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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234855, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153468

RESUMO

Abstract Exposure to the hight-fat diet may alter the control of food intake promoting hyperphagia and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this diet on dopamine receptors (drd1 and drd2), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), neuropeptideY (npy) genes expression, and preference food in adult rats. Wistar female rats were fed a hight-fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated into groups: Lactation - Control (C) and High-fat (H). Post-weaning - Control Control (CC), offspring of mothers C, fed a control diet after weaning; Control Hight-fat (CH), offspring of mothers C, fed a hight-fat diet after weaning; Hight-fat Control (HC), offspring of mothers H, fed with control diet after weaning; and Hight-fat Hight-fat (HH), offspring of mothers H, fed a H diet after weaning. The groups CH and HH presented greater expression of drd1 in comparison to the CC. The drd2 of CH and HC presented higher gene expression than did CC. HH presented higher pomc expression in comparison to the other groups. HC also presented greater expression in comparison to CH. The npy of HH presented greater expression in relation to CH and HC. HH and HC have had a higher preference for a high-fat diet at 102º life's day. The high-fat diet altered the gene expression of the drd1, drd2, pomc and npy, and influencing the food preference for high-fat diet.


Resumo A exposição à dieta hiperlipídica pode alterar o controle da ingestão de alimentos, promovendo hiperfagia e obesidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos dessa dieta sobre a expressão gênica dos receptores de dopamina (drd1 e drd2), da proopiomelanocortina (pomc) e neuropeptídeo Y (npy), e preferência alimentar em ratos adultos. Ratas Wistar foram alimentadas com uma dieta hiperlipídica ou controle durante a gestação e lactação. Os descendentes foram alocados em grupos: Lactação - Controle (C) e Hiperlipídica (H). Pós-desmame - Controle Controle (CC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Controle Hiperlipídica (CH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Controle (HC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Hiperlipídica (HH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame. Os grupos CH e HH apresentaram maior expressão de drd1 em comparação ao CC. O drd2 de CH e HC apresentou maior expressão gênica que o CC. HH apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação com os outros grupos. O HC também apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação ao CH. O npy do HH apresentou maior expressão em relação ao CH e HC. HH e HC tiveram uma preferência maior por uma dieta rica em gordura no 102º dia de vida. A dieta hiperlipídica alterou a expressão gênica dos drd1, drd2, pomc e npy e influenciou na preferência alimentar pela dieta hiperlipídica.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e234855, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729380

RESUMO

Exposure to the hight-fat diet may alter the control of food intake promoting hyperphagia and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this diet on dopamine receptors (drd1 and drd2), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), neuropeptideY (npy) genes expression, and preference food in adult rats. Wistar female rats were fed a hight-fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated into groups: Lactation - Control (C) and High-fat (H). Post-weaning - Control Control (CC), offspring of mothers C, fed a control diet after weaning; Control Hight-fat (CH), offspring of mothers C, fed a hight-fat diet after weaning; Hight-fat Control (HC), offspring of mothers H, fed with control diet after weaning; and Hight-fat Hight-fat (HH), offspring of mothers H, fed a H diet after weaning. The groups CH and HH presented greater expression of drd1 in comparison to the CC. The drd2 of CH and HC presented higher gene expression than did CC. HH presented higher pomc expression in comparison to the other groups. HC also presented greater expression in comparison to CH. The npy of HH presented greater expression in relation to CH and HC. HH and HC have had a higher preference for a high-fat diet at 102º life's day. The high-fat diet altered the gene expression of the drd1, drd2, pomc and npy, and influencing the food preference for high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Pró-Opiomelanocortina , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Expressão Gênica , Neuropeptídeo Y/genética , Gravidez , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/genética
3.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 10(3): 338-344, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827294

RESUMO

Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with aortic remodelling in the fetus, stimulating the development of cardiovascular diseases in adult life. However, studies suggest that the use of foods high in omega-3 fatty acid, such as flaxseed oil, may reverse this effect of metabolic programming. This study aimed at investigating whether the effects of diabetes in mothers are passed on to their offspring in a gender-specific manner and whether the flaxseed oil used during pregnancy and lactation reverses or not the possible negative effects of this programming. Diabetic female rats (n = 18) were mated and allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG) and control group (CG) (nondiabetic rats) during pregnancy and lactation. On the 21st day, male and female pups were weaned on a standard diet until 180 days. Aorta histomorphometry was analysed. Intima-media layer thickness was larger in FOG than CG in male (+15%) and than HG in female (+13.7%). Male FOG (+11.5%) showed higher amount of elastic fibre than CG. Maternal intake of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation of diabetic mothers program the offspring to increase aorta intima-media layer thickness in adulthood and preserves aorta elastic fibres deposition in male offspring.


Assuntos
Aorta/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Óleo de Semente do Linho/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Remodelação Vascular
4.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 9(4): 373-376, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559019

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of diet containing taro flour on hormone levels and the seminiferous tubules morphology of rats. After weaning, the male rats were divided into two groups (n=12 each): control group (CG) treated with control diet and taro group (TG), fed with 25% taro flour for 90 days. Food, caloric intake, mass and body length were evaluated at experiment end. Testis followed the standard histological processing. Immunostaining was performed using an anti-vimentin antibody to identify Sertoli cells. In histomorphometry, total diameter, total area, epithelial height, luminal height and luminal area were analyzed. The testosterone levels were performed using the radioimmunoassay method. Group TG presented (P<0.05): increase in mass, body length, testicular weight, histomorphometric parameters and hormonal levels. Food intake, calorie and Sertoli cells not presented statistical differences. The taro promoted increase in the testicles parameters and hormones.


Assuntos
Colocasia/química , Farinha , Epitélio Seminífero/citologia , Epitélio Seminífero/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Epitélio Seminífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Sertoli/citologia , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1043-1049, Sept. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893091

RESUMO

The contents of soybean can modify the structure of the reproductive system, especially, when consumed for prolonged periods. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the consumption of transgenic soybean on rat penis morphology after prolonged use. Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into three groups according to diet: Transgenic Soybean (TS) group, Organic Soybean (OS) group and Control (C) group. After 455 days of intake, the rats were sacrificed and the penises were excised and fixed in formalin for subsequent histological processing. The samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Weigert’s resorcin-fuchsin stain, and picrosirius red with polarization. The images were scanned for the histomorphometric analyses of the corpora cavernosa, corpus spongiosum, erectile tissue, and tunica albuginea as well as the measurement of the thickness of the tunica albuginea. The diameter and areas of the penile arteries with the intima and media tunica were also measured. The elastic fibers of the tunica albuginea, corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum were quantified using stereological methods. No significant differences were observed in the collagen and elastic components among the groups. We concluded that no statistically significant differences were found among the groups, demonstrating that the prolonged consumption of OS and TS does not affect the penile structure.


El contenido de frijoles de soja puede modificar la estructura del sistema reproductivo, especialmente, cuando se consume durante períodos prolongados. En este estudio, se evaluaron los efectos del consumo de frijoles de soja transgénica en la morfología del pene de rata después de un uso prolongado. Las ratas Wistar (n = 30) se dividieron en tres grupos según la dieta: grupo de frijoles de soja transgénica (TS), grupo de frijoles de soja orgánica (OS) y grupo control (C). Después de 455 días de ingesta, se sacrificaron las ratas y se extirparon los penes y se fijaron en formalina para posterior procesamiento histológico. Las muestras se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina, tinción de resorcina-fucsina de Weigert y rojo de picrosirius con polarización. Las imágenes fueron escaneadas para análisis histomorfométrico de los cuerpos cavernosos, cuerpo esponjoso, tejido eréctil y túnica albugínea, así como para la medición del espesor de la túnica albugínea. También se midieron el diámetro y las áreas de las arterias penianas con las túnicas íntima y media. Se cuantificaron las fibras elásticas de la túnica albugínea, cuerpos cavernosos y cuerpos esponjosos utilizando métodos estereológicos. No se observaron diferencias significativas en los componentes colágenos y elásticos entre los grupos. Se concluyó que no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos, lo que demuestra que el consumo prolongado de OS y TS no afecta a la estructura del pene.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Envelhecimento , Dieta , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ratos Wistar
6.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 7(3): 314-319, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26639737

RESUMO

Obesity and osteoporosis may have their origins in early postnatal life. This study was designed to evaluate whether flaxseed flour use during lactation period bears effect on body adiposity and skeletal structure of male rat pups at weaning. At birth, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control and experimental (FF) groups, whose dams were treated with control or flaxseed flour diet, respectively, during lactation. At 21 days of age, pups were weaned to assess body mass, length and composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The animals were then sacrificed to carry out analysis of serum profile, intra-abdominal adipocyte morphology and femur characteristics. Differences were considered significant when P<0.05. The FF group displayed the following characteristics (P<0.05): higher body mass, length, bone mineral content, bone area and concentrations of osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; higher levels of stearic, α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids and lower levels of arachidonic acid and cholesterol; smaller adipocyte area; and higher mass, epiphysis distance, diaphysis width, maximal load, break load, resilience and stiffness of femur. Flaxseed flour intake during lactation period promoted adipocyte hypertrophy down-regulation and contributed to pup bone quality at weaning.

7.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 6(4): 268-71, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25924568

RESUMO

The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Desmame , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
8.
Transplant Proc ; 46(6): 1867-71, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25131056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver regeneration has great importance for transplantation, especially in children; however, it has not been studied sufficiently in development animals. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a problem, and strategies such as ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning are not well defined regarding regeneration. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate liver regeneration with modulation by ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning in prepubertal rats subjected to total ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Thirty-five 5-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into groups of 7 animals each: control group (SHAM), 70% hepatectomy (HEP), total ischemia 30 minutes before hepatectomy (IR), ischemic preconditioning 10/10 minutes before ischemia (PRE), and two 30/30-second ischemic postconditioning cycles after ischemia and hepatectomy (POS). All animals were subjected to 24-hour reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity were measured to evaluate liver damage, and histological analysis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and regenerated mass liver were used to evaluate liver regeneration. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in conditioned groups than in the IR group. Regarding mitotic index, IR > control group and HEP (P < .05), PRE and POS were not significantly different from IR, and POS > HEP (P < .05). PCNA analysis showed that IR > HEP (P < .01), PRE < IR (P < .01), and no significant differences were observed between POS and IR groups. No significant differences in regenerated mass liver were observed between conditioned groups and HEP. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic postconditioning prevented ischemic injury, promoted greater liver regeneration, and should be further investigated as an alternative better than ischemic preconditioning.


Assuntos
Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Regeneração Hepática , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Horm Metab Res ; 45(12): 900-4, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24013946

RESUMO

Irisin, a hormone secreted by myocytes induced in exercise, acts as a muscle-derived energy-expenditure signal that binds to undetermined receptors on the white adipose tissue surface, stimulating its browning and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an intradialytic resistance exercise training program (RETP) on plasma irisin levels of hemodialysis (HD) patients and compare the baseline plasma irisin levels of HD patients to healthy subjects. This longitudinal study enrolled 26 patients undergoing HD (50% men, 44.8±14.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 23.5±3.9 kg/m²). The healthy subjects group consisted of 11 women and 7 men with mean age of 50.9±6.6 years and BMI, 24.2±2.7 kg/m². Anthropometric and biochemistry parameters (Irisin by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) were measured at the baseline and after 6 months of RETP (in both lower limbs). There was no difference regarding gender, age, and BMI between HD patients and healthy subjects. Plasma irisin levels in HD patients were lower than in healthy subjects (71.0±41.6 vs. 101.3±12.5 ng/ml, p<0.05). Although the muscle mass increased in consequence of exercise [evaluated by arm muscle area from 27.9 (24.1) to 33.1 (19.0) cm²], plasma irisin did not differ significantly after exercises (71.0±41.6 vs. 73.3±36.0 ng/ml). HD patients seem to have lower plasma irisin when compared to healthy subjects. Moreover, a resistance exercise training program was unable to augment plasma irisin despite increasing muscle mass.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fibronectinas/sangue , Diálise Renal , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Aptidão Física
11.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 35(3): 425-30, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22076426

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU, OMIM 261600) have shown bone disease from childhood. Factors such as non-adherence to treatment, nutritional inadequacy, and high phenylalanine levels are associated with bone disease in several studies. This research aimed to describe the impact of dietary factors (consumption of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and phenylalanine), and the control of plasma phenylalanine levels on bone age (BA) and bone mineral density (BMD). METHODOLOGY: Thirteen patients of both genders, from 8 to 16 years old participated in this study. Control data were collected of phenylalanine levels, food frequency and record, hand and fist X-rays, and spinal bone densitometry. RESULTS: In children group (CG), individuals non-adherent to diet (NAD) consumed lower amounts of calcium (472 ± 100 mg/day) and energy (1743 ± 486 Kcal); they had higher rates of phenylalanine (564 ± 94 µmol/L) in blood, intake phenylalanine (701 ± 334 mg/g), and higher protein intake from free foods (14 ± 6.67 g/day); bone age (BA) values higher than the chronological age (CA) and less BMD values (-0.7 ± 1.6 SD) also were verified. In adolescent group (AG, N = 8) of NAD, values were lower for energy intake (1379 ± 258 Kcal), calcium (801 ± 152 mg/day), phosphorus (657 ± 102 mg/day), food protein (25 ± 7.6 g/day), and intake phenylalanine (1067 ± 382 mg/day) than recommended. Higher levels of plasma phenylalanine (851 ± 244 µmol/L), bone age greater than chronological age and lower BMD values (-2.4 ± -2.5 SD) were observed. CONCLUSION: The results suggest effects on BA and on BMD, in both children and adolescent groups. The bone development is expressed differently in children and adolescents. The non-adherence to the diet verified in both groups and the consequent imbalance in the nutrients intake involved in bone metabolism suggest that these factors influence the failure to thrive in children and reduced bone mineralization in adolescents.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Fenilcetonúrias/genética , Adolescente , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/genética , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil , Densitometria/métodos , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Fenilalanina/análise , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/fisiopatologia , Raios X
12.
Horm Metab Res ; 43(6): 410-6, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21448850

RESUMO

Flaxseed has several benefits for health such as improvement in lipid profile; and since thyroid hormones increases cholesterol biliary excretion, we decide to evaluate the programming effect of maternal flaxseed diet during lactation upon thyroid hormone metabolism and action in the adult offspring in rats. At birth, lactating rats were divided into: flaxseed dams (F) - diet with 25% of flaxseed - and controls dams (C). F and C pups received normal diet after weaning and male offspring were sacrificed at 21 and 180 days old. We evaluated serum T3, T4, and TSH; type 1 and 2 deiodinase activities (D1 and D2) in the liver, thyroid, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and pituitary; thyroid hormone receptor (TRß1) expression and mitochondrial glycerophosphate-dehydrogenase activity (GPDm) in the liver. F offspring showed lower T3 levels at weaning (-30%, p<0.05) probably caused by lower liver D1 activity (-32%, p<0.05) and higher TSH levels (+84.6%, p<0.05) characterizing a profile of hypothyroidism. At 180 days old, F offspring had lower T4 and thyroid D1 and D2 activities (-28.3%, -18.5%, and -44.2%, respectively, p<0.05) and higher BAT D2 activity (+34.5%, p<0.05). We suggest that adult F animals present an inappropriate TSH action on the thyroid, since thyroid deiodinase was lower. Serum T3 was normal probably due to a higher BAT D2 activity and may reflect the tissue T3 concentration because liver D1, TRß1, and GPDm were normal. Thus, maternal flaxseed diet during lactation may affect the thyroid hormones metabolism in a long-term.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Dieta , Linho/química , Lactação/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores beta dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue
13.
Nutrition ; 26(11-12): 1065-9, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20018488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients who have undergone hemodialysis, large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced and, at higher concentrations, ROS are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that selenium (Se) may exert an antiatherogenic influence by reducing oxidative stress. The richest known food source of selenium is the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, family Lecythidaceae), found in the Amazon region. We evaluated the effect of Brazil nut supplementation on blood levels of Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: A total of 81 patients on hemodialysis (52.0±15.2 y old, average time on dialysis 82.3±91.4 mo, body mass index 24.9±4.4 kg/m(2)) from the RenalCor and RenalVida Clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied. All patients received one nut (around 5 g, averaging 58.1 µg Se/g) a day for 3 mo. The Se concentrations in the nuts and in plasma and erythrocytes were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation (Hitachi, Z-500). GSH-Px levels were measured using Randox commercial kits. RESULTS: Plasma Se (18.8±17.4 µg/L) and erythrocyte (72.4±37.9 µg/L) levels were below the normal range before nut supplementation. After supplementation, the plasma level increased to 104.0±65.0 µg/L and erythrocytes to 244.1±119.5 µg/L (P<0.0001). The activity of GSH-Px also increased after supplementation, from 46.6±14.9 to 55.9±23.6 U/g of hemoglobin (P<0.0001). Before supplementation, 11% of patients had GSH-Px activity below the normal range (27.5-73.6 U/g of hemoglobin). After supplementation, all patients showed GSH-Px activity within the normal range. CONCLUSION: The data revealed that the investigated patients presented Se deficiency and that the consumption of only one Brazil nut a day (5 g) during 3 mo was effective to increase the Se concentration and GSH-Px activity in these patients, thus improving their antioxidant status.


Assuntos
Bertholletia , Deficiências Nutricionais/sangue , Deficiências Nutricionais/dietoterapia , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Nozes , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Selênio/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Bertholletia/química , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências Nutricionais/enzimologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Registros de Dieta , Eritrócitos/química , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Nozes/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Selênio/análise , Selênio/deficiência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 48(2): 697-703, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19948200

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of maternal dietary flaxseed during lactation on milk composition, body composition and sexual function of the adult female offspring. The dams were fed a control casein diet (C) or flaxseed diet (F, 25%) throughout lactation. F mothers showed higher serum 17beta-estradiol (E2) and leptin at weaning. F mother's milk had lower total cholesterol (TC) and higher E2 and leptin. The offspring of F dams showed lower body mass (BM), body fat mass (BFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), TC and triglycerides (TG) and higher serum leptin and E2 at 21 days. F offspring showed delayed puberty onset. At 150 days, these offspring presented higher BFM, VFM, TC, TG, E2 and lower relative uterine weight and lower progesterone. In conclusion, flaxseed during lactation did affect the lipid profile, adipose tissue and sexual function in adulthood, probably due hyperestrogenism and hyperleptinemia at weaning.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linho/efeitos adversos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia
15.
Nutr Neurosci ; 9(1-2): 113-9, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16910177

RESUMO

In order to verify the toxicity of ethanol in malnourished rats, the following procedure was applied to two groups of rats (n = 12 each): group W: drinking water ad libitum and group E: drinking only an ethanol solution in a gradual dosage (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40% v/v). In the well-nourished phase, all rats received food ad libitum (AW and AE). Ethanol treatment (AE) was interrupted for two weeks. Rats from both AW and AE groups were submitted to food restriction (50% of AW consumption)--malnourished phase (M)--and liquid was offered as described before. Signs of ethanol intoxication were recorded daily. Ethanol withdrawal symptoms and the open-field test were performed 24 h after the well-nourished and malnourished phases. Rats were sacrificed for macroscopic evaluation of liver, spleen, thymus and biochemical analyses of the blood (hematocrit, hemoglobin, proteins and albumin). Malnourished rats showed more signs of ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. In the open-field test, malnourished rats ambulated more and made more rearing up. This effect of malnutrition was not observed during ethanol withdrawal. Consumption of ethanol decreased the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and total proteins. Data suggested that toxic profile of ethanol was dependent on nutritional status.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/toxicidade , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Fígado/patologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Baço/patologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Timo/patologia , Ganho de Peso
16.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 38(4): 583-6, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15962184

RESUMO

We evaluated the protein quality of organic and transgenic soy fed to rats throughout life. Thirty female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10): organic soy group (OSG) receiving organic soy-based diet, genetically modified soy group (GMSG) receiving transgenic soy-based diet, and a control group (CG) receiving casein-based diet. All animals received water and isocaloric diet (10% protein), ad libitum for 291 days. After this, the weight of GMSG animals (290.9 +/- 9.1 g) was significantly lower (P <= 0.04) than CG (323.2 +/- 7.9 g). The weight of OSG (302.2 +/- 8.7 g) was between that of the GMSG and the CG. Protein intake was similar for OSG (308.4 +/- 6.8 g) and GMSG (301.5 +/- 2.5 g), and significantly lower (P <= 0.0005) than the CG (358.4 +/- 8.1 g). Growth rate was similar for all groups: OSG (0.80 +/- 0.02 g), GMSG (0.81 +/- 0.03 g) and CG (0.75 +/- 0.02 g). In addition to providing a good protein intake and inducing less weight gain, both types of soy were utilized in a manner similar to that of casein, suggesting that the protein quality of soy is similar to that of the standard protein casein. The groups fed soy-based diet gained less weight, which may be considered to be beneficial for health. We conclude that organic and transgenic soy can be fed throughout life to rats in place of animal protein, because contain high quality protein and do not cause a marked increase in body weight.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Soja , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/química
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(4): 583-586, Apr. 2005. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-398178

RESUMO

We evaluated the protein quality of organic and transgenic soy fed to rats throughout life. Thirty female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10): organic soy group (OSG) receiving organic soy-based diet, genetically modified soy group (GMSG) receiving transgenic soy-based diet, and a control group (CG) receiving casein-based diet. All animals received water and isocaloric diet (10 percent protein), ad libitum for 291 days. After this, the weight of GMSG animals (290.9 ± 9.1 g) was significantly lower (P <= 0.04) than CG (323.2 ± 7.9 g). The weight of OSG (302.2 ± 8.7 g) was between that of the GMSG and the CG. Protein intake was similar for OSG (308.4 ± 6.8 g) and GMSG (301.5 ± 2.5 g), and significantly lower (P <= 0.0005) than the CG (358.4 ± 8.1 g). Growth rate was similar for all groups: OSG (0.80 ± 0.02 g), GMSG (0.81 ± 0.03 g) and CG (0.75 ± 0.02 g). In addition to providing a good protein intake and inducing less weight gain, both types of soy were utilized in a manner similar to that of casein, suggesting that the protein quality of soy is similar to that of the standard protein casein. The groups fed soy-based diet gained less weight, which may be considered to be beneficial for health. We conclude that organic and transgenic soy can be fed throughout life to rats in place of animal protein, because contain high quality protein and do not cause a marked increase in body weight.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Soja , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Ganho de Peso , Dieta , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/química
18.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 37(6): 841-6, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15264027

RESUMO

Our objective was to compare the use of calories from ethanol by well-nourished and malnourished rats in terms of body weight. Female Wistar rats weighing 170-180 g at the beginning of the study were used. The animals were divided into two groups (N = 12 each): group W received water ad libitum and group E an ethanol solution ad libitum as the only source of liquid throughout the experiment. The concentration of ethanol was increased weekly from 0 to 5, 10, 20 and 40% (v/v). In the well-nourished phase (A), all rats received food ad libitum (AW and AE). Ethanol treatment (AE) was then interrupted and water was offered to both groups. After 2 weeks both AW and AE rats were submitted to food restriction (50% of group AW food consumption), thus initiating the malnutrition phase (M). Liquid was offered as described before to the same W (MW) and E (ME) groups. The weight gain during the 1-week treatment of AE rats was similar to that of AW animals only when AE rats received the 5% (v/v) ethanol solution (9.16 vs 10.47 g). Weight loss was observed after exposure to 10% ethanol (P < 0.05) in spite of maintenance of caloric intake. Malnourished rats presented weight loss, which was attenuated by ethanol intake up to the 20% (v/v) solution and was related to an increased caloric offer. This effect was not observed with the 40% ethanol solution (-9.98 g). These data suggest that calories from ethanol were used to maintain body weight up to the concentration of 10% (v/v) (well-nourished) and 20% (v/v) (malnourished) and that ethanol has a toxic profile which depends on nutritional status.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia , Etanol/metabolismo , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Animais , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 37(6): 841-846, Jun. 2004. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-359897

RESUMO

Our objective was to compare the use of calories from ethanol by well-nourished and malnourished rats in terms of body weight. Female Wistar rats weighing 170-180 g at the beginning of the study were used. The animals were divided into two groups (N = 12 each): group W received water ad libitum and group E an ethanol solution ad libitum as the only source of liquid throughout the experiment. The concentration of ethanol was increased weekly from 0 to 5, 10, 20 and 40 percent (v/v). In the well-nourished phase (A), all rats received food ad libitum (AW and AE). Ethanol treatment (AE) was then interrupted and water was offered to both groups. After 2 weeks both AW and AE rats were submitted to food restriction (50 percent of group AW food consumption), thus initiating the malnutrition phase (M). Liquid was offered as described before to the same W (MW) and E (ME) groups. The weight gain during the 1-week treatment of AE rats was similar to that of AW animals only when AE rats received the 5 percent (v/v) ethanol solution (9.16 vs 10.47 g). Weight loss was observed after exposure to 10 percent ethanol (P < 0.05) in spite of maintenance of caloric intake. Malnourished rats presented weight loss, which was attenuated by ethanol intake up to the 20 percent (v/v) solution and was related to an increased caloric offer. This effect was not observed with the 40 percent ethanol solution (-9.98 g). These data suggest that calories from ethanol were used to maintain body weight up to the concentration of 10 percent (v/v) (well-nourished) and 20 percent (v/v) (malnourished) and that ethanol has a toxic profile which depends on nutritional status.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Etanol , Desnutrição , Ratos Wistar
20.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 51(6): 453-8, 2000 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11221641

RESUMO

Some factors in food can influence the protein digestibility positively or negatively. The protein quality is related to the protein synthesis capacity, growth, maintenance, reproduction and reconstitution of an organism. This work aims to determine the apparent digestibility coefficient and the protein quality of the standard basic diet of Rio de Janeiro State (HERJ), complemented with 2% of the multimixture (HERJ + MM), during rats' gestation and lactation periods. The results indicated a lower apparent digestibility coefficient (P < 0.05) during the gestation and lactation periods in HERJ diets (82.4% +/- 0.55; 80.64% +/- 1.7) and HERJ + MM (80.9% +/- 3.28; 81.7% +/- 1.2), in comparison to the casein diet (91.8% +/- 0.6; 93.9% +/- 0.4). There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) between HERJ diet (2.75 +/- 0.14) and HERJ + MM diet (2.53 +/- 0.18). However, the casein diet has showed a higher lactation value (3.27 +/- 0.3) in comparison with the two above mentioned groups. Therefore the use of the multimixture at 2% level neither impairs the apparent digestibility coefficient nor does it change the protein quality of the standard diet of Rio de Janeiro State.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Animais , Brasil , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Caseínas/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Lactação , Valor Nutritivo , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Perda de Peso
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