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1.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(10): e420-e428, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We constructed measures of an individual's gendered behaviour and their gendered environment to investigate the salience of gender norms during adolescence for social mobility during the next decade of life. METHODS: In this nationally representative observational study, we collected individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), which enrolled a cohort of nationally representative school students aged 11-19 years from across the USA and followed them up for 14 years (ie, to age 25-33 years). We characterised gendered behaviour for adolescents in a performative sense via self-reports of behaviours and beliefs. We aggregated this individual-level measure to create a proxy measure of an individual's social context by taking averages for an individual's peers of the same sex and school year. FINDINGS: Between Jan 5, 1994, and Dec 26, 1995, Add Health collected data on a cohort of 20 745 students. 14 540 respondents were followed-up 14 years later between April 3, 2007, and Feb 1, 2009, of whom 7722 (53·1%) were female. More masculine male respondents were downwardly mobile; they were enrolled in school for fewer years and were more likely to have lower status jobs than their less masculine same-sex school peers. More masculine male respondents were also more likely to have jobs in occupational categories with larger proportions of males than their same-sex school peers. Gendered behaviour was not predictive of future educational and occupational attainment for female respondents. Male adolescents in school years with more masculine same-sex peers than male adolescents in other school years also tended to have lower educational and occupational attainment than their male peers. Educational and occupational attainment in early midlife for female respondents was not affected by their gendered environment. INTERPRETATION: Gender, when measured as a set of gender-distinct behaviours in adolescence, was associated with differential patterns of social mobility from adolescence to young adulthood. Moreover, variation in an individual's local gender norms has implications for subsequent socioeconomic attainment, especially for male adolescents. These findings have potential implications for observed health disparities. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article expands on research that links education and frailty among older adults by considering the role of genes associated with education. METHOD: Data come from a sample of 7,064 non-Hispanic, white adults participating in the 2004-2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Frailty was measured with two indices: (1) The Frailty Index which corresponds to a deficit accumulation model; and (2) The Paulson-Lichtenberg Frailty Index which corresponds to the biological syndrome/ phenotype model. Genes associated with education were quantified using an additive polygenic score. Associations between the polygenic score and frailty indices were tested using a series of multilevel models, controlling for multiple observations for participants across waves. RESULTS: Results showed a strong and negative association between genes for education and frailty symptoms in later life. This association exists above and beyond years of completed education and we demonstrate that this association becomes weaker as older adults approach their 80s. DISCUSSION: The results contribute to the education-health literature by highlighting new and important pathways through which education might be linked to successful aging.

3.
J Hum Genet ; 64(6): 597-598, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940889

RESUMO

In the original paper, we used the variable "URBRUR08," from the 2008 survey wave as a measure of childhood urbanicity. Upon further investigation we realized that this variable actually measured Beale urban-rural code during the respondent's adulthood.  Thus, we reran our analysis of the pseudo-heritability of childhood urbanicity using the variable. The original results hold such that even with the first 20 principal components held constant, childhood urban-rural status appears to be ~20% "heritable" in GREML models-a figure that is actually higher than the original estimate reported in the paper (14% controlling for 25 PCs, 15% controlling for 10 PCs, and 29% controlling for two PCs). Meanwhile, the heritabilities of the other phenotypes-height, BMI and education-still do not change when they are residualized on childhood urbanicity. In other words, the original results of the paper do not change.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 245-257, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643258

RESUMO

Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genética Comportamental/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
5.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(5): 388-392, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is preventable, it is increasing in prevalence and it is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Importantly, residents of neighbourhoods with high levels of disorder are more likely to develop T2D than those living in less disordered neighbourhoods and neighbourhood disorder may exacerbate genetic risk for T2D. METHOD: We use genetic, self-reported neighbourhood, and health data from the Health and Retirement Study. We conducted weighted logistic regression analyses in which neighbourhood disorder, polygenic scores for T2D and their interaction predicted T2D. RESULTS: Greater perceptions of neighbourhood disorder (OR=1.11, p<0.001) and higher polygenic scores for T2D (OR=1.42, p<0.001) were each significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of T2D. Furthermore, living in a neighbourhood perceived as having high levels of disorder exacerbated genetic risk for T2D (OR=1.10, p=0.001). This significant gene×environment interaction was observed after adjusting for years of schooling, age, gender, levels of physical activity and obesity. CONCLUSION: Findings in the present study suggested that minimising people's exposure to vandalism, vacant buildings, trash and circumstances viewed by residents as unsafe may reduce the burden of this prevalent chronic health condition, particularly for subgroups of the population who carry genetic liability for T2D.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 237-244, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643251

RESUMO

Tobacco and alcohol use are leading causes of mortality that influence risk for many complex diseases and disorders1. They are heritable2,3 and etiologically related4,5 behaviors that have been resistant to gene discovery efforts6-11. In sample sizes up to 1.2 million individuals, we discovered 566 genetic variants in 406 loci associated with multiple stages of tobacco use (initiation, cessation, and heaviness) as well as alcohol use, with 150 loci evidencing pleiotropic association. Smoking phenotypes were positively genetically correlated with many health conditions, whereas alcohol use was negatively correlated with these conditions, such that increased genetic risk for alcohol use is associated with lower disease risk. We report evidence for the involvement of many systems in tobacco and alcohol use, including genes involved in nicotinic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmission. The results provide a solid starting point to evaluate the effects of these loci in model organisms and more precise substance use measures.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Fumar/genética , Tabagismo/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Risco , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
7.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1112-1121, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038396

RESUMO

Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(31): E7275-E7284, 2018 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987013

RESUMO

A summary genetic measure, called a "polygenic score," derived from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of education can modestly predict a person's educational and economic success. This prediction could signal a biological mechanism: Education-linked genetics could encode characteristics that help people get ahead in life. Alternatively, prediction could reflect social history: People from well-off families might stay well-off for social reasons, and these families might also look alike genetically. A key test to distinguish biological mechanism from social history is if people with higher education polygenic scores tend to climb the social ladder beyond their parents' position. Upward mobility would indicate education-linked genetics encodes characteristics that foster success. We tested if education-linked polygenic scores predicted social mobility in >20,000 individuals in five longitudinal studies in the United States, Britain, and New Zealand. Participants with higher polygenic scores achieved more education and career success and accumulated more wealth. However, they also tended to come from better-off families. In the key test, participants with higher polygenic scores tended to be upwardly mobile compared with their parents. Moreover, in sibling-difference analysis, the sibling with the higher polygenic score was more upwardly mobile. Thus, education GWAS discoveries are not mere correlates of privilege; they influence social mobility within a life. Additional analyses revealed that a mother's polygenic score predicted her child's attainment over and above the child's own polygenic score, suggesting parents' genetics can also affect their children's attainment through environmental pathways. Education GWAS discoveries affect socioeconomic attainment through influence on individuals' family-of-origin environments and their social mobility.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Classe Social , Mobilidade Social , Escolaridade , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ocupações , Irmãos
9.
Demography ; 55(4): 1245-1267, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978338

RESUMO

Girls who experience father absence in childhood also experience accelerated reproductive development in comparison with peers with present fathers. One hypothesis advanced to explain this empirical pattern is genetic confounding, wherein gene-environment correlation (rGE) causes a spurious relationship between father absence and reproductive timing. We test this hypothesis by constructing polygenic scores for age at menarche and first birth using recently available genome-wide association study results and molecular genetic data on a sample of non-Hispanic white females from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We find that young women's accelerated menarche polygenic scores are unrelated to their exposure to father absence. In contrast, polygenic scores for earlier age at first birth tend to be higher in young women raised in homes with absent fathers. Nevertheless, father absence and the polygenic scores independently and additively predict reproductive timing. We find no evidence in support of the rGE hypothesis for accelerated menarche and only limited evidence in support of the rGE hypothesis for earlier age at first birth.

10.
Soc Forces ; 96(3): 1377-1409, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681662

RESUMO

This paper uses data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to describe county-level variation in norms regarding physical weight among adolescents in the United States. We demonstrate that regardless of one's physical size, those residing in counties with a heavier weight norm are significantly less likely to see themselves as overweight than those residing in counties with a light weight norm. We further show that the local weight norm during adolescence (Wave 1) is associated with individuals' weight perceptions through adolescence and into young adulthood (Wave 4), though these associations attenuate in strength as respondents age. Our results suggest that weight norms have a stronger influence on weight perceptions among women compared to men and that the role of gender is particularly important during adolescence. We encourage life course researchers to consider the normative health environment during adolescence as an important context for understanding disparities in health and health lifestyles as people age.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(4): 702-707, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317533

RESUMO

Humans tend to form social relationships with others who resemble them. Whether this sorting of like with like arises from historical patterns of migration, meso-level social structures in modern society, or individual-level selection of similar peers remains unsettled. Recent research has evaluated the possibility that unobserved genotypes may play an important role in the creation of homophilous relationships. We extend this work by using data from 5,500 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine genetic similarities among pairs of friends. Although there is some evidence that friends have correlated genotypes, both at the whole-genome level as well as at trait-associated loci (via polygenic scores), further analysis suggests that meso-level forces, such as school assignment, are a principal source of genetic similarity between friends. We also observe apparent social-genetic effects in which polygenic scores of an individual's friends and schoolmates predict the individual's own educational attainment. In contrast, an individual's height is unassociated with the height genetics of peers.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Sociobiologia/métodos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
SSM Popul Health ; 3: 487-496, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28824953

RESUMO

This paper compares black-white health disparities among state prisoners to disparities in the noninstitutionalized community to provide a more complete portrait of the nation's heath. We use data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities and the 2002 and 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for incarcerated and noninstitutionalized adult (aged 18 to 65) men and women, respectively. Health disparities between black and white male prisoners based on self-reported prevalence are similar to disparities in the general population for hypertension and diabetes but significantly reduced for kidney problems and stroke. Health disparities between black and white female prisoners are similar to disparities in the general population for obesity but significantly reduced for hypertension, diabetes, heart problems, kidney problems, and stroke. Our study reveals that prisoners report far worse health profiles than non-prisoners but there is differential health selection into prison for whites and blacks, and population health estimates for adult black men in particular are underreporting the true health burden for U.S. adults. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating prison populations in demographic and public health analyses.

13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(4): 1285-1294, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402496

RESUMO

Background: Mortality selection occurs when a non-random subset of a population of interest has died before data collection and is unobserved in the data. Mortality selection is of general concern in the social and health sciences, but has received little attention in genetic epidemiology. We tested the hypothesis that mortality selection may bias genetic association estimates, using data from the US-based Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Methods: We tested mortality selection into the HRS genetic database by comparing HRS respondents who survive until genetic data collection in 2006 with those who do not. We next modelled mortality selection on demographic, health and social characteristics to calculate mortality selection probability weights. We analysed polygenic score associations with several traits before and after applying inverse-probability weighting to account for mortality selection. We tested simple associations and time-varying genetic associations (i.e. gene-by-cohort interactions). Results: We observed mortality selection into the HRS genetic database on demographic, health and social characteristics. Correction for mortality selection using inverse probability weighting methods did not change simple association estimates. However, using these methods did change estimates of gene-by-cohort interaction effects. Correction for mortality selection changed gene-by-cohort interaction estimates in the opposite direction from increased mortality selection based on analysis of HRS respondents surviving through 2012. Conclusions: Mortality selection may bias estimates of gene-by-cohort interaction effects. Analyses of HRS data can adjust for mortality selection associated with observables by including probability weights. Mortality selection is a potential confounder of genetic association studies, but the magnitude of confounding varies by trait.


Assuntos
Viés , Modelos Teóricos , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Mortalidade , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos
14.
Dev Psychopathol ; 29(4): 1289-1304, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027713

RESUMO

We examined whether adolescents' genetic sensitivity, measured by a polygenic index score, moderated the longitudinal associations between parenting and adolescents' psychological adjustment. The sample included 323 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (177 female, 146 male; Time 1 [T1] average age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.54 years; Time 2 [T2] average age = 13.59 years, SD = 0.59 years). Parents' warmth and hostility were rated by trained, independent observers using videotapes of family discussions. Adolescents reported their symptoms of anxiety, depressed mood, and hostility at T1 and T2. The results from autoregressive linear regression models showed that adolescents' genetic sensitivity moderated associations between observations of both mothers' and fathers' T1 parenting and adolescents' T2 composite maladjustment, depression, anxiety, and hostility. Compared to adolescents with low genetic sensitivity, adolescents with high genetic sensitivity had worse adjustment outcomes when parenting was low on warmth and high on hostility. When parenting was characterized by high warmth and low hostility, adolescents with high genetic sensitivity had better adjustment outcomes than their counterparts with low genetic sensitivity. The results support the differential susceptibility model and highlight the complex ways that genes and environment interact to influence development.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Depressão , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino
15.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 916, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27586136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper contributes to research on the education-health association by extending the scope of inquiry to adult inmates. Not only are inmates excluded from most nationally representative studies of health but they also represent a highly select group in terms of both education and health. As such, our study provides new information about the health of incarcerated populations and it extends the generalizability of the education-health association beyond the non-institutionalized population. METHODS: We use a prison-level fixed-effects regression model with the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (n = 287 facilities) to evaluate the effects of education on a standardized morbidity scale of 11 lifetime and current health conditions among incarcerated men (n = 10,493) and women (n = 2,797). RESULTS: Education prior to incarceration is negatively associated with lifetime health problems for both women and men and the association is stronger among women. Among inmates who enter prison with less than a GED level of education, attaining a GED in prison is associated with better current health outcomes for men, but not women. CONCLUSIONS: The generalization of the education-health association among prisoners further highlights the fundamental nature of education as a health promotive resource. Discussed are the implications for the education-health literature in general and health promotion efforts among incarcerated adults specifically.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Nível de Saúde , Prisões , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneiros , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 165: 99-107, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27500942

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate the possibility that genetic variation contributes to self-perceived weight status among adolescents and young adults in the U.S. Using samples of identical and fraternal twins across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) study, we calculate heritability estimates for objective body mass index (BMI) that are in line with previous estimates. We also show that perceived weight status is heritable (h(2) ∼ 0.47) and most importantly that this trait continues to be heritable above and beyond objective BMI (h(2) ∼ 0.25). We then demonstrate significant sex differences in the heritability of weight identity across the four waves of the study, where h(2)women = 0.39, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.50 for each wave, respectively, and h(2)men = 0.10, 0.10, 0.23, and 0.03. These results call for a deeper consideration of both identity and gender in genetics research.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Identidade de Gênero , Percepção , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30348, 2016 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27456657

RESUMO

This study evaluates changes in genetic penetrance-defined as the association between an additive polygenic score and its associated phenotype-across birth cohorts. Situating our analysis within recent historical trends in the U.S., we show that, while height and BMI show increasing genotypic penetrance over the course of 20(th) Century, education and heart disease show declining genotypic effects. Meanwhile, we find genotypic penetrance to be historically stable with respect to depression. Our findings help inform our understanding of how the genetic and environmental landscape of American society has changed over the past century, and have implications for research which models gene-environment (GxE) interactions, as well as polygenic score calculations in consortia studies that include multiple birth cohorts.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Herança Multifatorial , Penetrância , População/genética , Adulto , Cardiopatias/genética , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(24): 6647-52, 2016 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27247411

RESUMO

This study asks two related questions about the shifting landscape of marriage and reproduction in US society over the course of the last century with respect to a range of health and behavioral phenotypes and their associated genetic architecture: (i) Has assortment on measured genetic factors influencing reproductive and social fitness traits changed over the course of the 20th century? (ii) Has the genetic covariance between fitness (as measured by total fertility) and other traits changed over time? The answers to these questions inform our understanding of how the genetic landscape of American society has changed over the past century and have implications for population trends. We show that husbands and wives carry similar loadings for genetic factors related to education and height. However, the magnitude of this similarity is modest and has been fairly consistent over the course of the 20th century. This consistency is particularly notable in the case of education, for which phenotypic similarity among spouses has increased in recent years. Likewise, changing patterns of the number of children ever born by phenotype are not matched by shifts in genotype-fertility relationships over time. Taken together, these trends provide no evidence that social sorting is becoming increasingly genetic in nature or that dysgenic dynamics have accelerated.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Soc Sci Res ; 58: 227-242, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27194662

RESUMO

This paper examines associations among parental and adolescent health behaviors and pathways to adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we identify a set of latent classes describing pathways into adulthood and examine health-related predictors of these pathways. The identified pathways are consistent with prior research using other sources of data. Results also show that both adolescent and parental health behaviors differentiate pathways. Parental and adolescent smoking are associated with lowered probability of the higher education pathway and higher likelihood of the work and the work & family pathways (entry into the workforce soon after high school completion). Adolescent drinking is positively associated with the work pathway and the higher education pathway, but decreases the likelihood of the work & family pathway. Neither parental nor adolescent obesity are associated with any of the pathways to adulthood. When combined, parental/adolescent smoking and adolescent drinking are associated with displacement from the basic institutions of school, work, and family.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade , Pais , Fumar
20.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 62(1): 1-18, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27050030

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies that are widely used in the demographic research community have collected genome-wide data from their respondents. It is therefore important that demographers have a proper understanding of some of the methodological tools needed to analyze such data. This article details the underlying methodology behind one of the most common techniques for analyzing genome-wide data, genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). GCTA models provide heritability estimates for health, health behaviors, or indicators of attainment using data from unrelated persons. Our goal was to describe this model, highlight the utility of the model for biodemographic research, and demonstrate the performance of this approach under modifications to the underlying assumptions. The first set of modifications involved changing the nature of the genetic data used to compute genetic similarities between individuals (the genetic relationship matrix). We then explored the sensitivity of the model to heteroscedastic errors. In general, GCTA estimates are found to be robust to the modifications proposed here, but we also highlight potential limitations of GCTA estimates.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Variação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos
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