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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760574

RESUMO

Blau syndrome (BS) is an auto-inflammatory granulomatous disease that possibly involves abnormal response to interferon gamma (IFNγ) due to exaggerated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) activity. Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is an infectious granulomatous disease that is caused by impaired production of or response to IFNγ. We report a mother and daughter who are both heterozygous for NOD2c.2264C˃T variant and dominant-negative IFNGR1818del4 mutation. The 17-year-old patient displayed an altered form of BS and milder form of MSMD, whereas the 44-year-old mother was completely asymptomatic. This experiment of nature supports the notion that IFNγ is an important driver of at least some BS manifestations and that elucidation of its involvement in the disease immunopathogenesis may identify novel therapeutic targets.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2629, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781117

RESUMO

Background: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with a multitude of pro-inflammatory effects. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein induced mainly by IL-6 in response to inflammatory conditions, particularly infection. The biological functions of CRP include opsonisation, induction of phagocytosis, complement activation, or chemotaxis enhancement. Factors interfering with IL-6-mediated recruitment of innate immune responses, such as the presence of anti-IL6 antibodies, may therefore compromise the host resistance to microbial pathogens. This has major implications for the use of IL-6-targeting biologics, such as tocilizumab or sarilumab in rheumatologic, immune dysregulation diseases, and cancer. Case presentation: 20-month-old Czech female developed severe septic shock with clinical and laboratory signs of systemic inflammation but no increase of CRP or IL-6. The offending pathogen was most likely Staphylococcus aureus, detected in a throat swab; the response to antibiotic treatment was prompt. A defect in the integrity of IL-6/CRP axis was suspected and verified by the detection of neutralizing IL-6 antibodies in the serum of the child. Conclusion: We report a first case of systemic bacterial infection in a patient with anti-IL6 autoantibodies. Disturbed IL-6 signaling, whether iatrogenic by targeted IL-6 blockade or endogenous due to the presence of autoantibodies against IL-6, represents a risk factor for increased infectious susceptibility. Patients with severe bacterial infection without elevation of CRP should be examined for the presence of anti-IL6 autoantibodies.

3.
Clin Ther ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564514

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunoglobulin substitution therapy is an essential therapeutic approach for patients with primary antibody deficiencies. Different methods of administration, including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) preparations, provide effective and tolerable treatment and enable the adjustment of therapy to patients' needs. A new 20% SCIG represents a new therapeutic option and a new route of administration using rapid-push application. The aim of the Czech Hizentra Noninterventional Study With Rapid Push (CHHINSTRAP) is to evaluate patient satisfaction with as well as the tolerability and efficacy of nonmedical switch to 20% SCIG from previous treatment with IVIG or SCIG and rapid push as a new way to administer SCIG. CHHINSTRAP is the first Phase IV, noninterventional, open-label, prospective, multicentric study of this type conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. METHODS: Primary end points, including efficacy, adverse effects, convenience of use, and overall satisfaction, were evaluated by Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication version II. Secondary end points, such as serum IgG trough levels, infusion duration, number of application sites, frequency of infections, related hospital admissions, and antibiotic consumption, were obtained from patients at each follow-up visit. FINDINGS: Together, 50 eligible patients with primary antibody deficiency were switched from SCIG or IVIG to an equivalent dose of 20% SCIG and were followed up for 12 months during 5 consecutive visits. The results indicate that patients switched from previous IVIG or SCIG preparations had significantly higher serum trough IgG levels and a lower incidence of infections and related events, such as hospital admissions or consumption of antibiotics. These findings were also reflected in gradually increasing convenience of use and overall satisfaction reported by patients. Apart from duration of application, no differences were found between patients previously receiving SCIG or IVIG. Moreover, our study found a high level of safety of 20% SCIG rapid push, which was comparable to other preparations and application methods. IMPLICATIONS: On the basis of the results of CHHINSTRAP study, we conclude that 20% SCIG is a tolerable and effective immunoglobulin preparation, representing a new therapeutic approach in patients with primary antibody deficiencies. Its efficacy and tolerability have been found in patients on nonmedical switch from previous treatment with IVIG or SCIG. (Clin Ther. 2019;XX:XXX-XXX) © 2019 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

4.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-9, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most frequent primary immunodeficiencies and is characterized by disturbed immunoglobulin production and dysregulation of the immune system. Results of previous studies suggest a higher prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA) in CVID patients than in the general population. We initiated this study to evaluate lung functions and identify risk factors for BA and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in patients with CVID. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CVID were included in this study. In all of them, spirometry and a metacholine bronchoprovocation test were performed. We also investigated the role of atopy, eosinophilic inflammation, and potential risk factors such as gender, age, or immunoglobulin levels at the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: BHR was confirmed in 12 patients (52%), all of whom had normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. However, BHR-positive patients had significantly decreased MEF25. BHR-positive patients had also more symptoms related to bronchial obstruction, with 8 of them (35%) being suspected of having BA at the end of the study. A higher prevalence of BHR was found in females, with a relative risk of 2.89. CONCLUSIONS: An increased prevalence of BHR and BA was detected in CVID patients compared to the general population. BA may develop despite the disturbed immunoglobulin production, and the majority of patients display nonatopic and noneosinophilic properties. These results suggest a limited role of atopy and eosinophilic inflammation in the pathogenesis of BA in CVID patients.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postzygotic de novo mutations lead to the phenomenon of gene mosaicism. The 3 main types are called somatic, gonadal, and gonosomal mosaicism, which differ in terms of the body distribution of postzygotic mutations. Mosaicism has been reported occasionally in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) since the early 1990s, but its real involvement has not been systematically addressed. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the incidence of gene mosaicism in patients with PIDs. METHODS: The amplicon-based deep sequencing method was used in the 3 parts of the study that establish (1) the allele frequency of germline variants (n = 100), (2) the incidence of parental gonosomal mosaicism in families with PIDs with de novo mutations (n = 92), and (3) the incidence of mosaicism in families with PIDs with moderate-to-high suspicion of gene mosaicism (n = 36). Additional investigations evaluated body distribution of postzygotic mutations, their stability over time, and their characteristics. RESULTS: The range of allele frequency (44.1% to 55.6%) was established for germline variants. Those with minor allele frequencies of less than 44.1% were assumed to be postzygotic. Mosaicism was detected in 30 (23.4%) of 128 families with PIDs, with a variable minor allele frequency (0.8% to 40.5%). Parental gonosomal mosaicism was detected in 6 (6.5%) of 92 families with de novo mutations, and a high incidence of mosaicism (63.9%) was detected among families with moderate-to-high suspicion of gene mosaicism. In most analyzed cases mosaicism was found to be both uniformly distributed and stable over time. CONCLUSION: This study represents the largest performed to date to investigate mosaicism in patients with PIDs, revealing that it affects approximately 25% of enrolled families. Our results might have serious consequences regarding treatment and genetic counseling and reinforce the use of next-generation sequencing-based methods in the routine analyses of PIDs.

7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1730, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083170

RESUMO

DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficiency characterized by thymic dysplasia resulting in T cell lymphopenia. Most patients suffer from increased susceptibility to infections and heightened prevalence of autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune thrombocytopenia. B cells in DiGeorge syndrome show impaired maturation, with low switched-memory B cells and a wide spectrum of antibody deficiencies or dysgammaglobulinemia, presumably due to impaired germinal center responses. We set out to evaluate circulating follicular helper T cells (cTFHs) in DiGeorge syndrome, as markers of T-B interaction in the germinal centers in a cohort of 17 patients with partial DiGeorge and 21 healthy controls of similar age. cTFHs were characterized as CXCR5+CD45RA- CD4+ T cells using flow cytometry. We verify previous findings that the population of memory CD4+ T cells is relatively increased in diGeorge patients, corresponding to low naïve T cells and impaired T cell production in the thymus. The population of CXCR5+ memory CD4+ T cells (cTFHs) was significantly expanded in patients with DiGeorge syndrome, but only healthy controls and not DiGeorge syndrome patients showed gradual increase of CXCR5 expression on cTFHs with age. We did not observe correlation between cTFHs and serum IgG levels or population of switched memory B cells. There was no difference in cTFH numbers between DiGeorge patients with/without thrombocytopenia and with/without allergy. Interestingly, we show strong decline of PD1 expression on cTFHs in the first 5 years of life in DiGeorge patients and healthy controls, and gradual increase of PD1 and ICOS expression on CD4- T cells in healthy controls later in life. Thus, here, we show that patients with DiGeorge syndrome have elevated numbers of cTFHs, which, however, do not correlate with autoimmunity, allergy, or production of immunoglobulins. This relative expansion of cTFH cells may be a result of impaired T cell development in patients with thymic dysplasia.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934865

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 gain-of-function (STAT1 GOF) mutations are the most common cause of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We aim to report the effect of oral ruxolitinib, the Janus kinase (JAK) family tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on clinical and immune status of a 12-year-old boy with severe CMC due to a novel STAT1 GOF mutation. METHODS: Clinical features and laboratory data were analyzed, particularly lymphocyte subsets, ex vivo IFNγ- and IFNα-induced STAT1, 3, 5 phosphorylation dynamics during the course of JAK1/2 inhibition therapy, and Th17-related, STAT1- and STAT3-inducible gene expression before and during the treatment. Sanger sequencing was used to detect the STAT1 mutation. Literature review of ruxolitinib in treatment of CMC is appended. RESULTS: A novel STAT1 GOF mutation (c.617T > C; p.L206P), detected in a child with recalcitrant CMC, was shown to be reversible in vitro with ruxolitinib. Major clinical improvement was achieved after 8 weeks of ruxolitinib treatment, while sustained suppression of IFNγ- and IFNα-induced phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, as well as increased STAT3-inducible and Th17-related gene expression, was demonstrated ex vivo. Clinical relapse and spike of all monitored phosphorylated STAT activity was registered shortly after unplanned withdrawal, decreasing again after ruxolitinib reintroduction. No increase of peripheral CD4+ IL17+ T cells was detected after 4 months of therapy. No adverse effects were noted. CONCLUSION: JAK1/2 inhibition with ruxolitinib represents a viable option for treatment of refractory CMC, if HSCT is not considered. However, long-term administration is necessary, as the effect is not sustained after treatment discontinuation.

9.
Front Immunol ; 9: 3135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723478

RESUMO

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is one of the most frequent inborn errors of immunity, increased occurrence of malignancies, particularly lymphomas, and gastric cancers, has long been noted among CVID patients. Multifactorial etiology, including immune dysregulation, infections, chronic inflammation, or genetic background, is suggested to contribute to tumor development. Here, we present the results of the first Czech nationwide study focused on epidemiology, immunology and genetic background in a cohort of CVID patients who also developed tumors Methods: The cohort consisted of 295 CVID patients followed for 3,070 patient/years. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated to determine the risk of cancer, and Risk ratio (RR) was established to evaluate the significance of comorbidities. Moreover, immunophenotyping, including immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte populations, was assessed. Finally, Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed in all patients with lymphoma to investigate the genetic background. Results: Twenty-five malignancies were diagnosed in 22 patients in a cohort of 295 CVID patients. SIR was more than 6 times greater in comparison to the general population. The most common neoplasias were gastric cancers and lymphomas. History of Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was established as a potential risk factor, with over 3 times higher risk of cancer development. The B cell count at diagnosis of lymphoma was reduced in the lymphoma group; moreover, post-treatment B and T cell lymphopenia, associated with poorer outcome, was found in a majority of the patients. Intriguingly, no NK cell depression was observed after the chemotherapy. WES revealed heterogeneous genetic background among CVID patients with tumors, identifying gene variants associated with primary immunodeficiencies (such as CTLA4, PIK3CD, PMS2) and/or increased cancer susceptibility (including BRCA1, RABEP1, EP300, KDM5A). Conclusions: The incidence of malignancy in our CVID cohort was found to be more than 6 times greater compared to the general population. Gastric cancers and lymphomas were the most frequently diagnosed tumors. ITP was identified as a risk factor for malignancy in CVID patients. WES analysis confirmed a wide genetic heterogeneity among CVID patients. The identified causative or modifying gene variants pointed to errors in mechanisms contributing to both immunodeficiency and malignancy.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(6): 559-574, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28730517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary selective IgM deficiency (sIgMD) is a primary immunodeficiency with unclear pathogenesis and a low number of published cases. METHODS: We reviewed clinical and laboratory manifestations of 17 sIgMD patients. Serum IgM, IgG, and its subclasses, IgA, IgE, antibodies against tetanus toxoid, pneumococcal polysaccharides and Haemophilus influenzae type b, isohemagglutinins, and T and B lymphocyte subsets, expressions of IgM on B cells and B lymphocyte production of IgM were compared with previously reported case reports and a small series of patients, which included 81 subjects in total. RESULTS: We found that some patients in our cohort (OC) and published cases (PC) had increased IgE levels (OC 7/15; PC 21/37), decreased IgG4 levels (OC 5/14), very low titers of isohemagglutinins (OC 8/8; PC 18/21), increased transitional B cell counts (OC 8/9), decreased marginal zone B cell counts (OC 8/9), and increased 21low B cell counts (OC 7/9). Compared with the PC (20/20), only two of five OC patients showed very low or undetectable production of IgM after stimulation. A majority of the patients had normal antibody production to protein and polysaccharide antigens, basic lymphocyte subset counts, and expression of surface IgM molecules on B cells. CONCLUSIONS: Low IgM levels are associated with various immunopathological disorders; however, pathogenic mechanisms leading to decreased IgM serum level in selective IgM deficiency remain unclear. Moreover, it is difficult to elucidate how strong these associations are and if these immunopathological conditions are primary or secondary.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Infecção/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autoimunidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/deficiência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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