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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 686439, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616392

RESUMO

Infusion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting donor-derived human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a promising strategy to promote transplant tolerance. Here, we describe an anti-HLA-A2 CAR (A2-CAR) generated by grafting the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of a human monoclonal anti-HLA-A2 antibody into the framework regions of the Herceptin 4D5 single-chain variable fragment and fusing it with a CD28-ζ signaling domain. The CDR-grafted A2-CAR maintained the specificity of the original antibody. We then generated HLA-A2 mono-specific human CAR Tregs either by deleting the endogenous T-cell receptor (TCR) via CRISPR/Cas9 and introducing the A2-CAR using lentiviral transduction or by directly integrating the CAR construct into the TCR alpha constant locus using homology-directed repair. These A2-CAR+TCRdeficient human Tregs maintained both Treg phenotype and function in vitro. Moreover, they selectively accumulated in HLA-A2-expressing islets transplanted from either HLA-A2 transgenic mice or deceased human donors. A2-CAR+TCRdeficient Tregs did not impair the function of these HLA-A2+ islets, whereas similarly engineered A2-CAR+TCRdeficientCD4+ conventional T cells rejected the islets in less than 2 weeks. A2-CAR+TCRdeficient Tregs delayed graft-versus-host disease only in the presence of HLA-A2, expressed either by co-transferred peripheral blood mononuclear cells or by the recipient mice. Altogether, we demonstrate that genome-engineered mono-antigen-specific A2-CAR Tregs localize to HLA-A2-expressing grafts and exhibit antigen-dependent in vivo suppression, independent of TCR expression. These approaches may be applied towards developing precision Treg cell therapies for transplant tolerance.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479924

RESUMO

Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy have completely revolutionized cancer treatment strategies. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) is now limiting the overall benefits of these treatments. irAEs are well-recognized side effects of some of the most effective cancer immunotherapy agents, including antibody blockade of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed death protein 1/programmed-death ligand 1 pathways. To develop an action plan on the key elements needed to unravel and understand the key mechanisms driving irAEs, the Society for Immunotherapy for Cancer and the American Association for Cancer Research partnered to bring together research and clinical experts in cancer immunotherapy, autoimmunity, immune regulation, genetics and informatics who are investigating irAEs using animal models, clinical data and patient specimens to discuss current strategies and identify the critical next steps needed to create breakthroughs in our understanding of these toxicities. The genetic and environmental risk factors, immune cell subsets and other key immunological mediators and the unique clinical presentations of irAEs across the different organ systems were the foundation for identifying key opportunities and future directions described in this report. These include the pressing need for significantly improved preclinical model systems, broader collection of biospecimens with standardized collection and clinical annotation made available for research and integration of electronic health record and multiomic data with harmonized and standardized methods, definitions and terminologies to further our understanding of irAE pathogenesis. Based on these needs, this report makes a set of recommendations to advance our understanding of irAE mechanisms, which will be crucial to prevent their occurrence and improve their treatment.

3.
JCI Insight ; 6(18)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324441

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDA previous phase I study showed that the infusion of autologous Tregs expanded ex vivo into patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) had an excellent safety profile. However, the majority of the infused Tregs were undetectable in the peripheral blood 3 months postinfusion (Treg-T1D trial). Therefore, we conducted a phase I study (TILT trial) combining polyclonal Tregs and low-dose IL-2, shown to enhance Treg survival and expansion, and assessed the impact over time on Treg populations and other immune cells.METHODSPatients with T1D were treated with a single infusion of autologous polyclonal Tregs followed by one or two 5-day courses of recombinant human low-dose IL-2 (ld-IL-2). Flow cytometry, cytometry by time of flight, and 10x Genomics single-cell RNA-Seq were used to follow the distinct immune cell populations' phenotypes over time.RESULTSMultiparametric analysis revealed that the combination therapy led to an increase in the number of infused and endogenous Tregs but also resulted in a substantial increase from baseline in a subset of activated NK, mucosal associated invariant T, and clonal CD8+ T cell populations.CONCLUSIONThese data support the hypothesis that ld-IL-2 expands exogenously administered Tregs but also can expand cytotoxic cells. These results have important implications for the use of a combination of ld-IL-2 and Tregs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases with preexisting active immunity.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT01210664 (Treg-T1D trial), NCT02772679 (TILT trial).FUNDINGSean N. Parker Autoimmune Research Laboratory Fund, National Center for Research Resources.

4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(8): 502-514, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune-mediated destruction of ß cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib might affect relevant immunological and metabolic pathways, and preclinical studies show that it reverses and prevents diabetes. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of imatinib in preserving ß-cell function in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (<100 days from diagnosis), aged 18-45 years, positive for at least one type of diabetes-associated autoantibody, and with a peak stimulated C-peptide of greater than 0·2 nmol L-1 on a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) were enrolled from nine medical centres in the USA (n=8) and Australia (n=1). Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either 400 mg imatinib mesylate (4 × 100 mg film-coated tablets per day) or matching placebo for 26 weeks via a computer-generated blocked randomisation scheme stratified by centre. Treatment assignments were masked for all participants and study personnel except pharmacists at each clinical site. The primary endpoint was the difference in the area under the curve (AUC) mean for C-peptide response in the first 2 h of an MMTT at 12 months in the imatinib group versus the placebo group, with use of an ANCOVA model adjusting for sex, baseline age, and baseline C-peptide, with further observation up to 24 months. The primary analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned participants. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01781975 (completed). FINDINGS: Patients were screened and enrolled between Feb 12, 2014, and May 19, 2016. 45 patients were assigned to receive imatinib and 22 to receive placebo. After withdrawals, 43 participants in the imatinib group and 21 in the placebo group were included in the primary ITT analysis at 12 months. The study met its primary endpoint: the adjusted mean difference in 2-h C-peptide AUC at 12 months for imatinib versus placebo treatment was 0·095 (90% CI -0·003 to 0·191; p=0·048, one-tailed test). This effect was not sustained out to 24 months. During the 24-month follow-up, 32 (71%) of 45 participants who received imatinib had a grade 2 severity or worse adverse event, compared with 13 (59%) of 22 participants who received placebo. The most common adverse events (grade 2 severity or worse) that differed between the groups were gastrointestinal issues (six [13%] participants in the imatinib group, primarily nausea, and none in the placebo group) and additional laboratory investigations (ten [22%] participants in the imatinib group and two [9%] in the placebo group). Per the trial protocol, 17 (38%) participants in the imatinib group required a temporary modification in drug dosing and six (13%) permanently discontinued imatinib due to adverse events; five (23%) participants in the placebo group had temporary modifications in dosing and none had a permanent discontinuation due to adverse events. INTERPRETATION: A 26-week course of imatinib preserved ß-cell function at 12 months in adults with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Imatinib might offer a novel means to alter the course of type 1 diabetes. Future considerations are defining ideal dose and duration of therapy, safety and efficacy in children, combination use with a complimentary drug, and ability of imatinib to delay or prevent progression to diabetes in an at-risk population; however, careful monitoring for possible toxicities is required. FUNDING: Juvenile Research Diabetes Foundation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Science ; 373(6554): 510-516, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326232

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells attack and destroy the insulin-producing ß cells in the pancreatic islets. Genetic and environmental factors increase T1D risk by compromising immune homeostasis. Although the discovery and use of insulin have transformed T1D treatment, insulin therapy does not change the underlying disease or fully prevent complications. Over the past two decades, research has identified multiple immune cell types and soluble factors that destroy insulin-producing ß cells. These insights into disease pathogenesis have enabled the development of therapies to prevent and modify T1D. In this review, we highlight the key events that initiate and sustain pancreatic islet inflammation in T1D, the current state of the immunological therapies, and their advantages for the treatment of T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/imunologia
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 639818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833759

RESUMO

Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CD19-CAR)-engineered T cells are approved therapeutics for malignancies. The impact of the hinge domain (HD) and the transmembrane domain (TMD) between the extracellular antigen-targeting CARs and the intracellular signaling modalities of CARs has not been systemically studied. In this study, a series of 19-CARs differing only by their HD (CD8, CD28, or IgG4) and TMD (CD8 or CD28) was generated. CARs containing a CD28-TMD, but not a CD8-TMD, formed heterodimers with the endogenous CD28 in human T cells, as shown by co-immunoprecipitation and CAR-dependent proliferation of anti-CD28 stimulation. This dimerization was dependent on polar amino acids in the CD28-TMD and was more efficient with CARs containing CD28 or CD8 HD than IgG4-HD. The CD28-CAR heterodimers did not respond to CD80 and CD86 stimulation but had a significantly reduced CD28 cell-surface expression. These data unveiled a fundamental difference between CD28-TMD and CD8-TMD and indicated that CD28-TMD can modulate CAR T-cell activities by engaging endogenous partners.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Dimerização , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
7.
Cancer Discov ; 11(3): 537-539, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653918

RESUMO

Wei and colleagues showcase a genetic mouse model of immune-mediated myocarditis that shares homology with immune checkpoint inhibitor (CPI)-induced myocarditis in patients with cancer. They demonstrate that abatacept (CTLA4-Ig) limits cardiac toxicity in the mouse model and, thus, may ameliorate the CPI-induced myocarditis in patients with cancer while potentially maintaining antitumor activity.See related article by Wei et al., p. 614.


Assuntos
Miocardite , Neoplasias , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Camundongos , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Trends Immunol ; 42(4): 293-311, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714688

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapies can successfully activate immune responses towards certain tumors. However, this can also result in the development of treatment-induced immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in multiple tissues. Growing evidence suggests that cytokine production in response to these therapeutics potentiates the development of irAEs and may have predictive value as biomarkers for irAE occurrence. In addition, therapeutic agents that inhibit cytokine activity can limit the severity of irAEs, and their use is being tested in the clinical setting. This review provides an in-depth analysis of strategies to uncouple the cytokine response, that precipitates irAEs following cancer immunotherapies, from the benefit gained in promoting antitumor immunity.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Cell ; 183(6): 1479-1495.e20, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171100

RESUMO

We present an integrated analysis of the clinical measurements, immune cells, and plasma multi-omics of 139 COVID-19 patients representing all levels of disease severity, from serial blood draws collected during the first week of infection following diagnosis. We identify a major shift between mild and moderate disease, at which point elevated inflammatory signaling is accompanied by the loss of specific classes of metabolites and metabolic processes. Within this stressed plasma environment at moderate disease, multiple unusual immune cell phenotypes emerge and amplify with increasing disease severity. We condensed over 120,000 immune features into a single axis to capture how different immune cell classes coordinate in response to SARS-CoV-2. This immune-response axis independently aligns with the major plasma composition changes, with clinical metrics of blood clotting, and with the sharp transition between mild and moderate disease. This study suggests that moderate disease may provide the most effective setting for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Genômica , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Célula Única , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(4): 505-507, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007232

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic ß cells. Insulin treatment is often inadequate in preventing devastating complications. Replacing ß cells using stem cell-derived islets while fostering immune tolerance, exemplified in Yoshihara et al., holds the promise of a curative therapy for this disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Organoides
11.
Sci Immunol ; 5(52)2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008914

RESUMO

Patients with cancer with liver metastasis demonstrate significantly worse outcomes than those without liver metastasis when treated with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. The mechanism of liver metastases-induced reduction in systemic antitumor immunity is unclear. Using a dual-tumor immunocompetent mouse model, we found that the immune response to tumor antigen presence within the liver led to the systemic suppression of antitumor immunity. The immune suppression was antigen specific and associated with the coordinated activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and modulation of intratumoral CD11b+ monocytes. The dysfunctional immune state could not be reversed by anti-PD-1 monotherapy unless Treg cells were depleted (anti-CTLA-4) or destabilized (EZH2 inhibitor). Thus, this study provides a mechanistic understanding and rationale for adding Treg and CD11b+ monocyte targeting agents in combination with anti-PD-1 to treat patients with cancer with liver metastasis.

12.
Nat Immunol ; 21(11): 1456-1466, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989329

RESUMO

Human regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for immune homeostasis. The transcription factor FOXP3 maintains Treg cell identity, yet the complete set of key transcription factors that control Treg cell gene expression remains unknown. Here, we used pooled and arrayed Cas9 ribonucleoprotein screens to identify transcription factors that regulate critical proteins in primary human Treg cells under basal and proinflammatory conditions. We then generated 54,424 single-cell transcriptomes from Treg cells subjected to genetic perturbations and cytokine stimulation, which revealed distinct gene networks individually regulated by FOXP3 and PRDM1, in addition to a network coregulated by FOXO1 and IRF4. We also discovered that HIVEP2, to our knowledge not previously implicated in Treg cell function, coregulates another gene network with SATB1 and is important for Treg cell-mediated immunosuppression. By integrating CRISPR screens and single-cell RNA-sequencing profiling, we have uncovered transcriptional regulators and downstream gene networks in human Treg cells that could be targeted for immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Biomarcadores , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Marcação de Genes , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
14.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766585

RESUMO

Host immune responses play central roles in controlling SARS-CoV2 infection, yet remain incompletely characterized and understood. Here, we present a comprehensive immune response map spanning 454 proteins and 847 metabolites in plasma integrated with single-cell multi-omic assays of PBMCs in which whole transcriptome, 192 surface proteins, and T and B cell receptor sequence were co-analyzed within the context of clinical measures from 50 COVID19 patient samples. Our study reveals novel cellular subpopulations, such as proliferative exhausted CD8 + and CD4 + T cells, and cytotoxic CD4 + T cells, that may be features of severe COVID-19 infection. We condensed over 1 million immune features into a single immune response axis that independently aligns with many clinical features and is also strongly associated with disease severity. Our study represents an important resource towards understanding the heterogeneous immune responses of COVID-19 patients and may provide key information for informing therapeutic development.

15.
Nature ; 582(7812): 416-420, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499641

RESUMO

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are required to control immune responses and maintain homeostasis, but are a significant barrier to antitumour immunity1. Conversely, Treg instability, characterized by loss of the master transcription factor Foxp3 and acquisition of proinflammatory properties2, can promote autoimmunity and/or facilitate more effective tumour immunity3,4. A comprehensive understanding of the pathways that regulate Foxp3 could lead to more effective Treg therapies for autoimmune disease and cancer. The availability of new functional genetic tools has enabled the possibility of systematic dissection of the gene regulatory programs that modulate Foxp3 expression. Here we developed a CRISPR-based pooled screening platform for phenotypes in primary mouse Treg cells and applied this technology to perform a targeted loss-of-function screen of around 500 nuclear factors to identify gene regulatory programs that promote or disrupt Foxp3 expression. We identified several modulators of Foxp3 expression, including ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (Usp22) and ring finger protein 20 (Rnf20). Usp22, a member of the deubiquitination module of the SAGA chromatin-modifying complex, was revealed to be a positive regulator that stabilized Foxp3 expression; whereas the screen suggested that Rnf20, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, can serve as a negative regulator of Foxp3. Treg-specific ablation of Usp22 in mice reduced Foxp3 protein levels and caused defects in their suppressive function that led to spontaneous autoimmunity but protected against tumour growth in multiple cancer models. Foxp3 destabilization in Usp22-deficient Treg cells could be rescued by ablation of Rnf20, revealing a reciprocal ubiquitin switch in Treg cells. These results reveal previously unknown modulators of Foxp3 and demonstrate a screening method that can be broadly applied to discover new targets for Treg immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animais , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/biossíntese , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estabilidade Proteica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/deficiência , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/deficiência , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
16.
Lancet ; 395(10237): 1627-1639, 2020 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) represents a state-of-the-art approach for reducing general immunosuppression in organ transplantation. We tested multiple regulatory CBMPs in kidney transplant trials to establish the safety of regulatory CBMPs when combined with reduced immunosuppressive treatment. METHODS: The ONE Study consisted of seven investigator-led, single-arm trials done internationally at eight hospitals in France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the USA (60 week follow-up). Included patients were living-donor kidney transplant recipients aged 18 years and older. The reference group trial (RGT) was a standard-of-care group given basiliximab, tapered steroids, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. Six non-randomised phase 1/2A cell therapy group (CTG) trials were pooled and analysed, in which patients received one of six CBMPs containing regulatory T cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages; patient selection and immunosuppression mirrored the RGT, except basiliximab induction was substituted with CBMPs and mycophenolate mofetil tapering was allowed. None of the trials were randomised and none of the individuals involved were masked. The primary endpoint was biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) within 60 weeks after transplantation; adverse event coding was centralised. The RTG and CTG trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01656135, NCT02252055, NCT02085629, NCT02244801, NCT02371434, NCT02129881, and NCT02091232. FINDINGS: The seven trials took place between Dec 11, 2012, and Nov 14, 2018. Of 782 patients assessed for eligibility, 130 (17%) patients were enrolled and 104 were treated and included in the analysis. The 66 patients who were treated in the RGT were 73% male and had a median age of 47 years. The 38 patients who were treated across six CTG trials were 71% male and had a median age of 45 years. Standard-of-care immunosuppression in the recipients in the RGT resulted in a 12% BCAR rate (expected range 3·2-18·0). The overall BCAR rate for the six parallel CTG trials was 16%. 15 (40%) patients given CBMPs were successfully weaned from mycophenolate mofetil and maintained on tacrolimus monotherapy. Combined adverse event data and BCAR episodes from all six CTG trials revealed no safety concerns when compared with the RGT. Fewer episodes of infections were registered in CTG trials versus the RGT. INTERPRETATION: Regulatory cell therapy is achievable and safe in living-donor kidney transplant recipients, and is associated with fewer infectious complications, but similar rejection rates in the first year. Therefore, immune cell therapy is a potentially useful therapeutic approach in recipients of kidney transplant to minimise the burden of general immunosuppression. FUNDING: The 7th EU Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/efeitos adversos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
17.
Cell ; 181(3): 728-744.e21, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302591

RESUMO

Adoptive transfer of genetically modified immune cells holds great promise for cancer immunotherapy. CRISPR knockin targeting can improve cell therapies, but more high-throughput methods are needed to test which knockin gene constructs most potently enhance primary cell functions in vivo. We developed a widely adaptable technology to barcode and track targeted integrations of large non-viral DNA templates and applied it to perform pooled knockin screens in primary human T cells. Pooled knockin of dozens of unique barcoded templates into the T cell receptor (TCR)-locus revealed gene constructs that enhanced fitness in vitro and in vivo. We further developed pooled knockin sequencing (PoKI-seq), combining single-cell transcriptome analysis and pooled knockin screening to measure cell abundance and cell state ex vivo and in vivo. This platform nominated a novel transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) R2-41BB chimeric receptor that improved solid tumor clearance. Pooled knockin screening enables parallelized re-writing of endogenous genetic sequences to accelerate discovery of knockin programs for cell therapies.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Introdução de Genes/métodos , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Animais , Células Sanguíneas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , RNA Guia/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Linfócitos T , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
J Immunol ; 204(4): 747-751, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924653

RESUMO

IL-6 binds to the IL-6R α-chain (IL-6Rα) and signals via the signal transducer gp130. Recently, IL-6 was found to also bind to the cell surface glycoprotein CD5, which would then engage gp130 in the absence of IL-6Rα. However, the biological relevance of this alternative pathway is under debate. In this study, we developed a mouse model, in which murine IL-6 is overexpressed in a CD11c-Cre-dependent manner. Transgenic mice developed a lethal immune dysregulation syndrome with increased numbers of Ly-6G+ neutrophils and Ly-6Chi monocytes/macrophages. IL-6 overexpression promoted activation of CD4+ T cells while suppressing CD5+ B-1a cell development. However, additional ablation of IL-6Rα protected IL-6-overexpressing mice from IL-6-triggered inflammation and fully phenocopied IL-6Rα-deficient mice without IL-6 overexpression. Mechanistically, IL-6Rα deficiency completely prevented downstream activation of STAT3 in response to IL-6. Altogether, our data clarify that IL-6Rα is the only biologically relevant receptor for IL-6 in mice.


Assuntos
Interleucina-6/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-6/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
19.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(3): 158-172, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811270

RESUMO

Cellular therapies using regulatory T (Treg) cells are currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft-versus-host disease. In this Review, we discuss the biology of Treg cells and describe new efforts in Treg cell engineering to enhance specificity, stability, functional activity and delivery. Finally, we envision that the success of Treg cell therapy in autoimmunity and transplantation will encourage the clinical use of adoptive Treg cell therapy for non-immune diseases, such as neurological disorders and tissue repair.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos
20.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(1): 44-49, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819258

RESUMO

Versatile and precise genome modifications are needed to create a wider range of adoptive cellular therapies1-5. Here we report two improvements that increase the efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing in clinically relevant primary cell types. Truncated Cas9 target sequences (tCTSs) added at the ends of the homology-directed repair (HDR) template interact with Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to shuttle the template to the nucleus, enhancing HDR efficiency approximately two- to fourfold. Furthermore, stabilizing Cas9 RNPs into nanoparticles with polyglutamic acid further improves editing efficiency by approximately twofold, reduces toxicity, and enables lyophilized storage without loss of activity. Combining the two improvements increases gene targeting efficiency even at reduced HDR template doses, yielding approximately two to six times as many viable edited cells across multiple genomic loci in diverse cell types, such as bulk (CD3+) T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), γδ T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and primary and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived6 hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs).


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Adulto , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Estabilidade Proteica , RNA Guia/metabolismo
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