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1.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 1-10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021223

RESUMO

Icosapent ethyl is a highly purified formulation of eicosapentaenoic acid, a type of omega-3 fatty acid contained in fish oil. While omega-3 fatty acids have long been thought to have cardioprotective benefits, the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) has helped to establish icosapent ethyl as an evidence-based therapy for risk reduction of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). REDUCE-IT, however, was by no means an overnight success story. Close examination of the evidence shows that the trial was a culmination of many lessons learned from previous studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review contemporary evidence of icosapent ethyl in ASCVD risk reduction and the clinical implication of this promising therapy.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e013600, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013698

RESUMO

Background Inflammation is an independent causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs). However, whether hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) is prognostic across various levels of atherogenic lipid measures such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in primary prevention is unknown. Methods and Results We studied 9748 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants who were free of ASCVD at baseline (visit 4, 1996-1998) and had measurements of lipids, apolipoprotein B, and hsCRP. We used multivariable adjusted Cox models to estimate the risk of incident ASCVD events associated with hsCRP levels (less than/greater than or equal to median) in individuals where triple lipid measures combined (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol + non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol + apolipoprotein B) or quadruple measures combined [triple + total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol] were less than versus greater than or equal to median cut points. Mean age of participants was 62.6±5.6 years; 59% women, 22% black. There were 1574 ASCVD events over median (interquartile range) follow-up of 18.4 (12.8-19.5) years, and discordance between hsCRP and lipid measures was prevalent in 50% of the population. hsCRP greater than or equal to median (2.4 mg/L), compared with less than median, was associated with an increased risk of ASCVD in individuals with less than median levels of the triple (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.09-1.60) and quadruple (adjusted hazard ratio,1.47; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85) lipid measures. Such increased risk was consistent among individuals with low (<7.5%) or high (≥7.5%) estimated risk by the pooled cohort equation. There were no interactions by sex, diabetes mellitus, or statin use. Conclusions Our findings suggest that inflammation is independently associated with ASCVD regardless of atherogenic lipid levels and pooled cohort equation risk score in individuals without known ASCVD.

3.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(1): 3, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927694

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review highlights selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention studies presented at the 2019 American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions. RECENT FINDINGS: Several important cardiovascular prevention studies were presented at the 2019 AHA Scientific Sessions. Results from the Colchicine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (COLCOT) showed that low-dose colchicine reduces the risk of recurrent CVD events among patients with recent myocardial infarction. A prospective analysis from the UK Biobank cohort demonstrated that the increased CVD risk associated with clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential is mitigated by a common disruptive mutation in the IL6R gene that suppresses the pro-inflammatory IL-1ß/IL-6 pathway. The Treat Stroke to Target trial demonstrated that reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to <70 mg/dL among patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack reduces the risk of recurrent CVD events as compared with a higher LDL-C target of 90-110 mg/dL. A secondary analysis focusing on American participants enrolled in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) showed that these patients receive a similar benefit in terms of cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl as compared with the entire trial population. A post hoc analysis of the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial demonstrated that a genetic risk score comprising 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms is associated with cardiovascular risk among patients with established atherosclerotic CVD and patients with high genetic risk receive a relatively higher benefit from evolocumab use. Similar results were observed with alirocumab use in a post hoc analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial where a genome-wide polygenic risk score comprising 6.5 million DNA variants was used. These studies presented at 2019 AHA Scientific Sessions will help guide our approach to preventing CVD.

4.
JAMA ; 323(4): 329-338, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990314

RESUMO

Importance: In the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline, the definition of hypertension was lowered from a blood pressure (BP) of greater than or equal to 140/90 to greater than or equal to 130/80 mm Hg. The new diastolic BP threshold of 80 mm Hg was recommended based on expert opinion and changes the definition of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH). Objective: To compare the prevalence of IDH in the United States, by 2017 ACC/AHA and 2003 Joint National Committee (JNC7) definitions, and to characterize cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of IDH with outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2016) and longitudinal analyses of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (baseline 1990-1992, with follow-up through December 31, 2017). Longitudinal results were validated in 2 external cohorts: (1) the NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2014 and (2) the Give Us a Clue to Cancer and Heart Disease (CLUE) II cohort (baseline 1989). Exposures: IDH, by 2017 ACC/AHA (systolic BP <130 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg) and by JNC7 (systolic BP <140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg) definitions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weighted estimates for prevalence of IDH in US adults and prevalence of US adults recommended BP pharmacotherapy by the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline based solely on the presence of IDH. Risk of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), heart failure (HF), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the ARIC Study. Results: The study population included 9590 adults from the NHANES (mean [SD] baseline age, 49.6 [17.6] years; 5016 women [52.3%]) and 8703 adults from the ARIC Study (mean [SD] baseline age, 56.0 [5.6] years; 4977 women [57.2%]). The estimated prevalence of IDH in the NHANES was 6.5% by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition and 1.3% by the JNC7 definition (absolute difference, 5.2% [95% CI, 4.7%-5.7%]). Among those newly classified as having IDH, an estimated 0.6% (95% CI, 0.5%-0.6%) also met the guideline threshold for antihypertensive therapy. Compared with normotensive ARIC participants, IDH by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition was not significantly associated with incident ASCVD (n = 1386 events; median follow-up, 25.2 years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.06 [95% CI, 0.89-1.26]), HF (n = 1396 events; HR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.76-1.09]), or CKD (n = 2433 events; HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.65-1.11]). Results were also null for cardiovascular mortality in the 2 external cohorts (eg, HRs of IDH by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition were 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.56] in the NHANES [n = 1012 events] and 1.02 [95% CI, 0.92-1.14] in CLUE II [n = 1497 events]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of US adults, the estimated prevalence of IDH was more common when defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA BP guideline compared with the JNC7 guideline. However, IDH was not significantly associated with increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diástole , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Atherosclerosis ; 292: 224-229, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individuals with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥190 mg/dL are considered high-risk and current guidelines recommend initiating high-intensity statin therapy in this group. We sought to examine the predictive ability of zero CAC in this high-risk group. METHODS: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants without clinical cardiovascular disease and baseline LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL were identified. Cardiovascular risk factors were compared between those with CAC = 0 and CAC >0. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to identify predictors of CAC = 0. Association of CAC = 0 with incident cardiovascular events over a median follow-up of 13.2 years was examined using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. RESULTS: 246 individuals (mean age = 63 ±â€¯9.4 years; 42% male; 31% white; 37% CAC = 0) with LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL were identified (mean LDL-C = 215 ±â€¯27 mg/dL). Age <65 years (RR = 2.17, 95%CI = 1.49-3.23), female sex (RR = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.42-3.10), and no diabetes (RR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.18-4.17) were associated with CAC = 0. Individuals with CAC = 0 had a lower risk for future cardiovascular events (incidence rate per 1000 person-years = 4.7; 10-year risk = 3.7%; risk/year = 0.4%) than those with CAC >0 (incidence rate per 1000 person-years = 26.4; 10-year risk = 20%; risk/year = 2.0%), adjusted HR 0.25 (95%CI = 0.10-0.66). CONCLUSIONS: Among persons with LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL, younger age, female sex, and the absence of diabetes were associated with CAC = 0. CAC = 0 was associated with a low risk of cardiovascular events, suggesting the utility of CAC assessment for stratifying risk in this high-risk group.

6.
Atherosclerosis ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The long-term associations between zero, minimal coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cause-specific mortality are currently unknown, particularly after accounting for competing risks with other causes of death. METHODS: We evaluated 66,363 individuals from the CAC Consortium (mean age 54 years, 33% women), a multi-center, retrospective cohort study of asymptomatic individuals undergoing CAC scoring for clinical risk assessment. Baseline evaluations occurred between 1991 and 2010. RESULTS: Over a mean of 12 years of follow-up, individuals with CAC = 0 (45% prevalence, mean age 45 years) had stable low rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) death (ranging 0.32 to 0.43 per 1000 person-years), and all-cause death (1.38-1.62 per 1000 person-years). Cancer was the predominant cause of death in this group, yet rates were also very low (0.47-0.79 per 1000 person-years). Compared to CAC = 0, individuals with CAC 1-10 had an increased multivariable-adjusted risk of CVD death only under age 40. Individuals with CAC>10 had multivariable-adjusted increased risks of CHD death, CVD death and all-cause death at all ages, and a higher proportion of CVD deaths. CONCLUSIONS: CAC = 0 is a frequent finding among individuals undergoing CAC scanning for risk assessment and is associated with low rates of all-cause death at 12 years of follow-up. Our results support the emerging consensus that CAC = 0 represents a unique population with favorable all-cause prognosis who may be considered for more flexible treatment goals in primary prevention. Detection of any CAC in young adults could be used to trigger aggressive preventive interventions.

9.
Coron Artery Dis ; 30(8): 608-614, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been shown in multiple populations to predict atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, its predictive value in Asian-Americans is poorly described. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 1621 asymptomatic Asian-Americans in the CAC Consortium, a large multicenter retrospective cohort. CAC was modeled in categorical (CAC = 0; CAC = 1-99; CAC = 100-399; CAC ≥ 400) and continuous [ln (CAC + 1)] forms. Participants were followed over a mean follow-up of 12 ± 4 years for coronary heart disease (CHD) death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) death, and all-cause mortality. The predictive value of CAC for individual outcomes was assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and reported as hazard ratios (95% confidence interval). RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the population was 54 (11.2) years and 64% were men. The mean 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score was 8%. Approximately half had a CAC score of 0, whereas 22.5% had a CAC score of greater than 100. A total of 56 deaths (16 CVD and 8 CHD) were recorded, with no CVD or CHD deaths in the CAC = 0 group. We noted a significantly increased risk of CHD [hazard ratio (HR): 2.6 (1.5-4.3)] and CVD [HR: 2.3 (1.8-2.9)] mortality per unit increase in In (CAC + 1). Compared to those with CAC scores of 0, individuals with CAC scores of at least 400 had over a three-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR: 3.3 (1.3-8.6)]. CONCLUSION: Although Asian-Americans are a relatively low-risk group, CAC strongly predicts CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality beyond traditional risk factors. These findings may help address existing knowledge gaps in CVD risk prediction in Asian-Americans.

10.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 3(3): 251-267, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485563

RESUMO

Despite continued advances in health care, the cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rate has plateaued in recent years and appears to be trending upward. Poor diet is a leading cause of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are leading contributors to CVD morbidity and mortality. Although dietary modification is a cornerstone of CVD prevention, implementation in clinical practice is limited by inadequate formal training in nutrition science. In this report, we review the individual components of a heart-healthy diet, evidence-based dietary recommendations, and the impact of diet on CVD risk factor prevention and management. Furthermore, we examine the unique difficulties of dietary counseling in low-socioeconomic-status environments and provide an evidence-based approach to better serve these populations. We utilized PubMed searches in adults with no date restriction with the following search terms: "carbohydrate," "fat," protein," "DASH," "Mediterranean," "plant-based," "vegetarian," "cardiovascular disease," "obesity," "weight loss," "diabetes," "socioeconomic status," and "race." In this review, we demonstrate that patients should focus on implementing a general diet plan that is high in fruits, whole grains, legumes, and nonstarchy vegetables while low in trans-fats, saturated fats, sodium, red meat, refined carbohydrates, and sugar-sweetened beverages. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, Mediterranean, and vegetarian diets have the most evidence for CVD prevention. Clinicians should understand the barriers that patients may face in terms of access to healthy dietary choices. Further research is needed to determine the dietary changes that are most economically, socioculturally, and logistically feasible to reduce these barriers. Improvement in diet is a public health priority that can lead to a significant population-level reduction in CVD morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that clinicians understand current dietary practice guidelines and implement evidence-based dietary counseling in those at high risk for CVD.

11.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(11): 2643-2647, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414361

RESUMO

Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association guidelines recommend statin therapy for all patients with diabetes between the ages of 40 and 75, including those without cardiovascular disease (CVD). While diabetes is a major CVD risk factor, not all patients with diabetes have an equal risk of CVD. Thus, a more risk-based approach warrants consideration when recommending statin therapy for the primary prevention of CVD. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can help risk stratify patients with diabetes for future CVD events. CAC has been extensively studied in large cohorts such as the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and found to outperform other novel risk stratification tools including carotid intima-media thickness. Moreover, a CAC score of 0 has been shown to be useful in downgrading the estimated risk of a CVD event in patients with diabetes and an intermediate Pooled Cohort Equation score. As clinicians weigh the recommendation for a lifelong therapy and the problem of statin nonadherence and patients weigh concerns about adverse effects of statins, the decision to initiate statin therapy in patients with diabetes is ideally a shared one between patients and providers, and CAC could facilitate this discussion.

12.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(8): 1198-1206, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416591

RESUMO

Low-dose rivaroxaban was effective in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the COMPASS trial. There is no established role, however, for oral anticoagulants in primary prevention. We evaluated whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring identifies a high-risk primary prevention adult population who may benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban to prevent ASCVD events. We modeled expected outcomes of low-dose rivaroxaban in 5,196 Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort participants not already on antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy. We applied relative risk ratios from COMPASS to absolute MESA event rates in order to estimate number needed to treat (NNT) to avoid a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, as well as number needed to harm (NNH) to cause 1 hospitalized bleed; with both NNT and NNH stratified by calculated ASCVD risk and by baseline CAC. MESA participants with CAC ≥300 had crude ASCVD event rate of 20 per 1000 patient-years, which is comparable to that observed in the COMPASS control-arm. CAC was independently associated with the composite ASCVD outcome (p <0.001 for trend). However, CAC was not independently associated with adjusted hazard ratio for hospitalized major bleeding. Predicted 5-year NNT (modeled from COMPASS) was 75 in persons with CAC 100-299 and 45 with CAC ≥300 despite NNH values of 252 and 98, respectively. In conclusion, CAC helps to distinguish estimated ASCVD benefit from estimated bleeding harm, thereby identifying very high-risk primary prevention adults without established cardiovascular disease who may derive net-benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban.

14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319862401, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291776

RESUMO

AIMS: The total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio may carry additional information not available in more commonly used single cholesterol measures. Analysis of discordance between lipid parameters might help assess the impact of such additional information on the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the role of the TC/HDL-cholesterol ratio in determining atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk when discordant with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol. METHODS: We studied 14,403 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants who were free of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease at baseline. TC/HDL-cholesterol discordance with LDL-cholesterol (estimated by the novel Martin/Hopkins method) and non-HDL-cholesterol was assessed at five visits and determined by being at or above the median for each lipid parameter. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk for incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events associated with each lipid concordance/discordance category using a time-varying approach. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 54.1 years, 56% women and 25% black. There were 2634 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events over a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 24.2 (16.0-25.4) years. Among individuals with LDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol less than the median, 26% and 21% had discordant TC/HDL-cholesterol at or above the median, respectively. These individuals had a 24% (hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.41) and 29% (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13, 1.46) greater risk of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, respectively, compared to those with TC/HDL-cholesterol less than the median after multivariable adjustment. In individuals with diabetes with LDL-cholesterol or non-HDL-cholesterol less than the median, discordant TC/HDL-cholesterol at or above the median was more prevalent at 48% and 38%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant discordance exists between TC/HDL-cholesterol, available from the standard lipid profile, and the routinely used non-HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Such discordance may help inform atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk management, particularly in individuals with diabetes in whom discordance is more common.

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(4): 534-538, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262497

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a potential independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort enrolled 6,814 adults without previous CVD. We excluded 2,692 participants who had missing variables, were heavy drinkers, or history of steroid use and/or chronic liver disease. NAFLD was defined using noncontrast cardiac CT and a liver/spleen Hounsfield Unit attenuation ratio <1. Ultrasound-measured carotid arterial compliance and stiffness, was expressed as distensibility coefficient and Young's modulus. Common and internal carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) >0 were used as markers of subclinical CVD. A multivariate robust linear regression and logistic regression analysis were done to evaluate the association of NAFLD and this subclinical CVD markers. Our analysis of 4,123 participants showed 55% were female with a mean age of 63 (±10) years, 39% white, 10% Chinese, 28% black, and 23% were Hispanic. The prevalence of NAFLD was 17% (n = 729). Patients with NAFLD had higher distensibility coefficient and higher CIMT. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the presence of NAFLD was associated with both the common carotid and internal carotid IMT and logCAC. Logistic analysis showed an independent association with CAC > 0 (odds ratio [OR] 1.44 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.75) and CIMT > 1 mm (OR 1.30 95% 1.08, 1.56). When stratified by race the association with CIMT > 1 mm was significant in whites (OR 1.37 95% 1.00, 1.90) and Hispanic (OR 1.53 95% 1.08, 2. 17) and CAC > 0 was significant in Hispanics (OR 1.52 95% 1.06, 2.19). In conclusion, NAFLD is modestly associated with carotid IMT and coronary artery calcification in a multiethnic population.

16.
Lancet ; 393(10186): 2155-2167, 2019 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226053

RESUMO

Aspirin is one of the most frequently used drugs worldwide and is generally considered effective for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. By contrast, the role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is controversial. Early trials evaluating aspirin for primary prevention, done before the turn of the millennium, suggested reductions in myocardial infarction and stroke (although not mortality), and an increased risk of bleeding. In an effort to balance the risks and benefits of aspirin, international guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have typically recommended aspirin only when a substantial 10-year risk of cardiovascular events exists. However, in 2018, three large randomised clinical trials of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease showed little or no benefit and have even suggested net harm. In this narrative Review, we reappraise the role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, contextualising data from historical and contemporary trials.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Prevenção Primária , Fatores Sexuais
17.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(5): 473-477, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969319

RESUMO

These 4 hypothetical cases highlight some of the new features in the 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology multisociety cholesterol management guidelines. Topics include management issues in a secondary prevention patient judged to be at very high risk of another event, a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 190 mg/dL or greater (to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259), a primary prevention patient with intermediate (7.5%-19.9%) 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk, and a patient who has statin-associated adverse effects. A multiple-choice format is used to engage clinicians in selecting the best choice based on guidance from the new 2018 cholesterol management guidelines.

18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927355

RESUMO

Cancer survivors may have an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) resulting from toxicities of cancer therapies and high burden of CVD risk factors. We sought to evaluate the association of cancer survivorship with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by elevated high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT). We included 3,512 participants of the ARIC Study who attended Visit 5 (2011-2013) and were free of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke). We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the cross-sectional associations of survivorship from any, non-sex-related, and sex-related cancers (e.g., breast, prostate) with elevated hs-cTnT (≥14 ng/L). Of 3,512 participants (mean age 76; 62% women; 21% black), 19% were cancer survivors. Cancer survivors had significantly higher odds of elevated hs-cTnT (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03, 1.53). Results were similar for survivors of non-sex-related and colorectal cancers. There was no association between survivorship from breast and prostate cancers and elevated hs-cTnT. Results were similar after additional adjustments for CVD risk factors. Survivors of some cancers may be more likely to have elevated hs-cTnT than persons without prior cancer. The excess burden of subclinical myocardial damage in this population may not be fully explained by traditional CVD risk factors.

19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1426-1436, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with the lowest circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations are at heightened risk of cardiovascular events. However, the atherosclerosis burden within this subgroup is unknown. METHODS: RA patients pooled from 4 cohort studies of cardiovascular disease (CVD; n = 546) were compared with non-RA controls from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 5,279). Those taking lipid-lowering medications were excluded. Differences in cardiac computed tomography-derived Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores between the RA and control groups were compared across strata of LDL concentration. RESULTS: Among those with low LDL concentrations (<70 mg/dl), mean adjusted CAC scores were >4-fold higher for RA patients than for controls (18.6 versus 4.6 Agatston units, respectively; P < 0.001), a difference significantly greater than that in any other LDL concentration stratum except LDL concentration ≥160 mg/dl. Similarly, 32% of the RA patients with low LDL concentration had a CAC score of ≥100 Agatston units compared with only 7% of controls in the same LDL concentration stratum (odds ratio 5.97; P < 0.001), a difference significantly greater than that in all of the other LDL concentration strata. Low LDL concentration was most strongly associated with higher CAC score among RA patients who were white, had ever smoked, or were not obese. Other than a higher frequency of current smokers, RA patients with low LDL concentrations did not have more CVD risk factors or higher measures of RA disease activity or severity than RA patients with higher LDL concentrations. CONCLUSION: RA patients with low LDL concentration may represent a group for whom heightened screening and prevention of atherosclerotic CVD is appropriate.

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