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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452433

RESUMO

Heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder and response to antidepressants limits clinicians' ability to accurately predict a specific patient's eventual response to therapy. Validated depressive symptom profiles may be an important tool for identifying poor outcomes early in the course of treatment. To derive these symptom profiles, we first examined data from 947 depressed subjects treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to delineate the heterogeneity of antidepressant response using probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). We then used unsupervised machine learning to identify specific depressive symptoms and thresholds of improvement that were predictive of antidepressant response by 4 weeks for a patient to achieve remission, response, or nonresponse by 8 weeks. Four depressive symptoms (depressed mood, guilt feelings and delusion, work and activities and psychic anxiety) and specific thresholds of change in each at 4 weeks predicted eventual outcome at 8 weeks to SSRI therapy with an average accuracy of 77% (p = 5.5E-08). The same four symptoms and prognostic thresholds derived from patients treated with SSRIs correctly predicted outcomes in 72% (p = 1.25E-05) of 1996 patients treated with other antidepressants in both inpatient and outpatient settings in independent publicly-available datasets. These predictive accuracies were higher than the accuracy of 53% for predicting SSRI response achieved using approaches that (i) incorporated only baseline clinical and sociodemographic factors, or (ii) used 4-week nonresponse status to predict likely outcomes at 8 weeks. The present findings suggest that PGMs providing interpretable predictions have the potential to enhance clinical treatment of depression and reduce the time burden associated with trials of ineffective antidepressants. Prospective trials examining this approach are forthcoming.

2.
Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ) ; 18(2): 181-192, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162856

RESUMO

Numerous short-term randomized trials support the acute-phase efficacy of low-dose intravenous (IV) ketamine for patients with treatment-resistant unipolar or bipolar depression. Ketamine's antidepressive effects generally have limited duration, highlighting the need for maintenance treatment after an acute-phase response. It is increasingly likely that psychiatrists will be called upon to manage the care of patients with treatment-resistant unipolar or bipolar depression who have responded acutely to ketamine and to recommend or initiate next-step treatments. However, there is a paucity of controlled evidence to guide best practices for managing treatment of patients with treatment-resistant unipolar or bipolar depression who have had a positive initial response to ketamine. This article reviews the available evidence supporting specific strategies for extending and maintaining acute antidepressive responses to low-dose IV ketamine in patients with treatment-resistant unipolar or bipolar depression and provides some preliminary considerations for clinical practice.

3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777011

RESUMO

Importance: Antidepressants are commonly used during pregnancy, but limited information is available about individual antidepressants and specific birth defect risks. Objective: To examine associations between individual antidepressants and specific birth defects with and without attempts to partially account for potential confounding by underlying conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: The population-based, multicenter case-control National Birth Defects Prevention Study (October 1997-December 2011) included cases with selected birth defects who were identified from surveillance systems; controls were randomly sampled live-born infants without major birth defects. Mothers of cases and controls participated in an interview after the expected delivery date. The data were analyzed after the completion of the National Birth Defects Prevent Study's data collection. Exposures: Self-reported antidepressant exposure was coded to indicate monotherapy exposure to antidepressants. Main Outcomes and Measures: We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals for associations between maternal antidepressant use and birth defects. We compared early pregnancy antidepressant-exposed women with those without antidepressant exposure and, to partially account for confounding by underlying maternal conditions, those exposed to antidepressants outside of the birth defect development critical period. Results: This study included 30 630 case mothers of infants with birth defects and 11 478 control mothers (aged 12-53 years). Early pregnancy antidepressant use was reported by 1562 case mothers (5.1%) and 467 control mothers (4.1%), for whom elevated aORs were observed for individual selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selected congenital heart defects (CHD) (eg, fluoxetine and anomalous pulmonary venous return: aOR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.10-5.93; this association was attenuated after partially accounting for underlying conditions: aOR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.56-6.42). This pattern was observed for many SSRI-CHD combinations. Associations between SSRIs and non-CHD birth defects often persisted or strengthened after partially accounting for underlying conditions (eg, citalopram and diaphragmatic hernia: aOR, 5.11; 95% CI, 1.29-20.24). Venlafaxine had elevated associations with multiple defects that persisted after partially accounting for underlying conditions (eg, anencephaly and craniorachischisis: aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 1.91-43.83). Conclusions and Relevance: We found some associations between maternal antidepressant use and specific birth defects. Venlafaxine was associated with the highest number of defects, which needs confirmation given the limited literature on venlafaxine use during pregnancy and risk for birth defects. Our results suggest confounding by underlying conditions should be considered when assessing risk. Fully informed treatment decision-making requires balancing the risks and benefits of proposed interventions against those of untreated depression or anxiety.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 264: 90-97, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acylcarnitines have important functions in mitochondrial energetics and ß-oxidation, and have been implicated to play a significant role in metabolic functions of the brain. This retrospective study examined whether plasma acylcarnitine profiles can help biochemically distinguish the three phenotypic subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD): core depression (CD+), anxious depression (ANX+), and neurovegetative symptoms of melancholia (NVSM+). METHODS: Depressed outpatients (n = 240) from the Mayo Clinic Pharmacogenomics Research Network were treated with citalopram or escitalopram for eight weeks. Plasma samples collected at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment with citalopram or escitalopram were profiled for short-, medium- and long-chain acylcarnitine levels using AbsoluteIDQ®p180-Kit and LC-MS. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine whether acylcarnitine levels discriminated the clinical phenotypes at baseline or eight weeks post-treatment, and whether temporal changes in acylcarnitine profiles differed between groups. RESULTS: Compared to ANX+, CD+ and NVSM+ had significantly lower concentrations of short- and long-chain acylcarnitines at both baseline and week 8. In NVSM+, the medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines were also significantly lower in NVSM+ compared to ANX+. Short-chain acylcarnitine levels increased significantly from baseline to week 8 in CD+ and ANX+, whereas medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines significantly decreased in CD+ and NVSM+. CONCLUSIONS: In depressed patients treated with SSRIs, ß-oxidation and mitochondrial energetics as evaluated by levels and changes in acylcarnitines may provide the biochemical basis of the clinical heterogeneity of MDD, especially when combined with clinical characteristics.

5.
Palliat Support Care ; 18(3): 307-313, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances are prevalent in cancer patients, especially those with advanced disease. There are few published intervention studies that address sleep issues in advanced cancer patients during the course of treatment. This study assesses the impact of a multidisciplinary quality of life (QOL) intervention on subjective sleep difficulties in patients with advanced cancer. METHOD: This randomized trial investigated the comparative effects of a multidisciplinary QOL intervention (n = 54) vs. standard care (n = 63) on sleep quality in patients with advanced cancer receiving radiation therapy as a secondary endpoint. The intervention group attended six intervention sessions, while the standard care group received informational material only. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), administered at baseline and weeks 4 (post-intervention), 27, and 52. RESULTS: The intervention group had a statistically significant improvement in the PSQI total score and two components of sleep quality and daytime dysfunction than the control group at week 4. At week 27, although both groups showed improvements in sleep measures from baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in any of the PSQI total and component scores, or ESS. At week 52, the intervention group used less sleep medication than control patients compared to baseline (p = 0.04) and had a lower ESS score (7.6 vs. 9.3, p = 0.03). SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: A multidisciplinary intervention to improve QOL can also improve sleep quality of advanced cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Those patients who completed the intervention also reported the use of less sleep medication.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 772-781, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lithium and quetiapine can cause weight gain, but their comparative longer term anthropometric effects are unknown, as are the potential moderating effects of baseline binge-eating (BE) behavior. METHODS: We assessed 6 month changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 482 adults with DSM-IV bipolar disorders who participated in a comparative effectiveness study of lithium and quetiapine with evidence-based adjunctive treatment (Bipolar CHOICE). Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks. BE behavior was defined as affirmative responses to MINI items M1 and M3 at baseline. Data were analyzed using a mixed model repeated measures approach, adjusted for baseline values of dependent measures. RESULTS: On average, body weight and BMI increased over 6 months with lithium and quetiapine. However, those treated with quetiapine experienced greater increases from baseline in body weight (peak change, + 3.6 lbs. vs. + 1.4 lbs.) and BMI (peak change, + 0.6 kg/m2 vs. + 0.3 kg/m2), starting at 2 weeks (group x time, F8,3052 = 2.9, p = 0.003 for body weight, F8,3052 = 3.0, p = 0.002 for BMI). Significant increases in waist circumference were observed only with quetiapine. The relationship between drug treatment and changes in body weight (group x time x binge eating status, F1,2770 = 2.0, p = 0.002), BMI (F1,2767 = 2.0, p = 0.002), and waist circumference (women only, F25,1621 = 2.9, p < 0.0001) were moderated by BE behavior. The largest increases over 24 weeks in body weight and BMI, and waist circumference in women, occurred for quetiapine-treated patients with baseline binge-eating, relative to quetiapine-treated patients without binge eating and lithium-treated patients with or without baseline binge-eating. LIMITATIONS: Bipolar CHOICE was not designed to study anthropometric outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Greater changes in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference occurred with quetiapine- versus lithium-based treatment over 6 months of treatment. The effects of study drugs on these anthropometric measures were moderated by BE behavior at baseline.

8.
Schizophr Res ; 215: 81-88, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, atypical antipsychotic use among U.S. pregnant women, and potential associations between early pregnancy atypical antipsychotic use and risk for 14 birth defects. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011), a U.S. population-based case-control study examining risk factors for major structural birth defects. RESULTS: Atypical antipsychotic use during pregnancy was more common among women with pre-pregnancy obesity, and women who reported illicit drug use before and during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol use during pregnancy, or use of other psychiatric medications during pregnancy. We observed elevated associations (defined as a crude odds ratio [cOR] ≥2.0) between early pregnancy atypical antipsychotic use and conotruncal heart defects (6 exposed cases; cOR: 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-6.1), and more specifically Tetralogy of Fallot (3 exposed cases; cOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.7-8.8), cleft palate (4 exposed cases, cOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-7.6), anorectal atresia/stenosis (3 exposed cases, cOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 0.8-9.9), and gastroschisis (3 exposed cases, cOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 0.6-7.3). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the close clinical monitoring of pregnant women using atypical antipsychotics. Women treated with atypical antipsychotics generally access healthcare services before pregnancy; efforts to reduce correlates of atypical antipsychotic use might improve maternal and infant health in this population.

11.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(12): 1285-1293, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532468

RESUMO

Importance: Infection-associated immune activation and inflammation are increasingly recognized in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Objective: To determine whether antibodies to common infectious agents, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), Toxoplasma gondii, and measles, as well as the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein, in serum samples differ between patients with bipolar disorder and control individuals without bipolar disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, antibody titers were measured in serum samples from 1207 patients with bipolar disorder and 745 controls that were obtained from biobanks with participating sites in Rochester and Minneapolis, Minnesota (n = 1537), and Cincinnati, Ohio (n = 415), from January 5, 2009, through May 12, 2014. A subset of case patients and controls from Minnesota were matched by age, sex, and educational level. Bipolar type, age at onset, and history of psychosis were assessed for case patients as well as current drug treatment at the time of blood sample obtainment from the biobank. Data were analyzed from February 5, 2018, to January 4, 2019. Exposures: The CMV and T gondii antibodies with IgM titers were expressed as z scores and IgG titers dichotomized into seropositive and seronegative based on expected prevalence in the US population and further classified based on the joint CMV-positive/T gondii-negative IgG status, C-reactive protein z score, and drug treatments with antitoxoplasma activity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patients were stratified by bipolar disorder type I or type II, nonearly (>19 years of age) and early (≤19 years of age) onset, and history of psychosis during mania or no psychosis. Results: Of 1207 patients with bipolar disorder (mean [SD] age, 43.2 [15.1] years; 742 [61.5%] female), the CMV-positive/T gondii-negative IgG status was significantly higher (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.09-1.62; P = .004) compared with that in the 745 controls (mean [SD] age, 44.5 [15.5] years; 444 [59.6%] female). The CMV-positive/T gondii-negative IgG status was associated with bipolar cases type I (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.14-1.75; P = .001), nonearly age at onset (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.72; P = .001), and history of manic psychosis (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13-1.88; P = .004). Patients with bipolar disorder who received drug treatment with antitoxoplasma activity (n = 272) had significantly lower T gondii IgM titers (median, 1.59; interquartile range, 1.30-2.07) compared with those (n = 900) who did not receive this treatment (median, 1.69; interquartile range, 1.35-2.25) (P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In this sample, increased long-term antibody response to CMV and decreased long-term antibody response to T gondii were associated with bipolar disorder and the subphenotypes of bipolar type I, nonearly disease onset, and manic psychosis. Further work appears to be needed to better understand genetic vs environmental disease risk and infection or immune activation contribution to overall disease pathogenesis with particular reference to disease onset.

12.
Menopause ; 26(12): 1395-1404, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We studied eight mental health conditions diagnosed before bilateral oophorectomy performed for nonmalignant indications. METHODS: We identified 1,653 premenopausal women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy for a nonmalignant indication in Olmsted County, Minnesota, during a 20-year period (1988-2007). Each woman was matched by age (±1 year) to one population-based control who had not undergone bilateral oophorectomy before the index date (age range: 21-49 years). Both cases and controls were identified using the records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP http://www.rochesterproject.org). For eight mental health conditions, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for race, education, and income using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Pre-existing mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders were associated with increased risk of bilateral oophorectomy in overall analyses. These associations were also significant in women ≤45 years of age at index date. Personality disorders were associated with increased risk only in overall analyses and adjustment disorders only in women 46 to 49 years of age. Some of the associations were significantly different across strata by age at index date and by indication. There was also a linear trend of increasing adjusted ORs from 1.55 (95% CI 1.31-1.83) for one mental health condition to 2.19 (95% CI 1.40-3.41) for three or more conditions (trend P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We identified several mental health conditions that were associated with bilateral oophorectomy for nonmalignant indications. Awareness of these associations may guide women and physicians in future decision-making and limit unindicated bilateral oophorectomies. VIDEO SUMMARY:: http://links.lww.com/MENO/A458.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Ovariectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Doenças Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Doenças Ovarianas/psicologia , Ovariectomia/psicologia , Pré-Menopausa , Período Pré-Operatório
13.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 164-172, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Not all patients with bipolar depression have suicidal ideation (SI). This study examines some factors that link bipolar depression to SI. METHODS: 482 individuals with bipolar I or II were randomized to either lithium or quetiapine plus adjunctive personalized therapy in a 24 week comparative effectiveness trial. Severity of depression and SI were assessed with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS). We examined potential moderators (age, gender, age of illness onset, bipolar type, comorbid anxiety, substance use, past suicide attempts, childhood abuse and treatment arm) and mediators (severity of anxiety, mania, irritability, impairment in functioning (LIFE-RIFT) and satisfaction and enjoyment of life (Q-LES-Q)) of the effect of depression on SI. Statistical analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations with repeated measures. RESULTS: Bipolar type and past suicide attempts moderated the effect of depression on SI. Life satisfaction mediated the effect of depression and SI. The relationship between anxiety, depression and SI was complex due to the high level of correlation. Treatment with lithium or quetiapine did not moderate the effect of depression on SI. LIMITATIONS: Suicide assessment was only done using an item on BISS. Patient population was not specifically chosen for high suicide risk. DISCUSSION: Individuals with Bipolar II experienced more SI with lower levels of depression severity. A history of suicide predisposed patients to higher levels of SI given the same severity of depression. Reduced life satisfaction mediates the effect of depression on SI and may be a target for therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Tentativa de Suicídio , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Affect Disord ; 257: 17-22, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex polypharmacy (CP) is common in bipolar disorder (BD). We assessed the associations between CP, adherence, and side effect burden, and patient traits associated with clinical improvement in relationship to CP. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 482 adult BD participants in the Bipolar CHOICE trial. We examined the associations between CP (use of ≥3 BD medications) and non-adherence (missing >30% of BD medication doses in the last 30 days) and side effect burden (Frequency, Intensity and Burden of Side Effects Rating scale) using multivariate models with patient random effects. We used logistic regression to assess the patient traits associated with remission among those with majority CP use (Clinical Global Impression-Severity for BD score ≤2 for 8+ weeks). RESULTS: 43% of patients had any CP and 25% had CP for the majority of the study. CP was associated with non-adherence (OR = 2.51, 95% CI [1.81, 3.50]), but not worse side effect burden. Among those with CP, 16% achieved remission; those with non-adherence, comorbid social or generalized anxiety disorder, or BD I vs. II were less likely to achieve remission among those with CP. LIMITATIONS: There could be unmeasured confounding between use of CP and side effect burden or adherence. Adherence was measured by self-report, which could be subject to reporting error. CONCLUSIONS: BD patients with CP were less likely to adhere to therapy, and those with worse adherence to CP were less likely to clinically respond. Clinicians should assess medication adherence prior to adding another agent to medication regimens.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Polimedicação , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(4): 855-865, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012492

RESUMO

We set out to determine whether machine learning-based algorithms that included functionally validated pharmacogenomic biomarkers joined with clinical measures could predict selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) remission/response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We studied 1,030 white outpatients with MDD treated with citalopram/escitalopram in the Mayo Clinic Pharmacogenomics Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study (PGRN-AMPS; n = 398), Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D; n = 467), and International SSRI Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ISPC; n = 165) trials. A genomewide association study for PGRN-AMPS plasma metabolites associated with SSRI response (serotonin) and baseline MDD severity (kynurenine) identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DEFB1, ERICH3, AHR, and TSPAN5 that we tested as predictors. Supervised machine-learning methods trained using SNPs and total baseline depression scores predicted remission and response at 8 weeks with area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) > 0.7 (P < 0.04) in PGRN-AMPS patients, with comparable prediction accuracies > 69% (P ≤ 0.07) in STAR*D and ISPC. These results demonstrate that machine learning can achieve accurate and, importantly, replicable prediction of SSRI therapy response using total baseline depression severity combined with pharmacogenomic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Citalopram/farmacocinética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Testes Farmacogenômicos/métodos , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Indução de Remissão , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacocinética
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837869

RESUMO

Background: Pharmacogenomic testing, specifically for pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) genetic variation, may contribute to a better understanding of baseline genetic differences in patients seeking treatment for depression, which may further impact clinical antidepressant treatment recommendations. This study evaluated PK and PD genetic variation and the clinical use of such testing in treatment seeking patients with bipolar disorder (BP) and major depressive disorder (MDD) and history of multiple drug failures/treatment resistance. Methods: Consecutive depressed patients evaluated at the Mayo Clinic Depression Center over a 10-year study time frame (2003-2013) were included in this retrospective analysis. Diagnoses of BP or MDD were confirmed using a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Clinical rating scales included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD24), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questionnaire. Clinically selected patients underwent genotyping of cytochrome P450 CYP2D6/CYP2C19 and the serotonin transporter SLC6A4. PK and PD differences and whether clinicians incorporated test results in providing recommendations were compared between the two patient groups. Results: Of the 1795 patients, 167/523 (31.9%) with BP and 446/1272 (35.1%) with MDD were genotyped. Genotyped patients had significantly higher self-report measures of depression and anxiety compared to non-genotyped patients. There were significantly more CYP2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) phenotypes in BP (9.3%) vs. MDD patients (1.7%, p = 0.003); among participants with an S-allele, the rate of CYP2C19 PM phenotype was even higher in the BP (9.8%) vs. MDD (0.6%, p = 0.003). There was a significant difference in the distribution of SLC6A4 genotypes between BP (l/l = 28.1%, s/l = 59.3%, s/s = 12.6%) and MDD (l/l = 31.4%, s/l = 46.1%, s/s = 22.7%) patients (p < 0.01). Conclusion: There may be underlying pharmacogenomic differences in treatment seeking depressed patients that potentially have impact on serum levels of CYP2C19 metabolized antidepressants (i.e., citalopram / escitalopram) contributing to rates of efficacy vs. side effect burden with additional potential risk of antidepressant response vs. induced mania. The evidence for utilizing pharmacogenomics-guided therapy in MDD and BP is still developing with a much needed focus on drug safety, side effect burden, and treatment adherence.

17.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 7(1): e00461, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693088

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to estimate the extent of potential antidepressant overprescribing in a geographically defined U.S. population, and to determine the indications and factors that account for it. We conducted a cohort study of new antidepressant prescriptions for elderly residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 2005-2012, using the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage system. Indications for antidepressants were abstracted from health records for all cohort members. Potential antidepressant overprescribing was defined based on regulatory approval, the level of evidence identified from a standardized drug information database, and multidisciplinary expert review. Predictors of potential antidepressant overprescribing were investigated using logistic regression models, stratified by general antidepressant indication (general medical indication, specific psychiatric diagnosis, and non-specific psychiatric symptoms). Potential antidepressant overprescribing occurred in 24% of 3199 incident antidepressant prescriptions during the study period, and involved primarily newer antidepressants that were prescribed for non-specific psychiatric symptoms and subthreshold diagnoses. Potential antidepressant overprescribing was associated with nursing home residence, having a higher number of comorbid medical conditions and outpatient prescribers, taking more concomitant medications, having greater use of urgent or acute care services in the year preceding the index antidepressant prescription, and being prescribed antidepressants via telephone, e-mail, or patient portal. In conclusion, potential antidepressant overprescribing occurred in elderly persons and involved mainly newer antidepressants used for non-specific psychiatric symptoms and subthreshold diagnoses, and was associated with indicators of higher clinical complexity or severity and with prescribing without face-to-face patient contact.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 126(1): 35-45, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610379

RESUMO

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line antidepressants for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, treatment response during an initial therapeutic trial is often poor and is difficult to predict. Heterogeneity of response to SSRIs in depressed patients is partly driven by co-occurring somatic disorders such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. CAD and obesity may also be associated with metabolic side effects of SSRIs. In this study, we assessed the association of CAD and obesity with treatment response to SSRIs in patients with MDD using a polygenic score (PGS) approach. Additionally, we performed cross-trait meta-analyses to pinpoint genetic variants underpinnings the relationship of CAD and obesity with SSRIs treatment response. First, PGSs were calculated at different p value thresholds (PT) for obesity and CAD. Next, binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association of the PGSs to SSRIs treatment response in a discovery sample (ISPC, N = 865), and in a replication cohort (STAR*D, N = 1,878). Finally, a cross-trait GWAS meta-analysis was performed by combining summary statistics. We show that the PGSs for CAD and obesity were inversely associated with SSRIs treatment response. At the most significant thresholds, the PGS for CAD and body mass index accounted 1.3%, and 0.8% of the observed variability in treatment response to SSRIs, respectively. In the cross-trait meta-analyses, we identified (1) 14 genetic loci (including NEGR1, CADM2, PMAIP1, PARK2) that are associated with both obesity and SSRIs treatment response; (2) five genetic loci (LINC01412, PHACTR1, CDKN2B, ATXN2, KCNE2) with effects on CAD and SSRIs treatment response. Our findings implicate that the genetic variants of CAD and obesity are linked to SSRIs treatment response in MDD. A better SSRIs treatment response might be achieved through a stratified allocation of treatment for MDD patients with a genetic risk for obesity or CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(2): 117-134, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182804

RESUMO

There is a new appreciation of the perimenopause-defined as the early and late menopause transition stages as well as the early postmenopause-as a window of vulnerability for the development of both depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes. However, clinical recommendations on how to identify, characterize and treat clinical depression are lacking. To address this gap, an expert panel was convened to systematically review the published literature and develop guidelines on the evaluation and management of perimenopausal depression. The areas addressed included: (1) epidemiology; (2) clinical presentation; (3) therapeutic effects of antidepressants; (4) effects of hormone therapy; and (5) efficacy of other therapies (e.g., psychotherapy, exercise, and natural health products). Overall, evidence generally suggests that most midlife women who experience a major depressive episode during the perimenopause have experienced a prior episode of depression. Midlife depression presents with classic depressive symptoms commonly in combination with menopause symptoms (i.e., vasomotor symptoms, sleep disturbance), and psychosocial challenges. Menopause symptoms complicate, co-occur, and overlap with the presentation of depression. Diagnosis involves identification of menopausal stage, assessment of co-occurring psychiatric and menopause symptoms, appreciation of the psychosocial factors common in midlife, differential diagnoses, and the use of validated screening instruments. Proven therapeutic options for depression (i.e., antidepressants, psychotherapy) are the front-line treatments for perimenopausal depression. Although estrogen therapy is not approved to treat perimenopausal depression, there is evidence that it has antidepressant effects in perimenopausal women, particularly those with concomitant vasomotor symptoms. Data on estrogen plus progestin are sparse and inconclusive.


Assuntos
Depressão , Perimenopausa/psicologia , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Feminino , Fogachos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Menopausa/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações
20.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 597-601, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder demonstrate sex differences in clinical presentation, particularly in the sub-phenotypes related to periodicity of mood episodes, such as rapid cycling. Additionally, recent studies have linked P2RX7 gene variants with the risk of rapid cycling in clinical cohorts of patients with bipolar disorder, as well as other mood disorders. However, little is known about potential sex differences in the relationship between variants in P2RX7 and bipolar disorder. METHODS: We investigated sex-specific genetic associations between variants of P2RX7 (rs1621388 and rs2230912) in 756 patients with bipolar disorder and 787 control patients matched on age, sex, and ancestry. We examined sex-specific genetic associations with bipolar disorder by comparing cases and controls, as well as rapid cycling of mood episodes in cases. Findings were replicated in an independent dataset. RESULTS: P2RX7 variants implying an increased pore activity were more common in bipolar disorder, in females but not in males. Neither P2RX7 variants associated with rapid cycling among bipolar patients. LIMITATIONS: Low sample size limited power for tests of SNP by sex interaction, and data about the onset of rapid cycling and the timing of medication use were not available. CONCLUSION: The effects of P2RX7 variants on bipolar disorder may be sex-specific, with increased P2X7 activity potentially elevating risk for bipolar disorder in females. Future research to examine the effect of P2RX7 on bipolar disorder should consider sex-specific effects.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/genética
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