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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Episodic angioedema with eosinophilia (EAE, Gleich syndrome) is a rare disease, consisting of recurrent angioedema with hypereosinophilia and frequent increased serum immunoglobin M levels. Less than 100 patients have been reported, mainly adults, sometimes with underlying lymphocytic variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HESL ). The aim of this study was to identify and describe pediatric cases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all pediatric cases of EAE referred within the French National Referral Center for Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (CEREO). Next, the PRISMA guidelines were applied in order to perform a systematic review (data sources: PubMed, Web of Science). RESULTS: Among the two reported and 15 previously published cases of EAE occurring in children, the main clinical findings mimicked those of adults, including recurrent angioedema, hives and weight gain. The median time between the first angioedema flare and the diagnosis of EAE was five years in published cases. Hypereosinophilia was constant, usually worsening with each attack, but seldom disappeared between flares. Total IgM serum levels were elevated in 16 patients. Four children had evidence of abnormal CD3- CD4+ T-cells. First-line therapy relied on oral corticosteroids in all patients, and further lines (used in five patients) included interferon-α, methotrexate and ciclosporin. Two children developed eosinophilic myocarditis during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Pediatricians should be aware that EAE is a diagnosis to consider in children. T-cell immunophenotyping is warranted in this setting. Prognosis seems fair, yet eosinophil-related organ damage may occur in patients with persistent eosinophilia.

2.
Histopathology ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630434

RESUMO

AIM: Angiomatosis of soft tissue (AST) is a, rare, high-flow, intramuscular vascular anomaly. In the context of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), this AST is referred to as PTEN hamartoma of soft tissue. Given that AST is observed in patients with no history of PHTS, we hypothesized that non-syndromic AST arises as a consequence of a somatic mutation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen patients with histologically confirmed AST were retrospectively studied. Details of the patients' personal and family medical histories and symptoms were retrieved from their medical records. The histological analyses were reviewed, and a tissue sample was used for genetic testing. Somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene (p.Glu542Lys; p.Glu545Lys; p.His1047Arg) were identified in the tissue samples from seven patients, all of whom had unremarkable medical histories and had presented with a single lesion located in the lower limb. Five pathogenic variations in the PTEN gene (mutations: p.Lys263Arg; c.1026+2T>A; p.Ala126Thr; p.Leu108Arg; deletion, log ratio -0.55) were identified in the lesions of four patients; two of the latter had multifocal lesions. All four patients displayed macrocephaly, three boys presented with penile freckles, but none had a family history of PHTS. There were no histological differences between the PIK3CA and PTEN groups. CONCLUSIONS: AST can be related to either PTEN or PIK3CA mutations and may be multifocal in PHTS. AST appears to be a manifestation of PHTS that occurs in early childhood. The patient's medical history and clinical presentation should prompt the physician to perform specific genetic testing.

3.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(12): 1105-1109, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386166

RESUMO

Managing extracranial arteriovenous malformations is challenging. Sirolimus (rapamycin) is increasingly being used when surgery and embolization are not advised. Because of its anti-angiogenic properties here we report all extracranial arteriovenous malformation cases treated with sirolimus in 2 French tertiary centers for vascular anomalies. The outcomes were efficacy (complete, partial, no response) based on arteriovenous malformation volume and necrosis/hemorrhage and side effects. We retrospectively included 10 patients (7 children). The sirolimus dose ranged from 0.6 to 3.5 mg/m2. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) treatment time was 24.5 (4.5; 35) months. Five patients showed no response and 5 showed partial response at a median (IQR) of 3 (1; 5) months followed in 2 cases by therapeutic resistance (i.e., progressive disease after 9 and 24 months of treatment). The most frequent side effect was mouth ulcers. This study shows poor efficacy of sirolimus for treating extracranial arteriovenous malformations.

4.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050360

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to evaluate the contribution of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the presymptomatic diagnosis of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) in infants with a facial port-wine birthmark (PWB). METHOD: Asymptomatic infants with a facial PWB who performed a first MRI scan before 3 months and a second MRI scan after 9 months were included in this study. Leptomeningeal enhancement on T1-weighted imaging and four indirect signs of leptomeningeal angioma (choroid plexus enlargement, cerebral atrophy, signal inversion of the white matter with T2 hyposignal, and T1 hypersignal) were screened on the first MRI scan and correlated with clinical and/or radiological diagnosis of SWS. RESULTS: Thirteen of 30 included patients had SWS with leptomeningeal angioma. Eleven had a leptomeningeal enhancement on the first MRI scan and 10 had associated indirect signs. The presence of a direct or at least one indirect sign of leptomeningeal angioma on the first MRI scan confirmed the diagnosis of SWS with a sensitivity of 100 per cent (95% confidence interval 75-100%) and a specificity of 94 per cent (71-100%). INTERPRETATION: Early diagnosis of SWS is possible on contrast-enhanced MRI performed in asymptomatic infants with a facial PWB before the age of 3 months. This early detection would help to select patients who may benefit from early neuroprotective intervention. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Specific magnetic resonance imaging markers provide early diagnosis of leptomeningeal angioma in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Presymptomatic diagnosis of SWS should help to select patients for early therapy intervention.

6.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(6): 539-543, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810215

RESUMO

Methotrexate has demonstrated its efficiency for the treatment of juvenile localized scleroderma but some patients may be resistant. The aim of our study was to define the profile of such patients. We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study between 2007 and 2016 and included all children seen in the French Paediatric Dermatology and Rheumatology departments with active localized scleroderma treated by methotrexate for a minimum of 4 months. Metho-trexate efficacy was assessed clinically and/or by imaging between the fourth to twelfth months of treatment. A total of 57 patients were included. Metho-trexate dosage ranged from 7 to 15 mg/m2/week. Only 4 patients were resistant. No common features could be identified between these 4 patients. Children with localized scleroderma are rarely resistant to metho-trexate and we did not identify a clinical profile for those resistant patients.

7.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252693

RESUMO

Langerhans cell (LC) histiocytoma is a neonatal tumor that often consists of a single, ulcerated nodule. Systemic involvement is rare, and LC histiocytoma is considered to be a variant of congenital, self-healing LC histiocytosis (also referred to as Hashimoto-Pritzker disease). In view of its low prevalence, LC histiocytoma is not always diagnosed in a clinical examination and requires histological confirmation. Furthermore, the histological and molecular features of LC histiocytoma have not been well characterized. Here, we report on 6 cases of this rare disease and review the corresponding literature. LC histiocytoma differs from classical self-healing LC histiocytosis with regard to the pathological features; we found that LC histiocytoma was associated with massive infiltration by histiocytes of various sizes and shapes (although often large) throughout the dermis and the superficial subcutis. Epidermotropism was rare, mitotic figures were not inconspicuous, and necrotic or calcified areas were often present. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed a mixture of different types of histiocytes (with CD1a CD207, CD1a CD207, and CD1a CD207 CD163 cells). Genetic testing was performed in 5 cases; it revealed a BRAF mutation (p.V600E and p.485_490delinsF) in 2 cases, a HRAS mutation (p.T58I) in 1 case, a combination of 2 PTEN mutations in another case (p.I224M and p. R234W), and no mutations in the fifth case. All the lesions regressed spontaneously, and none recurred during follow-up.

8.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 35(6): e378-e381, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216519

RESUMO

Verrucous hemangioma or verrucous venous malformation is a superficial venous malformation frequently misdiagnosed as a lymphatic malformation because of its classical hyperkeratotic appearance. Clinical characteristics of VVM were studied in patients with a histologically confirmed VVM, and validated in a prospective study of 18 patients. VVM was made of separated vascular elements with irregular shape, in a linear disposition, with variable thickness and keratosis. Its specific vascular pattern consisting of an erythematous patch with scattered small red to violet dots was easily identified using dermoscopy. In many cases, the typical clinical presentation of verrucous hemangioma is sufficient to establish the diagnosis and a biopsy may not be required.


Assuntos
Hemangioma/patologia , Dermatopatias Vasculares/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermoscopia/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Anormalidades Linfáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 35(5): 644-650, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibroblastic connective tissue nevi (FCTN) are benign skin conditions characterized by bland spindle cells infiltrating the reticular dermis and the upper subcutis with preservation of adnexal structures. A subset of FCTN expresses CD34, which may cause difficulties in the differential diagnosis, in particular with dermatofibrosarcoma (DFSP). We aim to study clinical and histological main features of congenital FCTN to better understand their heterogeneity. METHODS: We present 3 cases of congenital FCTN with misleading pseudo-tumoral presentations and compare them with published cases in literature. We provide a diagnostic algorithm for congenital neonatal connective tissue tumors. RESULTS: Clinically, FCTN mostly present as well-limited and nontender plaques or nodules mainly located in the neck and face areas or in the trunk. Histologically, FCTN are composed of irregularly distributed fascicles of bland spindled cells and are defined by a list of fundamental features: (i) no atypia, pleomorphism, or mitotic activity; (ii) skin appendages entrapped but unaffected; (iii) no evidence for malignancy. In most cases CD34 is positive, but in some cases, cells can express SMA or are even CD34- and SMA-. CONCLUSION: The initial presentation and natural history of FCTN fit better with a neoplasm than with a hamartoma. Thus, we suggest replacing the term "nevus" with tumor and considering fibroblastic connective tissue tumor (FCTT) as the right denomination of this clinico-pathological entity. FCTTs are difficult to diagnose due to their clinical heterogeneity. Clinical and histological malignant and benign differential diagnoses are discussed.


Assuntos
Nevo/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Nevo/cirurgia , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
10.
Nature ; 558(7711): 540-546, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899452

RESUMO

CLOVES syndrome (congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal naevi, scoliosis/skeletal and spinal syndrome) is a genetic disorder that results from somatic, mosaic gain-of-function mutations of the PIK3CA gene, and belongs to the spectrum of PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndromes (PROS). This rare condition has no specific treatment and a poor survival rate. Here, we describe a postnatal mouse model of PROS/CLOVES that partially recapitulates the human disease, and demonstrate the efficacy of BYL719, an inhibitor of PIK3CA, in preventing and improving organ dysfunction. On the basis of these results, we used BYL719 to treat nineteen patients with PROS. The drug improved the disease symptoms in all patients. Previously intractable vascular tumours became smaller, congestive heart failure was improved, hemihypertrophy was reduced, and scoliosis was attenuated. The treatment was not associated with any substantial side effects. In conclusion, this study provides the first direct evidence supporting PIK3CA inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy in patients with PROS.

11.
Trials ; 19(1): 340, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slow-flow superficial vascular malformations (VMs) are rare congenital anomalies that can be responsible for pain and functional impairment. Currently, we have no guidelines for their management, which can involve physical bandages, sclerotherapy, surgery, anti-inflammatory or anti-coagulation drugs or no treatment. The natural history is progressive and worsening. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that acts as a master switch in cell proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism and angio/lymphangiogenesis. Sirolimus directly inhibits the mTOR pathway, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation and angio/lymphangiogenesis. Case reports and series have reported successful use of sirolimus in children with different types of vascular anomalies, with heterogeneous outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sirolimus in children with complicated superficial slow-flow VMs. METHODS/DESIGN: This French multicenter randomized observational-phase, phase 2 trial aims to include 50 pediatric patients 6 to 18 years old who have slow-flow (lymphatic, venous or lymphatico-venous) voluminous complicated superficial VM. Patients will be followed up for 12 months. All patients will start with an observational period (no treatment). Then at a time randomly selected between month 4 and month 8, they will switch to the experimental period (switch time), when they will receive sirolimus until month 12. Each child will undergo MRI 3 times: at baseline, at the switch time, and at month 12. For both periods (observational and treatment), we will calculate the relative change in volume of the VM divided by the study period duration. This relative change weighted by the study period duration will constitute the primary endpoint. VM will be measured by MRI images, which will be centralized and interpreted by the same radiologist who will be blinded to the study period. Hence, each patient will be his/her own control. Secondary outcomes will include assessment of safety and efficacy by viewing standardized digital photographs and according to the physician, the patient or proxy; impact on quality of life; and evolution of biological makers (coagulation factors, vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue factor). DISCUSSION: The main benefit of the study will be to resolve uncertainty concerning the efficacy of sirolimus in reducing the volume of VMs and limiting related complications and the safety of the drug in children with slow-flow VMs. This trial design is interesting in these rare conditions because all included patients will have the opportunity to receive the drug and the physician can maintain it after the end of the protocol if is found efficient (which would not be the case in a classical cross-over study). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02509468 , first received: 28 July 2015. EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT Number: 2015-001096-43.

12.
Bull Cancer ; 105(6): 610-625, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571951

RESUMO

Superficial vascular anomalies constitute a large group of malformative and tumoral conditions developed from all types of vessels. Vascular tumors are the result of cellular hyperplasia, whereas vascular malformations (VMs) are constituted of dysplastic vessels. The classification from International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) is based on this pathogenic difference. The most common vascular tumor is infantile hemangioma, which treatment, when necessary, is propranolol. Congenital hemangiomas and tumors that might be complicated with Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, i.e. deep thrombocytopenia, are much rarer. Management of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon is now largely based on sirolimus. Low-flow VMs include capillary, venous and lymphatic malformations; arteriovenous malformations are high-flow malformations. These different types of VMs might be combined. Currently, there is an increasing work in delineating the different entities based on molecular findings. Treatment of VMs depends on the impairment linked to them, and is decided case by case, in pluridisciplinary consultations. Interventional treatments, especially surgery and sclerotherapy, are usually partially efficient, and management of patients with VMs increasingly involves medical drugs. First-line treatment of coagulation disorders associated with venous malformations is based on low molecular weight heparin; sirolimus seems efficient in hemorrhagic complications refractory to usual treatment. Sirolimus is about to become the standard treatment in painful inflammatory manifestations of mixed and/or complicated lymphatic malformations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular , Doenças Raras , Adolescente , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/uso terapêutico , Malformações Arteriovenosas/classificação , Malformações Arteriovenosas/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hemangioma/complicações , Hemangioma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Síndrome de Kasabach-Merritt/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular/classificação , Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular/complicações , Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular/terapia , Propranolol/uso terapêutico , Doenças Raras/classificação , Doenças Raras/complicações , Doenças Raras/terapia , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Malformações Vasculares/classificação , Malformações Vasculares/terapia , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
13.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 98(2): 251-255, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110021

RESUMO

Patients with an inherited autosomal-dominant disorder, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), frequently have mutations in Ras P21 protein activator 1 (RASA1). The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of germline RASA1 variants in a French multicentre national cohort of children, age range 2-12 years, with sporadic occurrence of capillary malformation (CM) of the legs, whatever the associated abnormalities, and to identify genotype-phenotype correlates. DNA was extracted from leukocytes in blood samples, purified and amplified, and all exons of the RASA1 gene were analysed. Among 113 children analysed, 7 had heterozygous variants (6.1%). Four different variants were identified; 2 were new. In children with RASA1 variants, CMs were more frequently bilateral and multifocal. In conclusion, RASA1 variants are rarely found in children with sporadic CM of lower limbs without CM-AVM syndrome. CMs in this study were heterogeneous, and no disease-causing relationship could be proven.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Capilares/anormalidades , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Polimorfismo Genético , Mancha Vinho do Porto/genética , Proteína p120 Ativadora de GTPase/genética , Fatores Etários , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Mancha Vinho do Porto/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
14.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 39(6): 463-467, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525423

RESUMO

Congenital infantile fibrosarcoma (CIFS) is a soft tissue sarcoma of infants mainly involving lower extremities and usually developing during the first year of life. At another end of the spectrum of pediatric fibroblastic lesions, lipofibromatosis is a rare benign infiltrative soft tissue tumor that affects children. The authors report in this study a particular presentation with a CIFS surrounded by lipofibromatosis-like areas. The presence of a surrounding benign tumor confused and delayed CIFS diagnosis.


Assuntos
Fibroma/patologia , Fibrossarcoma/patologia , Lipoma/patologia , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Fibroma/congênito , Fibroma/cirurgia , Fibrossarcoma/congênito , Fibrossarcoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lipoma/congênito , Lipoma/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/congênito , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/congênito , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carga Tumoral
15.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 34(3): 295-302, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28382698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most frequent benign tumor of infancy resulting from vascular proliferation. Data regarding the burden on families of children with IHs are limited. This study aimed to characterize IHs and provide a comprehensive evaluation of the burden of IHs on parents of children requiring systemic treatment in the United States and Europe. METHODS: This noninterventional cross-sectional study included infants with newly diagnosed IH requiring systemic treatment. A parent or family member completed two questionnaires (Family Member questionnaire; Hemangioma Family Burden [HFB] questionnaire). RESULTS: A total of 693 individuals were evaluable in five countries. IHs were observed in more girls than boys (66%-83% female) and the mean age at inclusion was 0.44 to 1.4 years. Approximately half of patients had superficial IHs, approximately 70% of cases affected the head, and approximately 80% of cases were moderate or severe. Most patients received propranolol treatment. Their child's IH affected more than 70% of parents in each country, but fewer than 10% were offered psychological support. Approximately half of all parents reported that their child's IH affected their professional life. The global HFB score was significantly (p < 0.001) greater with greater IH severity. More than 90% of parents in each country were satisfied with the care of their child's disease. CONCLUSIONS: This international study using the validated HFB questionnaire provides further insight into the burden of IH and highlights potential areas for future focus in assisting families with affected children.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hemangioma/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Hemangioma/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
16.
Genet Med ; 19(9): 989-997, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postzygotic activating mutations of PIK3CA cause a wide range of mosaic disorders collectively referred to as PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS). We describe the diagnostic yield and characteristics of PIK3CA sequencing in PROS. METHODS: We performed ultradeep next-generation sequencing (NGS) of PIK3CA in various tissues from 162 patients referred to our clinical laboratory and assessed diagnostic yield by phenotype and tissue tested. RESULTS: We identified disease-causing mutations in 66.7% (108/162) of patients, with mutant allele levels as low as 1%. The diagnostic rate was higher (74%) in syndromic than in isolated cases (35.5%; P = 9.03 × 10-5). We identified 40 different mutations and found strong oncogenic mutations more frequently in patients without brain overgrowth (50.6%) than in those with brain overgrowth (15.2%; P = 0.00055). Mutant allele levels were higher in skin and overgrown tissues than in blood and buccal samples (P = 3.9 × 10-25), regardless of the phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the value of ultradeep NGS for molecular diagnosis of PROS, highlight its substantial allelic heterogeneity, and confirm that optimal diagnosis requires fresh skin or surgical samples from affected regions. Our findings may be of value in guiding future recommendations for genetic testing in PROS and other mosaic conditions.Genet Med advance online publication 02 February 2017.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Fenótipo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 76(3): 478-487, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hair collar sign (HCS) and hair tuft of the scalp (HTS) are cutaneous signs of an underlying neuroectodermal defect, but most available data are based on case reports. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the clinical spectrum of HCS and HTS, clarify the risk for underlying neurovascular anomalies, and provide imaging recommendations. METHODS: A 10-year multicenter retrospective and prospective analysis of clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of HCS and HTS in pediatric patients was performed. RESULTS: Of the 78 patients included in the study, 56 underwent cranial and brain imaging. Twenty-three of the 56 patients (41%) had abnormal findings, including the following: (1) cranial/bone defect (30.4%), with direct communication with the central nervous system in 28.6%; (2) venous malformations (25%); or (3) central nervous system abnormalities (12.5%). Meningeal heterotopia in 34.6% (9/26) was the most common neuroectodermal association. Sinus pericranii, paraganglioma, and combined nevus were also identified. LIMITATIONS: The partial retrospective design and predominant recruitment from the dermatology department are limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with HCS or HTS are at high risk for underlying neurovascular anomalies. Magnetic resonance imaging scans should be performed in order to refer the infant to the appropriate specialist for management.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Coristoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabelo/anormalidades , Meninges , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Placa Neural , Neuroimagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Crânio/anormalidades , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Veias/anormalidades
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