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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361060


Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates various transcriptional and chromatin regulators, thus modulating numerous important cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, and oxidative stress. The role of HIPK2 in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibrosis is well established, and evidence of its involvement in the homeostasis of multiple organs has been recently emerging. We have previously demonstrated that Hipk2-null (Hipk2-KO) mice present cerebellar alterations associated with psychomotor abnormalities and that the double ablation of HIPK2 and its interactor HMGA1 causes perinatal death due to respiratory failure. To identify other alterations caused by the loss of HIPK2, we performed a systematic morphological analysis of Hipk2-KO mice. Post-mortem examinations and histological analysis revealed that Hipk2 ablation causes neuronal loss, neuronal morphological alterations, and satellitosis throughout the whole central nervous system (CNS); a myopathic phenotype characterized by variable fiber size, mitochondrial proliferation, sarcoplasmic inclusions, morphological alterations at neuromuscular junctions; and a cardiac phenotype characterized by fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These data demonstrate the importance of HIPK2 in the physiology of skeletal and cardiac muscles and of different parts of the CNS, thus suggesting its potential relevance for different new aspects of human pathology.

Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Proteínas HMGA/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosforilação
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7404, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795775


Accumulating evidence suggests that modifications of gut function and microbiota composition might play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure (HF). In this study we systematically analysed gut microbiota composition, intestinal barrier integrity, intestinal and serum cytokines and serum endotoxin levels in C57BL/6 mice undergoing pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 1 and 4 weeks. Compared to sham-operated animals, TAC induced prompt and strong weakening of intestinal barrier integrity, long-lasting decrease of colon anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, significant increases of serum levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory cytokines. TAC also exerted effects on microbiota composition, inducing significant differences in bacterial genera inside Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and TM7 phyla as shown by 16S rDNA sequencing of fecal samples from TAC or sham mice. These results suggest that gut modifications represent an important element to be considered in the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction in response to TAC and support this animal model as a valuable tool to establish the role and mechanisms of gut-heart crosstalk in HF. Evidence arising in this field might identify new treatment options targeting gut integrity and microbiota components to face adverse cardiac events.

G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 41(4): 328-332, 2019 12.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126603


SUMMARY: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Given the complex pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, an experimental approach capable of identifying multiple signaling networks activated in the heart upon pathological conditions could be particularly effective to identify new diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic targets. Latest generation techniques now allow high-resolution investigations of the entire genome, the proteome and the cellular metabolome, as well as epigenetic modifications and associated gene expression profiles. In particular, the integration of epigenomic and transcriptomic data in the normal or pathological heart is a promising approach to identify novel molecular targets. These methods, although promising and innovative, can present several technical and analytical pitfalls. Here we will briefly describe these aspects and possible strategies to optimize the search for new diagnostic or therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases in the post-genomic era.

Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma
Front Physiol ; 9: 558, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892230


Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a major contributor to the development of heart failure (HF). Alterations in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways participate in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in LVH and HF. cAMP signals are received and integrated by a family of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) anchor proteins (AKAPs), tethering PKA to discrete cellular locations. AKAPs encoded by the Akap1 gene (mitoAKAPs) promote PKA mitochondrial targeting, regulating mitochondrial structure and function, reactive oxygen species production, and cell survival. To determine the role of mitoAKAPs in LVH development, in the present investigation, mice with global genetic deletion of Akap1 (Akap1-/-), Akap1 heterozygous (Akap1+/-), and their wild-type (wt) littermates underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or SHAM procedure for 1 week. In wt mice, pressure overload induced the downregulation of AKAP121, the major cardiac mitoAKAP. Compared to wt, Akap1-/- mice did not display basal alterations in cardiac structure or function and cardiomyocyte size or fibrosis. However, loss of Akap1 exacerbated LVH and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and accelerated the progression toward HF in TAC mice, and these changes were not observed upon prevention of AKAP121 degradation in seven in absentia homolog 2 (Siah2) knockout mice (Siah2-/-). Loss of Akap1 was also associated to a significant increase in cardiac apoptosis as well as lack of activation of Akt signaling after pressure overload. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in vivo genetic deletion of Akap1 enhances LVH development and accelerates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction, pointing at Akap1 as a novel repressor of pathological LVH. These results confirm and extend the important role of mitoAKAPs in cardiac response to stress.

Hypertension ; 71(3): 507-517, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335250


MitoAKAPs (mitochondrial A kinase anchoring proteins), encoded by the Akap1 gene, regulate multiple cellular processes governing mitochondrial homeostasis and cell viability. Although mitochondrial alterations have been associated to endothelial dysfunction, the role of mitoAKAPs in the vasculature is currently unknown. To test this, postischemic neovascularization, vascular function, and arterial blood pressure were analyzed in Akap1 knockout mice (Akap1-/- ) and their wild-type (wt) littermates. Primary cultures of aortic endothelial cells (ECs) were also obtained from Akap1-/- and wt mice, and ECs migration, proliferation, survival, and capillary-like network formation were analyzed under different experimental conditions. After femoral artery ligation, Akap1-/- mice displayed impaired blood flow and functional recovery, reduced skeletal muscle capillary density, and Akt phosphorylation compared with wt mice. In Akap1-/- ECs, a significant enhancement of hypoxia-induced mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species production, and apoptosis were observed. Consistently, capillary-like network formation, migration, proliferation, and AKT phosphorylation were reduced in Akap1-/- ECs. Alterations in Akap1-/- ECs behavior were also confirmed in Akap1-/- mice, which exhibited a selective reduction in acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in mesenteric arteries and a mild but significant increase in arterial blood pressure levels compared with wt. Finally, overexpression of a constitutively active Akt mutant restored vascular reactivity and ECs function in Akap1-/- conditions. These results demonstrate the important role of mitoAKAPs in the modulation of multiple ECs functions in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that mitochondria-dependent regulation of ECs might represent a novel therapeutic approach in cardiovascular diseases characterized by endothelial dysfunction.

Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0154076, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27136357


A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) transmit signals cues from seven-transmembrane receptors to specific sub-cellular locations. Mitochondrial AKAPs encoded by the Akap1 gene have been shown to modulate mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the heart. Under conditions of hypoxia, mitochondrial AKAP121 undergoes proteolytic degradation mediated, at least in part, by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Seven In-Absentia Homolog 2 (Siah2). In the present study we hypothesized that Akap1 might be crucial to preserve mitochondrial function and structure, and cardiac responses to myocardial ischemia. To test this, eight-week-old Akap1 knockout mice (Akap1-/-), Siah2 knockout mice (Siah2-/-) or their wild-type (wt) littermates underwent myocardial infarction (MI) by permanent left coronary artery ligation. Age and gender matched mice of either genotype underwent a left thoracotomy without coronary ligation and were used as controls (sham). Twenty-four hours after coronary ligation, Akap1-/- mice displayed larger infarct size compared to Siah2-/- or wt mice. One week after MI, cardiac function and survival were also significantly reduced in Akap1-/- mice, while cardiac fibrosis was significantly increased. Akap1 deletion was associated with remarkable mitochondrial structural abnormalities at electron microscopy, increased ROS production and reduced mitochondrial function after MI. These alterations were associated with enhanced cardiac mitophagy and apoptosis. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine significantly reduced apoptosis and ameliorated cardiac dysfunction following MI in Akap1-/- mice. These results demonstrate that Akap1 deficiency promotes cardiac mitochondrial aberrations and mitophagy, enhancing infarct size, pathological cardiac remodeling and mortality under ischemic conditions. Thus, mitochondrial AKAPs might represent important players in the development of post-ischemic cardiac remodeling and novel therapeutic targets.

Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A/genética , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo