locations where profiles consisted of higher PCBs. These findings agreed well with results from single chemical models. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from our study revealed a wide range of prenatal exposure scenarios and found that combinations exhibiting higher levels of PBDEs were associated with lower birth weight and combinations with higher levels of PCBs and PFAS were associated with increased birth weight. Our ECM approach provides a promising framework for supporting studies of other exposure mixtures.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Peso ao Nascer , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 234: 113751, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882414

RESUMO

Ensuring harmonization of (ultra-)trace element measurements in non-traditional matrices is a particular analytical challenge that is highlighted in this work for seminal plasma as part of the developmental core at the Wadsworth Center Human Health Exposure Analysis Resource Targeted Laboratory. Seminal plasma was collected from 39 male partners of women undergoing in vitro fertilization and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) following deproteinization with concentrated HNO3. Validation was accomplished using: 1) two aqueous NIST SRMs; 2) a seminal plasma QC pool, characterized via standard additions; 3) standard additions on a subset of samples; and 4) sample duplicates. Agreement with NIST certified or reference values were obtained to within ±15% for the SRMs, and agreement between aqueous calibration values and standard additions values agreed to within ±10-20% for all elements. Standard additions of seminal plasma samples revealed varying matrix effects for Cu and Cr that were not found for the pooled samples. Duplicate analyses agreed to within ±10-30% depending on element. A potential source of contamination in colloidal silica used for processing seminal plasma was identified that requires further study. Comparisons with literature indicate lack of consensus for As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, and V content in seminal plasma. Further work is needed to improve harmonization of future studies.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Monitoramento Biológico , Calibragem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sêmen , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Environ Int ; 154: 106567, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental pollutants may contribute to the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), persistent environmental pollutants, on CHDs. This exploratory study aimed to generate testable hypotheses of the association between gestational PFAS and the risk of CHDs. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 11,578 newborns. Exposure odds ratios were compared between 158 CHD cases and 158 non-malformed controls delivered at the same hospital, individually matched by maternal age (±5 years) and parity. Concentrations of 27 PFAS, including linear and branched isomers, were determined in maternal peripheral blood and cord blood plasma collected before and during delivery using a ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression was utilized to evaluate associations between individual PFAS and the risk of CHDs, adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS: Maternal gestational exposure to the highly branched perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) isomer potassium 6-trifluoromethyperfluoroheptanesulfonate [6 m-PFOS, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (95% CI) = 2.47(1.05,5.83)] and perfluorodecanoic acid [PFDA, aOR (95% CI) = 2.33(1.00,5.45)] were associated with increased odds of septal defects with statistical significance, while linear PFOS [aOR (95% CI) = 3.65(1.09,12.16)] and perfluoro-n-dodecanoic acid [PFDoA, aOR (95% CI) = 6.82(1.75, 26.61)] were associated with conotruncal defects. Effect estimates also suggested associations for higher maternal 6 m-PFOS and PFDA concentrations with ventricular septal defect. However, we did not observe these associations in cord blood. CONCLUSION: These exploratory findings suggested that gestational exposure to most PFAS, especially linear PFOS, 6 m-PFOS, PFDA, and PFDoA, was associated with greater risks for septal and conotruncal defects. However, a larger, adequately powered study is needed to confirm our findings, and to more comprehensively investigate the potential teratogenic effects of other more recently introduced PFAS, and on associations with individual CHD subtypes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez
11.
Environ Int ; 153: 106548, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of maternal exposure to ambient air pollution on congenital heart defects (CHD) has been mixed and are still relatively limited in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and CHD in China. METHOD: This longitudinal, population-based, case-control study consecutively recruited fetuses with CHD and healthy volunteers from 21 cities, Southern China, between January 2006 and December 2016. Residential address at delivery was linked to random forests models to estimate maternal exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm, and ≤10 µm as well as nitrogen dioxides, in three trimesters. The CHD cases were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia ultrasound. The CHD subtypes were coded using the International Classification Diseases. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between air pollutants and CHD and its subtypes. RESULTS: A total of 7055 isolated CHD and 6423 controls were included in the current analysis. Maternal air pollution exposures were consistently higher among cases than those among controls. Logistic regression analyses showed that maternal exposure to all air pollutants during the first trimester was associated with an increased odds of CHD (e.g., an interquartile range [13.3 µg/m3] increase in PM1 was associated with 1.09-fold ([95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.18]) greater odds of CHD). No significant associations were observed for maternal air pollution exposures during the second trimester and the third trimester. The pattern of the associations between air pollutants and different CHD subtypes was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to greater levels of air pollutants during the pregnancy, especially the first trimester, is associated with higher odds of CHD in offspring. Further longitudinal well-designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
12.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117078, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839621

RESUMO

Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonates (Cl-PFESAs), are ubiquitous alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a widely used poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS). Despite in vivo and in vitro evidence of metabolic toxicity, no study has explored associations of Cl-PFESAs concentrations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a human population. To help address this data gap, we quantified 32 PFAS, including 2 PFOS alternative Cl-PFESAs (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs) in serum from 1228 adults participating in the cross-sectional Isomers of C8 Health Project in China study. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MetS and its various components were estimated using individual PFAS as a continuous or categorical predictor in multivariate regression models. The association between the overall mixture of PFAS and MetS was examined using probit Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR-P). Greater serum PFAS concentrations were associated with higher odds of MetS and demonstrated a statistically significant dose-response trend (P for trend < 0.001). For example, each ln-unit (ng/mL) increase in serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.85). MetS was also 2.26 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.23) times more common in the highest quartile of serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA concentration than the lowest, and particularly high among women (OR = 6.41, 95% CI: 3.65, 11.24). The BKMR-P analysis showed a positive association between the overall mixture of measured PFAS and the odds of MetS, but was only limited to women. While our results suggest that exposure to Cl-PFESAs was associated with MetS, additional longitudinal studies are needed to more definitively address the potential health concerns of these PFOS alternatives.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672279

RESUMO

Background: Differential exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including phthalate diesters, may contribute to persistent racial/ethnic disparities in women's reproductive health outcomes. We sought to characterize sources of gestational exposure to these agents that may differ according to maternal race. Methods: We enrolled pregnant Black (n = 198), including African American, and White (n = 197) women during the second trimester, and measured eight phthalate monoester metabolites in urine. We assessed confounder-adjusted associations between multiple food and beverage consumption habits, summarized using a principal component analysis, as predictors of maternal urinary phthalate metabolite levels, stratified by race. Results: Whites reported significantly greater unprocessed food consumption (42.5% vs. 32.0%; p < 0.001) and storage of food in clear unbreakable plastic containers (66.5% vs. 49.3%; p < 0.001) than Blacks, while Blacks consumed more canned fruits and vegetables (23.5% vs. 12.2%; p < 0.001) than Whites. Using plastics for food storage, microwaving in plastic containers, and using hard plastic water bottles was associated with urinary phthalate concentrations, especially DEHP metabolites (e.g., mean difference = 5.13%; 95% CI: 3.05, 7.25). These associations were driven primarily by Black pregnant women. Conclusions: Targeted interventions to reduce maternal exposure to phthalates need to be designed with specific attention to differences in food and beverage consumption behaviors among Black and White women.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Bebidas , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Gravidez
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 142365, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601665

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests associations between Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exposure and asthma, but the findings are inconsistent. The current study sought to investigate whether perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) could contribute to asthma exacerbation and to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms. The objectives are a) to determine whether PFOS or PFOA could aggravate the mouse asthma and pulmonary inflammation b) to investigate whether PFOS and PFOA regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and aggravated asthma. Ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthmatic mice were exposed to PFOS or PFOA by gavage. PFOS and PFOA serum level and toxicity in organs were assessed; and the impacts on respiratory symptoms, lung tissue pathology, T helper cell (Th2) response, and STAT6 pathway activity were also evaluated. In vitro Jurkat cells were used to study the mechanisms of PFOS and PFOA mediated Th1 and Th2 responses. Both PFOS and PFOA exacerbated lung tissue inflammation (greater number of eosinophils and mucus hyperproduction), upregulated Th2 cytokine production (IL-4 and IL-13), and promoted Th2 cells and STAT6 activation. Furthermore, PFOS and PFOA enhanced the Th2 response in Jurkat cells via STAT6 activation; and the effect of PFOS exposure on GATA-3, IL-4 and IFN-γ was blocked after the expression of STAT6 was suppressed in Jurkat cells, however, the effects of PFOA exposure were only partially blocked. PFOS and PFOA aggravated inflammation among OVA-induced asthmatic mice, by promoting the Th2 response in lymphocytes and disturbing the balance of Th1/Th2 through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Asma , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
15.
Thorax ; 76(9): 880-886, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in the impact of greenness exposure on airway diseases, but the impact of greenness on lung function in children is limited. We aimed to investigate the associations between greenness surrounding schools and lung function in children and whether these associations are modified by air pollution exposure. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, a cross-sectional survey and spirometry were performed among 6740 school children. Lung function patterns were determined as obstructive forced expiratory volume 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC <0.8) or restrictive (FEV1/FVC ≥0.8 but FVC <80% of predicted). School greenness was defined by Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil-adjusted vegetation index. Nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particular matter concentrations were assessed using a spatiotemporal model and national monitoring data. Two-level generalised linear models were used to investigate associations and interactions. RESULTS: Overall, an IQR in NDVI within 500 m was associated with higher FEV1 (+57 mL 95% CI 44 to 70) and FVC (+58 mL 95% CI 43 to 73). NDVI was similarly associated with 25% reduced odds of spirometric restriction (OR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.86). However, among children exposed to the highest compared with the lowest quartile of particulate matter, increasing NDVI was paradoxically associated with lower -40 mL FVC (95% CI -47 to -33, p interaction <0.05). DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that, in this study population, greening urban areas may promote lung health in low-moderate pollution areas but not in high air pollution areas. If the findings are replicated in other moderate-to-high pollution settings, this highlights a need to have a flexible green policy.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Plantas , Testes de Função Respiratória , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
16.
Environ Res ; 195: 110834, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ambient temperature extremes due to heat exposure was an established risk factor for preterm birth (<37 gestational weeks). However, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the effects of temperature variation(TV), although TV is also associated with heat exposure and can influence human health risk. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between inter- and intraday TV and preterm birth (PTB). METHOD: A total of 1,388,994 live singleton births were collected from January 2003 to December 2012, from the Shenzhen Birth registry system. Daily temperature range (DTR) was defined as the difference between the highest and lowest recorded daily temperature. Intraday TV was defined as the maximum daily diurnal temperature range in a given week (Max-DTR). Inter-day TV was defined as the maximum increase or decrease in daily mean temperature between days t and t-1in a given week; either an increase (Temp-inc) or a decrease (Temp-dec). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate TV-related PTB risks during the first trimester, the second trimester, and in late pregnancy. RESULTS: The maximum values for DTR, Temp-inc, and Temp-dec were 17 °C, 8 °C and 11 °C, respectively. The greatest TV-related PTB risk occurred in the second trimester, with 5.8% (95%CI: 3.3%, 8.3%), 23.7% (95%CI: 19.6%, 27.9%), and 4.4% (95%CI: 1.8%, 7.1%) differences per 1 °C increase in Max-DTR, Temp-inc, and Temp-dec, respectively. Greater TV was associated with elevated PTB risk during the warm season. The association between TV and PTB was modified by seasons, maternal education and chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Sharp TV is a likely risk factor for PTB. Policy makers and clinicians should recognize the potential role of TV in the etiology of PTB so that interventions can be designed to protect pregnant women and their fetuses against extreme temperatures.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111733, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385679

RESUMO

Both essential and non-essential elements have been associated with female reproductive function in epidemiologic investigations, including among IVF populations. To date, most investigators have used blood or urine to assess biomarkers of exposure, with few employing ovarian follicular fluid (FF). FF may offer a more direct "snapshot" of the oocyte microenvironment than blood or urine, however previous studies report follicle-to-follicle variability in FF constituents that may contribute to exposure misclassification. Our objectives were to investigate sources of trace element variability, to estimate FF biomarker reliability among women undergoing IVF (n = 34), and to determine the minimum number of follicles required to estimate subject-specific mean concentrations. We measured As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn in FF samples using inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry. Inter-subject (between-women) variability contributed most of the variability in FF element concentrations, with ovarian, follicular, and analytical as smaller sources of variability. The proportion of variability attributable to sources between-follicles differed by age, body mass index (BMI), race, and cigarette smoking for Cu, Se, and Zn, by BMI and cigarette smoking for As, by primary infertility diagnosis for Hg, Cu, Se, and Zn, and by ovarian stimulation protocol for Mn and Se. Four to five individual follicles were sufficient to estimate subject-specific mean Cu, Se, and Zn concentrations, while >14 were necessary for As, Hg, Cd, Pb, and Mn. Overall, our results suggest that FF is a suitable source of biomarkers of As and Hg exposure in ovarian follicles. Although limited in size, our study offers the most comprehensive exploration of biological variation in FF trace elements to date and may provide guidance for future studies of ovarian trace element exposures.


Assuntos
Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Líquido Folicular/química , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Oócitos , Folículo Ovariano , Oligoelementos/análise
18.
Environ Res ; 195: 110763, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516688

RESUMO

Observational and experimental studies report associations between gestational phthalate exposure and fetal development, yet few data exist to characterize phthalate effects on head circumference (HC) or to estimate the impact of race or sex. To address this data gap, we enrolled 152 African American and 158 white mothers with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies from the Charleston, South Carolina (USA) metropolitan area in a prospective birth cohort. Study participants provided up to two urine specimens during mid and late gestation, completed a study questionnaire, and allowed access to hospital birth records. We measured eight phthalate monoester metabolites using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and calculated molar sums of phthalate parent diesters. After specific gravity correction, we tested for associations between phthalates and neonatal HC (cm) and cephalization index (cm/g) using multiple informant linear regression with inverse probability weighting to account for selection bias between repeated urine sampling, adjusted for maternal race, age, body mass index, education, and smoking. We explored interactions by maternal race and infant sex. A doubling of urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentration was associated with a -0.49% (95%CI: -0.95%, -0.02%) smaller head circumference, although seven other phthalate metabolites were null. There were no statistically significant associations with cephalization index. HC was larger for whites than African American newborns (p < 0.0001) but similar for males and females (p = 0.16). We detected interactions for maternal race with urinary monobutyl phthalate (MBP; p = 0.03), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP; p = 0.01), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP; p = 0.05), monomethyl phthalate (MMP; p = 0.02), and the sum of dibutyl phthalate metabolites (∑DBP; p = 0.05), in which reduced HC circumference associations were stronger among whites than African Americans, and interactions for sex with MBP (p = 0.08) and MiBP (p = 0.03), in which associations were stronger for females than males. Our results suggest that gestational phthalate exposure is associated with smaller neonatal HC and that white mothers and female newborns have greater susceptibility.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Dibutilftalato , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , South Carolina/epidemiologia
19.
Reprod Toxicol ; 99: 56-64, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271283

RESUMO

Phthalates are reproductive toxicants in experimental animal studies and exposure has been associated with infertility in human populations, although the results have been inconsistent. To help to address the data gap, we conducted a hypothesis-generating investigation of associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and reproductive outcomes among women (n = 56) and their male partners (n = 43) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Urine was collected from participants on the day of oocyte retrieval. Samples were analyzed for a series of phthalates, MEP, MBP, MPP, MHxP, MEHP, MEHHP, MECPP, MiNP, MiDP, MCHP, and MBzP, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We employed Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to estimate associations between urinary phthalate levels and biochemical pregnancy and live birth, adjusted for partner's concentration and confounding factors. Doublings in women's MBP (relative risk (RR) = 0.32, 95 % CI: 0.13, 0.78), and men's MEHP (RR = 0.28, 95 % CI: 0.09, 0.83), were associated with a lower likelihood for pregnancy. Doublings in women's (RR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.01, 0.67) and men's (RR = 0.13, 95 % CI: 0.02, 0.92) MHxP were associated with a lower likelihood of live birth. Our results suggest that phthalate exposure may impact IVF outcomes, and underscore the importance of including male partners when investigating the impact of phthalate exposure on IVF. These results also suggest that clinical recommendations should include male partners for limiting phthalate exposure. Still, a larger and more comprehensive investigation is necessary to more definitively assess the risks.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Fertilização In Vitro , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
20.
Prev Med ; 143: 106319, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166566

RESUMO

Low maternal socioeconomic status (SES) is considered as a risk factor of congenital heart diseases (CHDs) in offspring. However, the pathways underpinning the SES-CHDs associations are unclear. We assessed if first trimester maternal folic acid supplementation (FAS) is a mediator of the SES-CHDs associations. This case-control study included 8379 CHD cases and 6918 CHD-free controls from 40 participating centers in Guangdong, Southern China, 2004-2016. All fetuses were screened for CHDs using ultrasound and cases were confirmed by echocardiogram. We collected SES and FAS information during face-to-face interview by obstetricians using a structured questionnaire. Low SES was defined as education attainment <12 years, household individual income <3000 Chinese Yuan/person/month or unemployment. FAS referred to at least 0.4 mg of daily folic acid intake over 5 days/week continuously. We used causal mediation analysis to estimate the direct, indirect and proportion mediated by FAS on the SES-CHDs associations adjusted for confounders. Both low maternal income and education were significantly associated with increased risks of CHDs and lower prevalence of FAS. Low maternal FAS prevalence mediated 10% [95%CI:5%,13%] and 3% [95%CI:1%,5%] of the maternal low income-CHDs and the maternal low education-CHDs associations, respectively. In addition, FAS mediated the highest proportion of the associations between income and multiple critical CHDs [46.9%, 95%CI:24.7%,77%] and conotruncal defects [31.5%, 95%CI:17.1%,52.0%], respectively. Maternal FAS partially mediated the SES-CHDs associations, especially among the most critical and common CHDs. Promoting FAS in low SES women of childbearing age may be a feasible intervention to help prevent CHDs.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
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