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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17907, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087743

RESUMO

Coffee consumption has been associated with the risk of cancer at several anatomical sites, but the findings, mostly from studies of non-Hispanic whites and Asians, are inconsistent. The association between coffee consumption and the incidence of cancer has not been thoroughly examined in African Americans. We conducted a nested case-control study including 1801 cancer cases and 3337 controls among African Americans from the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) to examine the association between coffee drinking, as assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the risk of four common cancers (lung, prostate, breast, colorectal). We used logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and cancer-specific risk factors. Overall, only ≤ 9.5% of African American cases and controls from the SCCS drank regular or decaffeinated coffee ≥ 2 times/day. After adjustment for major cancer-specific risk factors, coffee consumption was not statistically significantly associated with the risk of lung, breast, colorectal, or prostate cancers (OR range 0.78-1.10; P ≥ 0.27 for ≥ 2 versus < 1 times/day) or overall cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.75-1.16; P = 0.52 for ≥ 2 versus < 1 times/day). Coffee consumption was not associated with the risk of cancer among African Americans in our study.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auto-antibodies to tumor suppressor p53 are found in a subset of patients with colorectal cancer. A recent prospective study in the United States has reported a significant 1.8-fold increased odds for colorectal cancer development with prediagnostic seropositivity to p53. In this study, we sought to examine this association in a U.S. colorectal cancer cohort consortium to evaluate the potential utility of p53 auto-antibodies as an early biomarker for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Auto-antibodies to p53 were measured in prediagnostic blood samples of 3,702 incident colorectal cancer cases and 3,702 controls, matched by age, race, and sex, from 9 U.S. prospective cohorts. The association of seropositivity to p53 with colorectal cancer risk, overall and by time between blood draw and diagnosis, was determined by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 5% of controls and 7% of cases were seropositive to p53, resulting in a statistically significant 33% increased colorectal cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.61]. By follow-up time, the association was only significant with colorectal cancer diagnoses within 4 years after blood draw (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.62-3.19), but not thereafter (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: In this large consortium of prospective cohorts, we found that prediagnostic seropositivity to tumor suppressor p53 was significantly associated with an over 2-fold increased odds of developing colorectal cancer within 4 years after blood draw. IMPACT: Our finding suggests that p53 seropositivity may not be a useful predictor of long-term colorectal cancer risk; however, it might be considered as a marker to aid in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(12): 1069-1077, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diets with a high glycemic load (GL) or glycemic index (GI) may increase cancer risk. Findings from prior studies on the relationship between GL, GI, and lung cancer risk are inconsistent. We investigated this relationship in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective cohort that includes diverse racial groups predominantly low-income adults aged 40-79 in 12 southeastern states of the USA. We estimated dietary GL and GI values using data collected from food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Dietary GL and GI were energy adjusted by residual method and categorized into sex-specific quintiles. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the associations between dietary GL, GI, and lung cancer risk. We further performed stratified analyses by various factors. RESULTS: Intakes of individual food items or food groups that commonly contribute to GL were similar between blacks and whites in the cohort. After excluding the first two years of follow-up, 947 incident lung cancers were ascertained among 55,068 participants. Neither dietary GL nor GI was significantly associated with incident lung cancer risk in the overall population (GL: Q5 vs. Q1, HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.72-1.07, ptrend = 0.29; GI: Q5 vs. Q1, HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.86-1.30, ptrend = 0.71), nor in subgroups of populations (ptrend > 0.05), in multivariable-adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: Dietary GL and GI were not independently associated with incident lung cancer risk in a large understudied population.

5.
Sleep Med ; 75: 459-467, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether race (African American (AA) and white) is associated with sleep duration among adults from low socioeconomic (SES) strata and whether SES status, lifestyle behaviors, or health conditions are associated with sleep duration within race-sex groups. METHODS: This cross-sectional study includes 78,549 participants from the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). Averaged daily sleep duration was assessed by weighted averages of self-reported sleep duration on weekdays and weekends. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of very short (<5 h/day), short (5-6 h/day), and long sleep (≥9 h/day) associated with pre-selected risk factors in each race-sex group were determined by multinomial logistic models. RESULTS: The prevalence of very short and short sleep was similar among AAs (6.2% and 29.1%) and whites (6.5% and 29.1%). Long sleep was considerably more prevalent among AAs (19.3%) than whites (13.0%). Very short sleep was associated with lower education and family income, with stronger associations among whites. Higher physical activity levels significantly decreased odds for both very short (OR = 0.80) and long sleep (OR = 0.78). Smoking, alcohol use, and dietary intake were not associated with sleep duration. Regardless of race or sex, very short, short, and long sleep were significantly associated with self-reported health conditions, especially depression (ORs were 2.06, 1.33, and 1.38, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep duration patterns differed between AAs and whites from the underrepresented SCCS population with low SES. Sleep duration was associated with several socioeconomic, health behaviors, and health conditions depending on race and sex.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer. No studies yet have attempted to replicate these SNPs in US minority populations. We aimed to replicate the associations of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs with pancreatic cancer and build and test a polygenic risk score (PRS) for pancreatic cancer in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS: We evaluated 31 risk variants in the Multiethnic Cohort and the Southern Community Cohort Study. We included 691 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cases and 13,778 controls from African-American, Japanese-American, Latino, Native Hawaiian, and white participants. We tested the association between each SNP and PDAC, established a PRS using the 31 SNPs, and tested the association between the score and PDAC risk. RESULTS: Eleven of the 31 SNPs were replicated in the multiethnic sample. The PRS was associated with PDAC risk [OR top vs. middle quintile = 2.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.73-2.92)]. Notably, the PRS was associated with PDAC risk in all ethnic groups except Native Hawaiian (OR per risk allele ranged from 1.33 in Native Hawaiians to 1.91 in African Americans; P heterogeneity = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to replicate 11 of the 31 GWAS-identified risk variants for pancreatic cancer in multiethnic populations, including African Americans, Japanese Americans, and Latinos. Our results also suggest a potential utility of PRS with GWAS-identified risk variants for the identification of individuals at increased risk for PDAC across multiple ethnic groups. IMPACT: PRS can potentially be used to stratify pancreatic cancer risk across multiple ethnic groups.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2084-2092, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, the main risk factor for gastric cancer, has been decreasing in the United States; however, there remains a substantial racial disparity. Moreover, the time-trends for prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection, the most virulent form, are unknown in the U.S. POPULATION: We sought to assess prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection over time by race in the United States. METHODS: We utilized multiplex serology to quantify antibody responses to H. pylori antigens in 4,476 participants across five cohorts that sampled adults from 1985 to 2009. Using log-binomial regression models, we calculated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence and birth year by race. RESULTS: African Americans were three times more likely to be H. pylori-CagA sero-positive than Whites. After adjustment, H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence was lower with increasing birth year among Whites (P trend = 0.001), but remained stable for African Americans. When stratified by sex and education separately, the decline in H. pylori-CagA sero-positivity among Whites remained only for females (P trend < 0.001) and was independent of educational attainment. Among African Americans, there was no difference by sex; furthermore, sero-prevalence increased with increasing birth year among those with a high school education or less (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals in the United States born from the 1920s to 1960s, H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence has declined among Whites, but not among African Americans. IMPACT: Our findings suggest a widening racial disparity in the prevalence of the most virulent form of H. pylori, the main cause of gastric cancer.

8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(6): 601-606, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222845

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the leading cause of gastric cancer. High antibody levels to H. pylori virulence factors Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) have been suggested as gastric cancer risk markers. In the USA, H. pylori sero-prevalence is twofold higher in African Americans compared to whites. We sought to assess whether African Americans also exhibit higher antibody levels to VacA and CagA. METHODS: Antibody responses to H. pylori proteins were measured by multiplex serology in 686 African Americans and whites of the Southern Community Cohort Study. Among VacA- and CagA-seropositives, we analyzed the association of race with antibody level using logistic regression models to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Sero-positive African Americans had significantly higher mean antibody levels to both VacA and CagA, which resulted in increased odds for the highest quartile of antibody levels compared to sero-positive whites (VacA, OR: 6.08; 95% CI 3.41, 10.86; CagA, OR: 3.77; 95% CI 1.61, 8.84). CONCLUSION: Our findings support future studies to assess the association of differential antibody responses by race with risk of gastric cancer in the USA, which could then aid in developing targeted H. pylori eradication strategies.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Helicobacter pylori , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Fatores de Virulência/imunologia
9.
Phys Ther ; 100(3): 487-499, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a well-known side effect of cancer and its treatment with wide-ranging prevalence estimates. OBJECTIVE: This study describes associations between breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) signs, symptoms, and diagnosis for women who were African American, white, or had a low income and survived breast cancer. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional, observational study that used a computer-assisted telephone interview. METHODS: Women who had survived breast cancer were queried on the presence of 5 lymphedema signs and symptoms (edema in the breast, axilla, arm, and/or hand; tissue fibrosis; pitting; hemosiderin staining; heaviness) and whether they had a diagnosis of BCRL. Relationships between signs/symptoms and diagnosis for each group were evaluated with kappa and chi-square statistics. RESULTS: The study sample included 528 women who had survived breast cancer (266 white and 262 African American), with 514 reporting complete data on household income; 45% of the latter reported an annual household income of ≤$20,000. Women who were African American or had a low income were nearly twice as likely as women who were white to have any of 8 signs/symptoms of BCRL. Regardless of race and income, >50% of women with all BCRL signs and symptoms reported that they were not diagnosed with BCRL. LIMITATIONS: The main limitations of our study are the lack of medical chart data and longitudinal design. CONCLUSIONS: Women who were African American or had a low income and had survived breast cancer had a greater burden of BCRL signs and symptoms than women who were white. The lack of a strong association between BCRL signs, symptoms, and diagnosis suggests that BCRL may be underdiagnosed. These findings suggest that more rigorous screening and detection of BCRL-especially for women who are African American or have a low income-may be warranted. Cancer rehabilitation programs may be able to fill this gap.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Linfedema/diagnóstico , Grupos Minoritários , Pobreza , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Edema/diagnóstico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fibrose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Linfedema/complicações , Linfedema/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Tennessee
10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 122-130, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine race- and sex-based variation in the associations between modifiable risk factors and incident heart failure (HF) among the SCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study) participants. BACKGROUND: Low-income individuals in the southeastern United States have high HF incidence rates, but relative contributions of risk factors to HF are understudied in this population. METHODS: We studied 27,078 black or white SCCS participants (mean age: 56 years, 69% black, 63% women) enrolled between 2002 and 2009, without prevalent HF, receiving Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, physical underactivity, high body mass index, smoking, high cholesterol, and poor diet was assessed at enrollment. Incident HF was ascertained using International Classification of Diseases-9th revision, codes 428.x in Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data through December 31, 2010. Individual risk and population attributable risk for HF for each risk factor were quantified using multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: During a median (25th, 75th percentile) 5.2 (3.1, 6.7) years, 4,341 (16%) participants developed HF. Hypertension and diabetes were associated with greatest HF risk, whereas hypertension contributed the greatest population attributable risk, 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 27.3 to 36.0). In black participants, only hypertension and diabetes associated with HF risk; in white participants, smoking and high body mass index also associated with HF risk. Physical underactivity was a risk factor only in white women. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-risk, low-income cohort, contributions of risk factors to HF varied, particularly by race. To reduce the population burden of HF, interventions tailored for specific race and sex groups may be warranted.

11.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 644-656, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline-related nutrients are dietary precursors of a gut microbial metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide, which has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases and related death. However, epidemiologic evidence on dietary choline and mortality remains limited, particularly among nonwhite populations. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the associations of choline-related nutrients with cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality among black and white Americans and Chinese adults. METHODS: Included were 49,858 blacks, 23,766 whites, and 134,001 Chinese, aged 40-79 y, who participated in 3 prospective cohorts and lived ≥1 y after enrollment. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for cardiometabolic [e.g., ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and diabetes] and all-cause deaths. To account for multiple testing, P values < 0.003 were considered significant. RESULTS: Mean choline intake among blacks, whites, and Chinese was 404.1 mg/d, 362.0 mg/d, and 296.8 mg/d, respectively. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 28,673 deaths were identified, including 11,141 cardiometabolic deaths. After comprehensive adjustments, including for overall diet quality and disease history, total choline intake was associated with increased cardiometabolic mortality among blacks and Chinese (HR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.40 and HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.38, respectively; both P-trend < 0.001); among whites, the association was weaker (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.33; P-trend = 0.02). Total choline intake was also associated with diabetes and all-cause mortality in blacks (HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.19 and HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.29, respectively), with diabetes mortality in Chinese (HR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.68, 2.97), and with IHD mortality in whites (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.69) (all P-trend < 0.001). The choline-mortality association was modified by alcohol consumption and appeared stronger among individuals with existing cardiometabolic disease. Betaine intake was associated with increased cardiometabolic mortality in Chinese only (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.25; P-trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High choline intake was associated with increased cardiometabolic mortality in racially diverse populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Colina/metabolismo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2394-2405, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

14.
Helicobacter ; 25(1): e12671, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To feasibly analyze associations of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with disease in large cohort studies, assays are needed to assess H. pylori prevalence in existing biospecimens. However, serology has traditionally been unable to distinguish active from past infection. We sought to determine the sensitivity of seropositivity to H. pylori proteins to detect active infection. METHODS: We measured antibody responses to 13 H. pylori proteins using multiplex serology in serum samples of a training (n = 78) and validation set (n = 49) collected concurrently from patients undergoing urea breath test (UBT). To determine sensitivity of seropositivity to H. pylori proteins for active infection, a cutoff was applied to achieve 90% specificity. Antibody levels were retested in a subset of participants (n = 16) 6 months after baseline. RESULTS: With a specificity of 91%, seropositivity to H. pylori proteins VacA, GroEl, HcpC, and HP1564 ascertained active infection from 100% to 75% sensitivity. Positivity to a combination of these proteins (≥2 out of the 4) resulted in specificity of 90% and sensitivity of 100%. The validation set replicated results from the training set. Among those participants with successful H. pylori eradication after baseline, antibody levels decreased significantly for VacA, HcpC, and HP1564 when assessed 6 months later. CONCLUSION: Utilizing the cutoffs for seropositivity established through comparison with UBT, seropositivity to ≥2 of the H. pylori proteins VacA, GroEl, HcpC, and HP1564 determines active H. pylori infection at high specificity and sensitivity and may approximate the prevalence of active H. pylori infection in large cohorts.

15.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(2): 671-683, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838435

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We prospectively examined associations of lung cancer risk with food intake of B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism and the use of folic acid-containing supplements among a low-income population of black and white adults in the Southeastern US. METHODS: Within the Southern Community Cohort Study, we included 1064 incident lung cancer cases among 68,236 participants aged 40-79 years at study enrollment. Food intake and the use of folic acid-containing supplements were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at study enrollment. Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Folate and/or folic acid intake from food were not associated with lung cancer risk; HRs (95% CI) for highest compared with lowest quartile were 1.08 (0.91-1.29) for total dietary folate, 1.00 (0.84-1.19) for food folate, and 1.09 (0.91-1.30) for food folic acid, respectively. Similarly, no associations were observed after stratifying by sex, race and smoking status, except for a positive association with total dietary folate intake among black women (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.05 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile, P trend = 0.02). Neither the use of folic acid-containing supplements nor food intake of vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and riboflavin were associated with lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support a protective effect of folate or folic acid for lung cancer prevention in a low-income population of black and white adults in the Southeastern US. Our finding of a positive association with total dietary folate intake among black women needs to be interpreted with caution and replicated in other studies.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(24): e013404, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822218

RESUMO

Background Data are limited on use patterns of low-dose aspirin and its role for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in different racial and ethnic groups. Methods and Results Overall, 65 231 non-Hispanic black and white people aged 40 to 79 years with no history of CVD enrolled from 2002 through 2009 in the SCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study). At cohort entry, the simplified Framingham 10-year CVD risk was calculated, and data related to low-dose aspirin use and clinical and socioeconomic covariates were collected. Race- and ethnicity-specific adjusted odds ratios for characteristics of low-dose aspirin users and hazard ratios for ischemic cardiac death according to aspirin use were calculated using multivariate logistic and Cox regression models. Black participants were less likely to take low-dose aspirin compared with white participants, regardless of CVD risk and covariates (adjusted odds ratio: 0.79; 95% CI, 0.75-0.82). Over a median follow-up of 11.3 years, low-dose aspirin use was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of ischemic cardiac death in white participants (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.86; 95% CI, 0.68-1.10), especially in women (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.72; 95% CI, 0.51-1.02), but not in black participants (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.18; 95% CI, 0.98-1.40). Similar trends were observed when the analysis was restricted to high-risk individuals aged 50 to 69 or 50 to 59 years, ages for which guidelines consider aspirin for CVD primary prevention. Conclusions Low-dose aspirin use for primary prevention of CVD is lower among black than white patients. Its use might be associated with a disparate impact on ischemic cardiac death according to race and ethnicity. Although additional studies are required, these findings provide no evidence of a beneficial effect of aspirin among black patients for CVD primary prevention.

18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917995, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860105

RESUMO

Importance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is rarely studied in populations who may face additional barriers to participate in cancer screening, such as African American individuals and individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES). Objective: To examine the associations of CRC screening and modalities with CRC incidence and mortality by race and SES. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Southern Community Cohort Study, which enrolled more than 85 000 participants from community health centers or stratified random sampling of the general population in 12 states in the southeastern United States. The present study included data from cohort members who were eligible for CRC screening as recommended by expert organizations based on age and family history. Participants completed questionnaires from 2002 to 2009 and were contacted again from 2008 to 2012. Linkages to state cancer registries and the National Death Index as of December 31, 2016, identified incident CRC and vital status. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2018, to October 30, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident CRC (n = 632) and mortality (n = 10 003). Cox proportional hazards regression models evaluated associations between screening modalities and CRC risk and mortality. Information on fecal occult blood test use was only obtained on the follow-up questionnaire. Self-identified race was measured as African American/black, white, or other, and SES was defined by household income. Results: This study included 47 596 participants (median baseline age, 54 years [interquartile range, 10 years]; 32 185 [67.6%] African American; 28 884 [60.7%] female; and 26 075 [54.8%] with household income <$15 000). A total of 24 432 participants (63.9%) had never undergone CRC testing at baseline. The CRC testing assessed at baseline and follow-up interviews was associated with significant CRC risk reduction (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44-0.70 for ever colonoscopy at baseline). Results were similar in analyses stratified by race (African American: HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.85; white: HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.27-0.70) and household income (<$15 000: HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.86, ≥$15 000: HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.35-0.69). Ever sigmoidoscopy at baseline was associated with CRC risk reduction (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.87), and undergoing fecal occult blood test in the interval between baseline and follow-up interview was associated with CRC risk reduction (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-0.98). Inverse associations were also observed between CRC mortality and receipt of colonoscopy (HR for women, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21-0.73; HR for men, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.40-1.18) and sigmoidoscopy (HR for women, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.85; HR for men, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.46-1.47); however, the association did not extend to fecal occult blood test (HR for women, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.62-1.70; HR for men, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.55-1.93). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, CRC test rates were low among African American individuals and those with low SES. The findings suggest that screening, particularly with colonoscopy, is significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC and mortality. The CRC disparities experienced by individuals with low SES and African American individuals may be lessened by improving access to and uptake of CRC screening.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Classe Social , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
19.
mSystems ; 4(6)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771977

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates the significant racial difference in gut, vaginal, and skin microbiomes. However, little is known regarding the racial difference in the oral microbiome. In this study, deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes was utilized to assess the oral microbiome in mouth rinse samples of 1,058 African-Americans (AAs) and 558 European-Americans (EAs) from the Southern Community Cohort Study. Generally, AAs had a higher species richness than EAs, with P = 5.28 × 10-14 (Wilcoxon rank sum test) for Faith's phylogenetic diversity index. A significant difference in overall microbiome composition was observed between AAs and EAs, with P = 5.94 × 10-4 (MiRKAT) for the weighted UniFrac distance matrix. We also found 32 bacterial taxa showing a significant differential abundance or prevalence between the two racial groups at a Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.05 in linear or logistic regression analyses. Generally, AAs showed a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and a lower abundance of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes Interestingly, four periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, and Filifactor alocis, were more prevalent among AAs than among EAs, with Bonferroni-corrected P values of 5.23 × 10-6, 4.47 × 10-6, 1.08 × 10-3, and 4.49 × 10-5, respectively. In addition, all of these 32 taxa were significantly correlated with the percentage of genetic African ancestry. These findings call for research to understand how the racial difference in oral microbiome influences the health disparity.IMPORTANCE In this systemic investigation of racial differences in the oral microbiome using a large data set, we disclosed the significant differences in the oral microbial richness/evenness, as well as in the overall microbial composition, between African-Americans and European-Americans. We also found multiple oral bacterial taxa, including several preidentified oral pathogens, showing a significant different abundance or prevalence between African-Americans and European-Americans. Furthermore, these taxa were consistently found to be associated with the percentage of genetic African ancestry. Our findings warrant further research to understand how the racial difference in the oral microbiome influences the health disparity.

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