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1.
Front Sports Act Living ; 3: 548516, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308345

RESUMO

Background: Organized sports provide children and adolescents with opportunities to achieve recommended amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and schools are a primary setting for sports programs. The main aims of this study were to examine participant physical activity (PA) levels during the most popular high school sports in the United States and to assess the influences of practice contextual factors on PA levels. Methods: Participant PA and its contexts were assessed during practices for the 10 most popular girls' and boys' high school sports in the United States. Data were obtained during 598 practice sessions in 12 schools in North Carolina using a validated direct observation instrument (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). A regression model was applied to understand the association between sport context and athletes' PA. Results: Overall, athletes were observed engaging in MVPA 60% of practice time. MVPA varied among sports and levels were highly influenced by practice contexts. Among girls' sports, cross country and soccer practices provided the highest proportion of MVPA and MVPA percent during boys' practice sessions was highest during cross country and track and field. Practice contexts were associated with MVPA accrual with time allocated for gameplay and fitness activities associated with the highest levels of PA. Conclusions: The results contribute to an understanding of which sports and how their practices are conducted facilitate increased PA. Findings indicate athletes accrue substantial amounts of PA during high school practices, but that it varies from sport to sport. As well, the context that characterizes sport practices is a significant determinant in how much PA occurs. Most sports that emphasized game simulation, fitness, and skill development drills had higher levels of MVPA. Given the length and frequency of practices and how the content is delivered, we can accurately predict how much PA athletes are likely to achieve during a given sport season. The findings from this study demonstrate that sport can make a useful, if not sufficient role in helping high school athletes reach recommended PA levels. PA engagement can be optimized by attending to the management of contexts surrounding the sports.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545651

RESUMO

Nature prescription programs have emerged to address the high burden of chronic disease and increasingly sedentary and screen-based lifestyles. This study examines the base of evidence regarding such programs. We conducted a narrative review of published literature using four electronic databases. We included case studies, research design articles, and empirical studies that discussed any type of outdoor exposure or activities initiated by a health-care provider from an outpatient clinic. We examined articles for information on target populations, health outcomes, and structural and procedural elements. We also summarized evidence of the effectiveness of nature prescription programs, and discussed needs and challenges for both practice and research. Eleven studies, including eight empirical studies, have evaluated nature prescription programs with either structured or unstructured formats, referring patients either to nearby parks or to formal outdoor activity programs. Empirical studies evaluate a wide variety of health behaviors and outcomes among the most at-risk children and families. Research is too sparse to draw patterns in health outcome responses. Studies largely tested program structures to increase adherence, or patient follow-through, however findings were mixed. Three published studies explore providers' perspectives. More research is necessary to understand how to measure and increase patient adherence, short and long-term health outcomes for patients and their families, and determinants of provider participation and participation impacts on providers' own health.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Doença Crônica , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 14: E11, 2017 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152362

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Shared use of recreational facilities is a promising strategy for increasing access to places for physical activity. Little is known about shared use in faith-based settings. This study examined shared use practices and barriers in faith communities in North Carolina. METHODS: Faith communities in North Carolina (n = 234) completed an online survey (October-December 2013) designed to provide information about the extent and nature of shared use of recreational facilities. We used binary logistic regression to examine differences between congregations that shared use and those that did not share use. RESULTS: Most of the faith communities (82.9%) that completed the survey indicated that they share their facilities with outside individuals and organizations. Formal agreements were more common when faith communities shared indoor spaces such as gymnasiums and classroom meeting spaces than when they shared outdoor spaces such as playgrounds or athletic fields. Faith communities in the wealthiest counties were more likely to share their spaces than were faith communities in poorer counties. Faith communities in counties with the best health rankings were more likely to share facilities than faith communities in counties that had lower health rankings. The most frequently cited reasons faith communities did not share their facilities were that they did not know how to initiate the process of sharing their facilities or that no outside groups had ever asked. CONCLUSION: Most faith communities shared their facilities for physical activity. Research is needed on the relationship between shared use and physical activity levels, including the effect of formalizing shared-use policies.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Religião , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , North Carolina , Razão de Chances , Logradouros Públicos/economia
4.
Prev Med ; 95S: S10-S16, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27568234

RESUMO

Although increasing community access to public schools through shared use agreements (SUAs) has been a recommended strategy for promoting physical activity (PA) among national, state and local organizations, empirical evidence examining the efficacy of SUAs is limited. This study examined the degree of usage and production of PA among schools with shared use, and how variation in PA output is related to characteristics of the school, type of activity, facility type, and when activity occurs. Data were collected in 20 schools across North Carolina using System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) and Structured Physical Activity Surveys (SPAS) to assess PA in school athletic facilities during out of school time. Findings indicated that although schools had a policy of shared or open use, most facilities were empty during non-school hours. Hierarchal linear regression models also showed that formal programming was positively associated with both use and PA levels. Given the abundance of empty facilities, community groups in need of space to facilitate structured PA programs should pursue avenues of sharing facilities with public schools. Furthermore, to increase the efficacy of shared use, structured physical activity programs may be needed. Future studies are encouraged to further explore the effects of the specific types of shared use programs on PA production as well other aspects of the built environment surrounding schools.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações Esportivas e Recreacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina , Observação , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 12: E97, 2015 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26086610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. METHODS: The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North Carolina, in 2007. Sedentary activity, walking, vigorous park activity, and energy expenditure were the primary outcome variables. Hierarchical logit regression models of physical activity were estimated separately for boys and girls. RESULTS: Type of activity area and presence of other active children were positively associated with boys' and girls' physical activity, and presence of a parent was negatively associated. A significant interaction involving number of recreation facilities in combination with formal activities was positively associated with girls' activity. A significant interaction involving formal park activity and young boys (aged 0-5 y) was negatively associated with park-based physical activity. CONCLUSION: Activity area and social correlates of park-based physical activity were similar for boys and girls; findings for formal park programming, age, and number of facilities were mixed. Results show that girls' physical activity was more strongly affected by social effects (eg, presence of other active children) whereas boys' physical activity was more strongly influenced by the availability of park facilities. These results can inform park planning and design. Additional studies are necessary to clarify sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Área Programática de Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , North Carolina , Relações Pais-Filho , Jogos e Brinquedos , Recreação , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Caminhada/fisiologia
6.
Prev Med ; 69 Suppl 1: S44-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25451325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the status and common characteristics of shared use in public schools in North Carolina. METHOD: All public school principals (N=2,359) in North Carolina were invited to participate in an online survey (February - May, 2013) designed to provide baseline information about the extent and nature of shared use of school facilities. RESULTS: Responses (n=1182, 50.1%) indicated that most schools share their facilities (88.9%). Formal agreements were more common when schools shared gyms and outdoor athletic fields. Informal agreements were most common with playgrounds and track facilities. Schools with more low income or Black students were less likely to share facilities. For schools that did not share use of their facilities the most frequent reason was no outside groups had ever asked. CONCLUSION: Schools may be more accommodating to shared use partnerships. Community organizations seeking to use indoor school facilities or athletic fields should be prepared to complete a formal written agreement. Preconceived notions that schools are unwilling to share their facilities may be preventing community organizations from initiating shared use inquiries. Schools located in the middle tier of economic distress and schools with a greater concentration of Black students were less likely to share their facilities.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Atividade Motora , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , North Carolina , Políticas , Pobreza , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração
7.
J Sch Health ; 84(5): 302-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24707924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partnerships between school districts and community-based organizations to share school facilities during afterschool hours can be an effective strategy for increasing physical activity. However, the perceived cost of shared use has been noted as an important reason for restricting community access to schools. This study examined shared use of middle school facilities, the amount and type of afterschool physical activity programs provided at middle schools together with the costs of operating the facilities. METHODS: Afterschool programs were assessed for frequency, duration, and type of structured physical activity programs provided and the number of boys and girls in each program. School operating costs were used to calculate a cost per student and cost per building square foot measure. Data were collected at all 30 middle schools in a large school district over 12 months in 2010-2011. RESULTS: Policies that permitted more use of school facilities for community-sponsored programs increased participation in afterschool programs without a significant increase in operating expenses. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest partnerships between schools and other community agencies to share facilities and create new opportunities for afterschool physical activity programs are a promising health promotion strategy.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Organizações/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adolescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Organizações/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas/economia , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Am J Health Promot ; 28(3 Suppl): S65-71, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24380468

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine which school sports engage children in more physical activity. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study examining differences between intramural (IM) and interscholastic (IS) sports. SETTING: Athletic facilities at two schools with IM sports and two schools with IS sports in Wake County, North Carolina. SUBJECTS: Middle-school children (N = 6735). MEASURES: Percentage of children observed in sedentary, moderate, and vigorous activity assessed by the System for Observation Play and Leisure Among Youth (SOPLAY). Energy expenditure and physical activity intensity were also estimated by using MET values. ANALYSIS: T-tests; generalized linear model using cumulative logit link function. RESULTS: IM sports had higher MET values than IS sports (t = -3.69, p < .001), and IM sports ranked in four of the top five sports in terms of average MET values. Regression models found a significant interaction between school sport delivery model and gender, with boys significantly less physically active in IS programs than boys in IM programs (B = -.447, p < .001) but more physically active (B = .359, p <.001) than girls in IM sports. CONCLUSION: Regardless of sport type, IM sports generated more physical activity than IS sports among boys but not girls. Soccer, basketball, and track, regardless of school delivery approach, provide the highest physical activity levels. Results suggest that school administrators consider reassessing their programs to more efficiently use diminishing resources to increase students' physical activity levels.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Basquetebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina , Política Organizacional , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Futebol/fisiologia , Futebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Atletismo/fisiologia , Atletismo/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 11: 130195, 2014 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24433623

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extracurricular school sports programs can provide adolescents, including those who are economically disadvantaged, with opportunities to engage in physical activity. Although current models favor more exclusionary interscholastic sports, a better understanding is needed of the potential effects of providing alternative school sports options, such as more inclusive intramural sports. The purpose of this study was to simulate the potential effect of implementing intramural sports programs in North Carolina middle schools on both the rates of sports participation and on energy expenditure related to physical activity levels. METHODS: Simulations were conducted by using a school-level data set developed by integrating data from multiple sources. Baseline rates of sports participation were extrapolated from individual-level data that were based on school-level characteristics. A regression model was estimated by using the simulated baseline school-level sample. Participation rates and related energy expenditure for schools were calculated on the basis of 2 policy change scenarios. RESULTS: Currently, 37.2% of school sports participants are economically disadvantaged. Simulations suggested that policy changes to implement intramural sports along with interscholastic sports could result in more than 43,000 new sports participants statewide, of which 64.5% would be economically disadvantaged students. This estimate represents a 36.75% increase in economically disadvantaged participants. Adding intramural sports to existing interscholastic sports programs at all middle schools in North Carolina could have an annual effect of an additional 819,892.65 kilogram calories expended statewide. CONCLUSION: Implementing intramural sports may provide economically disadvantaged students more access to sports, thus reducing disparities in access to school sports while increasing overall physical activity levels among all children.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Políticas , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Esportes , Adolescente , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , North Carolina , Pobreza , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Ann Behav Med ; 45 Suppl 1: S113-21, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22993023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School-based extracurricular sport remains an effective strategy to increase physical activity. However, school sport is often limited to a small number of elite athletes. Few schools provide more inclusive sport programs that offer a wider array of activities regardless of ability. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine school sport participation in middle schools (ages 11-14) with contrasting school sport delivery strategies (intramural vs. interscholastic). METHODS: Data were obtained through an online survey administered to students at four public middle schools (grades 6-8) in a southeastern US city (n = 2,582). RESULTS: More students participated in school sports at intramural schools. Boys were more likely to participate in after-school sports at intramural schools. Low-income and Black children, two groups at greater risk of physical inactivity and other negative outcomes, had greater participation in intramural programs. CONCLUSIONS: After-school intramural sports in middle school is a promising strategy for increasing sport participation.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Políticas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
11.
Health Place ; 18(1): 31-8, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21900034

RESUMO

Empirical research on the effects of school sport policies on children's physical activity is limited. This study examined sport policies (intramural vs. varsity), physical settings within schools, and supervision in relation to physical activity using the System for Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY). Data were collected on physical activity levels of children in four middle schools. Regression analyses assessed the main effects of sport policy, type of physical activity setting, and supervision as well as interactions. Regression models were stratified by gender. Children in intramural schools were more likely to use indoor spaces and be boys. Regression models indicated that varsity sport programs were associated with lower physical activity levels among boys but not girls. Significant associations between type of physical activity settings and physical activity levels were observed only for boys. Adult supervision was not associated with children's physical activity levels. Finally, descriptive results showed athletic facilities were under-utilized in all schools.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Atividade Motora , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Esportes/educação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Am J Prev Med ; 41(3): 258-65, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21855739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Availability of parks is associated with higher levels of physical activity among children and adolescents. Few studies examine actual park use and park-based physical activity in these populations. PURPOSE: This study examined associations among individual, park, and neighborhood environmental characteristics and children's and adolescent's park-based physical activity. METHODS: Data were collected in 2007 on 2712 children in 20 randomly selected parks in Durham NC. The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) provided measures of physical activity. Hierarchic regression analysis assessed associations among individual, park, and neighborhood environmental characteristics and children's park-based physical activity. Data were analyzed in 2010. RESULTS: Of the 2712 children observed, 34.2% and 13.2% were engaged in walking or vigorous physical activity. Environmental features of parks were associated with activity levels whereas neighborhood characteristics were not. Physical activity was negatively associated with gender (girls) (p=0.003); presence of a parent (p<0.0001); presence of nonparental adult (p=0.006); and an interaction involving the 0-5 years age group and style of play (p=0.017). Higher level of physical activity was associated with presence of other active children (p<0.0001); courts (e.g., basketball); and an interaction between number of recreation facilities and formal activities (p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: These social factors and design features should be considered in order to stimulate higher levels of park-based physical activity among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recreação , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais
13.
J Phys Act Health ; 8(5): 597-605, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21734304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study's purpose was to assess the opportunities for North Carolina adolescents to be physically active in extracurricular middle school environments and to compare opportunities across community types. METHODS: Data were analyzed based on the results of an electronic questionnaire distributed to a sample of 431 schools with a response rate of 75.4% (N = 325). RESULTS: Nearly all schools offered interscholastic sports while fewer than half offered intramurals or noncompetitive activities to students. "Open gym" was offered at only 35% of schools, while 24% of schools offered extracurricular activities to students with disabilities. Overall, 43.4% of schools offered special transportation to students who participated in some extracurricular physical activities. Schools in rural areas generally offered fewer programs and had fewer supports than schools located in more urbanized areas. Over two-thirds of rural schools offered no extracurricular programs other than interscholastic sports. CONCLUSIONS: Schools can be important settings for physical activity. North Carolina's middle schools and its rural schools in particular, are falling short in efforts to provide extracurricular physical activity programming recommended by researchers and policy groups. Lower accessibility to extracurricular physical activities may partially contribute to higher levels of physical inactivity found in the state.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , North Carolina , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
New Dir Youth Dev ; 2011(130): 59-72, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21786410

RESUMO

In an era of fragmented school systems and budget cuts, many educators and youth leaders seeking to solve the problems that youth face are turning to out-of-school-time programs. In many communities, these programs are seen as essential in the development of youth into fully functioning adults. One such area of the out-of-school-time sector is the provision of recreation services. Recreational services have a vital role in connecting youth to their communities, as well as enabling youth and adult allies to improve challenging conditions. This chapter outlines the historical role that recreation has played in community youth development programs and shows how community youth development has evolved. It then looks at how organizations in three communities--the Youthline Outreach Mentorship program in Minneapolis, a 4-H initiative in Parker City, Texas, and the Hockey Is for Everyone program--have successfully applied the theoretical knowledge. Best practices from these programs illustrate that the role of recreation in community youth development is changing. No longer are recreation programs about providing just "fun and games." Recreation organizations are now placing more value on the development of the community as a whole, in addition to the individual well-being of young people.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Recreação/psicologia , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Recreação/fisiologia , Estados Unidos
15.
J Phys Act Health ; 8 Suppl 1: S32-9, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21350260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organized sport is viewed as a viable medium for promoting more physical activity among youth. However, participation in youth sport declines significantly among both boys and girls during their middle school years. This study examined middle school students' perceived constraints to sport participation. METHODS: Middle school students from 4 schools (6th-8th grade, N = 2465) completed a web based survey (97.3% response rate). Descriptive analysis, t tests, and ANOVA were used to assess extent of perceived constraints and differences among demographic and sport participation level subgroups. RESULTS: The most salient constraint perceived by respondents was time, while knowledge was perceived as the lowest among the overall sample. Significant (P < .01) differences in perceived constraints were found among all comparisons groups. Girls, Latinos, lower SES students, and students who did not play sports reported more constraints than respective comparisons groups. DISCUSSION: The sociodemographic characteristics of middle school students appear to be a significant factor in their perception of constraints to sport participation. Identifying constraints associated with sport participation can enable policy-makers and administrators to be more deliberate in channeling resources.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Esportes , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Phys Act Health ; 6(6): 699-707, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20101912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To better measure physical activity (PA) in outdoor environments, McKenzie and colleagues developed the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). However, previous SOPARC research has focused on adults, seniors, teens and children. One avenue for extending this work is to expand the child age group code to capture important nuances that can influence children's PA and their environments. This study reports on the reliability of a measure designed to account for PA in parks among children in different childhood age groups. METHODS: Three groups were developed: 0 to 5-years-old (Young Children); 6 to 12 (Middle Childhood) and 13 to 18 (Older Children) based on Erikson's stages of child development. Data were obtained by direct observation in 3 neighborhood parks in Raleigh, NC and 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, NC. RESULTS: Kappa coefficients showed high agreement for all age group, gender, and PA codes. For the 3 assessments, the results show that the 3 age group category exhibit acceptable reliability for measuring PA in parks among children. CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of measuring PA among children by segmenting children by 3 age groups was established. This approach is recommended for future studies of PA among children in parks and other outdoor environments.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Atividade Motora , Recreação , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Observação , Jogos e Brinquedos , Logradouros Públicos
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