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1.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319880650, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604403

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise in individuals with heart transplantation with evidence of cardiac reinnervation (cardiac reinnervation group) versus without evidence of cardiac reinnervation (no cardiac reinnervation group). METHODS: Sedentary individuals with heart transplantation (age = 45.5 ± 2.2 years; time elapsed since surgery = 6.7 ± 0.7 years) were divided into the cardiac reinnervation (n = 16) and no cardiac reinnervation (n = 17) groups according to their heart rate response to cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed before and after 12 weeks of a thrice-weekly exercise program (five minutes of warm-up, 30 min of endurance exercise, one set of 10-15 reps in five resistance exercises, and five minutes of cool-down). RESULTS: The cardiac reinnervation group had reduced (p < 0.01) 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure (7/9 mm Hg), daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure (9/10 mm Hg) and nighttime diastolic blood pressure (6 mm Hg) after training. The no cardiac reinnervation group reduced (p < 0.05) only 24-hour (5 mm Hg), daytime (5 mm Hg) and nighttime (6 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure after training. Hourly analysis showed that the cardiac reinnervation group reduced systolic/diastolic blood pressure for 10/21 h, while the no cardiac reinnervation group reduced systolic/diastolic blood pressure for only 3/11 h. The cardiac reinnervation group also improved both maximal oxygen consumption (10.8%) and exercise tolerance (13.4%) after training, but the no cardiac reinnervation group improved only exercise tolerance (9.9%). Pulse wave velocity did not change in both groups. CONCLUSION: There were greater improvements in ambulatory blood pressure and maximal oxygen consumption in the cardiac reinnervation than the no cardiac reinnervation group. These results suggest that cardiac reinnervation associates with hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise training in individuals with heart transplantation.

2.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 94(4): 644-650, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334914

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is one of the most relevant endemic parasitic diseases in Latin America, affecting approximately 6 million people. Overt Chagas heart disease is an ominous condition, occurring in 20-30% of infected individuals, which has besides the persistent myocarditis a peculiar intracardiac ganglionic neuronal depletion and dysautonomy. This study aims to evaluate the safety and feasibility of renal denervation for patients with advanced symptomatic Chagas cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Open-label prospective pilot study that randomized patients with Chagas heart disease to either renal denervation or conservative treatment (2:1 ratio). The primary endpoint was the incidence of major adverse events at 9 months, defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, need for renal artery invasive treatment, or worsening renal function. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients were allocated for renal denervation (n = 11) or conservative treatment (n = 6). Included patients had severe symptomatic heart disease, with markedly depressed left ventricular function (average ejection fraction 26.7 ± 4.9%). For patients randomized to renal denervation, the procedure was performed successfully and uneventfully. After 9 months, the primary endpoint occurred in 36.4% of patients in the renal denervation group and 50.0% in the control arm (p = .6). After 9 months, clinical, laboratory, functional, echocardiographic, and quality of life parameters were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that renal denervation is safe and feasible in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy, warranting future studies to better evaluate the clinical efficacy of the interventional strategy in improving the prognosis of this high-risk population.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519544

RESUMO

Background: Archaeal genes present in Trypanosoma cruzi may represent symbionts that would explain development of heart failure in 30% of Chagas disease patients. Extracellular vesicles in peripheral blood, called exosomes (< 0.1 µm) or microvesicles (>0.1 µm), present in larger numbers in heart failure, were analyzed to determine whether they are derived from archaea in heart failure Chagas disease. Methods: Exosomes and microvesicles in serum supernatant from 3 groups were analyzed: heart failure Chagas disease (N = 26), asymptomatic indeterminate form (N = 21) and healthy non-chagasic control (N = 16). Samples were quantified with transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometer immunolabeled with anti-archaemetzincin-1 antibody (AMZ 1, archaea collagenase) and probe anti-archaeal DNA and zymography to determine AMZ1 (Archaeal metalloproteinase) activity. Results: Indeterminate form patients had higher median numbers of exosomes/case vs. heart failure patients (58.5 vs. 25.5, P < 0.001), higher exosome content of AMZ1 antigens (2.0 vs. 0.0; P < 0.001), and lower archaeal DNA content (0.2 vs. 1.5, P = 0.02). A positive correlation between exosomes and AMZ1 content was seen in indeterminate form (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), but not in heart failure patients (r = 0.002, P = 0.98). Higher free archaeal DNA (63.0 vs. 11.1, P < 0.001) in correlation with exosome numbers (r = 0.66, P = 0.01) was seen in heart failure but not in indeterminate form (r = 0.29, P = 0.10). Flow cytometer showed higher numbers of AMZ1 microvesicles in indeterminate form (64 vs. 36, P = 0.02) and higher archaeal DNA microvesicles in heart failure (8.1 vs. 0.9, P < 0.001). Zymography showed strong% collagenase activity in HF group, mild activity in IF compared to non-chagasic healthy group (121 ± 14, 106 ± 13 and 100; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Numerous exosomes, possibly removing and degrading abnormal AMZ1 collagenase, are associated with indeterminate form. Archaeal microvesicles and their exosomes, possibly associated with release of archaeal AMZ1 in heart failure, are future candidates of heart failure biomarkers if confirmed in larger series, and the therapeutic focus in the treatment of Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Archaea/fisiologia , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Biomarcadores , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Colagenases , Exossomos , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteases , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Microrna ; 7(2): 115-119, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating cell-free miRNAs hold great promise as a new class of biomarkers due to their high stability in body fluids and association with disease stages. However, even using sensitive and specific methods, technical challenges are associated with miRNA analysis in body fluids. A major source of variation in plasma and serum is the potential cell-derived miRNA contamination from hemolysis. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the delayed whole blood processing time on the concentrations of miR-1 and -423-5p. METHODS: Ten blood samples were incubated for 0, 3 and 24 hours at room temperature prior to processing into plasma. For each time point, hemolysis was assessed in plasma by UV spectrophotometry at 414nm wavelength (λ414). Circulating levels of miR-1 and -423-5p were measured by RT-qPCR; miR-23a and -451 were also analyzed as controls. RESULTS: A significant hemolysis was observed only after 24h (λ414 0.3 ± 0.02, p < 0.001). However, only small changes in miR-1 and -423-5p levels were observed up to 24h of storage at room temperature (Ct 31.5 ± 0.5 to 31.8 ± 0.6for miR-1, p = 0.989; and 29.01 ± 0.3 to 29.04 ± 0.3, p = 0.614 for - 423-5p). No correlation was observed between hemolysis and the levels of miR-1 and -423-5p. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the storage of whole blood samples at room temperature for up to 24h prior to their processing into plasma does not appear to have a significant impact on miR-1 and - 423-5p concentrations.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue , Cardiotoxicidade/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Hemólise , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estabilidade de RNA , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Oncotarget ; 8(4): 6994-7002, 2017 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28052002

RESUMO

Cardiotoxicity is associated with the chronic use of doxorubicin leading to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Identification of cardiotoxicity-specific miRNA biomarkers could provide clinicians with a valuable prognostic tool. The aim of the study was to evaluate circulating levels of miRNAs in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin treatment and to correlate with cardiac function. This is an ancillary study from "Carvedilol Effect on Chemotherapy-induced Cardiotoxicity" (CECCY trial), which included 56 female patients (49.9±3.3 years of age) from the placebo arm. Enrolled patients were treated with doxorubicin followed by taxanes. cTnI, LVEF, and miRNAs were measured periodically. Circulating levels of miR-1, -133b, -146a, and -423-5p increased during the treatment whereas miR-208a and -208b were undetectable. cTnI increased from 6.6±0.3 to 46.7±5.5 pg/mL (p<0.001), while overall LVEF tended to decrease from 65.3±0.5 to 63.8±0.9 (p=0.053) over 12 months. Ten patients (17.9%) developed cardiotoxicity showing a decrease in LVEF from 67.2±1.0 to 58.8±2.7 (p=0.005). miR-1 was associated with changes in LVEF (r=-0.531, p<0.001). In a ROC curve analysis miR-1 showed an AUC greater than cTnI to discriminate between patients who did and did not develop cardiotoxicity (AUC = 0.851 and 0.544, p= 0.0016). Our data suggest that circulating miR-1 might be a potential new biomarker of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carbazóis , Cardiotoxicidade/sangue , Cardiotoxicidade/fisiopatologia , Carvedilol , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Propanolaminas , Curva ROC , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Troponina C/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 24(8): 808-817, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28134562

RESUMO

Background In patients with heart failure, inflammation has been associated with worse functional capacity, but it is uncertain whether it could affect their response to exercise training. We evaluated whether inflammatory biomarkers are related to differential effect of exercise on the peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2) among patients with heart failure. Design Open, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. Methods Patients with heart failure and ejection fraction ≤0.4 were randomized into exercise training or control for 12 weeks. Patients were classified according to: 1) inflammatory biomarkers blood levels, defined as 'low' if both interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha blood levels were below median, and 'high' otherwise; and 2) galectin-3 blood levels, which also reflect pro-fibrotic processes. Results Forty-four participants (50 ± 7 years old, 55% men, 25% ischemic) were allocated to exercise training ( n = 28) or control ( n = 16). Exercise significantly improved peak V˙O2 among participants with 'low' inflammatory biomarkers (3.5 ± 0.9 vs. -0.7 ± 1.1 ml/kg per min, p = 0.006), as compared with control, but not among those with 'high' inflammatory biomarkers (0.4 ± 0.6 vs. -0.2 ± 0.7 ml/kg per min, p = 0.54, p for interaction = 0.009). Similarly, exercise improved peak V˙O2 among participants with below median (2.4 ± 0.8 vs. -0.3 ± 0.9 ml/kg per min, p = 0.032), but not among those with above median galectin-3 blood levels (0.3 ± 0.7 vs. -0.7 ± 1.0 ml/kg per min, p = 0.41, p for interaction = 0.053). Conclusion In patients with heart failure, levels of biomarkers that reflect pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic processes were associated with differential effect of exercise on functional capacity. Further studies should evaluate whether exercise training can improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure and low levels of these biomarkers.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Tolerância ao Exercício , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Fibrose , Galectina 3/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Ann Med ; 49(2): 165-175, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27763780

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the short-term association between air pollution and cardiovascular effects on healthy volunteers. METHODS: We searched databases to identify randomized trials with controlled human exposures to either of two models for studying ambient particulate matter: diesel-exhaust or concentrated ambient particles. Estimates of size effect were performed using standardized mean difference (SMD). Heterogeneity was assessed with I2 statistics. Outcomes were vascular function estimated by forearm blood flow (FBF), blood pressure, heart rate, and blood analysis. RESULTS: Database searches yielded 17 articles (n = 342) with sufficient information for meta-analyses. High levels of heterogeneity for the some outcomes were analyzed using random-effects model. The pooled effect estimate showed that short-term exposure to air pollution impaired FBF response from 2.7 to 2.5 mL/100 mL tissue/min (SMD 0.404; p = .006). There was an increase in 5000 platelet/mm3 following pollution exposure (SMD 0.390; p = .050) but no significant differences for other outcomes. CONCLUSION: Controlled human exposures to air pollution are associated with the surrogates of vascular dysfunction and increase in platelet count, which might be related to adverse cardiovascular events. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to air pollution, these findings are relevant for public health. KEY MESSAGES Controlled exposure to air pollution impairs vasomotor response, which is a surrogate for adverse cardiovascular events. This is the first meta-analysis from randomized clinical trials showing short-term association between air pollution and cardiovascular effects on healthy volunteers. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to air pollution, this finding is important for public health.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Material Particulado/envenenamento , Emissões de Veículos/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 9(11)2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and hypoxia and hypercapnia episodes activate chemoreceptors stimulating autonomic reflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that muscle vasoconstriction and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia would be more pronounced in patients with HF and SDB than in patients with HF without SDB (NoSBD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety consecutive patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class II-III, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were screened for the study. Forty-one patients were enrolled: NoSDB (n=13, 46 [39-53] years) and SDB (n=28, 57 [54-61] years). SDB was characterized by apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per hour (polysomnography). Peripheral (10% O2 and 90% N2, with CO2 titrated) and central (7% CO2 and 93% O2) chemoreceptors were stimulated for 3 minutes. Forearm and calf blood flow were evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography, MSNA by microneurography, and blood pressure by beat-to-beat noninvasive technique. Baseline forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance were similar between groups. MSNA was higher in the SDB group. During hypoxia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.01 to all comparisons). Similarly, during hypercapnia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.001 to all comparisons). MSNA were higher in response to hypoxia (P=0.024) and tended to be higher to hypercapnia (P=0.066) in the SDB group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HF and SDB have more severe muscle vasoconstriction during hypoxia and hypercapnia than HF patients without SDB, which seems to be associated with endothelial dysfunction and, in part, increased MSNA response.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstrição , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Antebraço , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipercapnia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pletismografia , Polissonografia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/metabolismo , Volume Sistólico
9.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0168790, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28030609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of new biomarkers of heart failure (HF) could help in its treatment. Previously, our group studied 89 patients with HF and showed that exhaled breath acetone (EBA) is a new noninvasive biomarker of HF diagnosis. However, there is no data about the relevance of EBA as a biomarker of prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether EBA could give prognostic information in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: After breath collection and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by spectrophotometry, the 89 patients referred before were followed by one year. Study physicians, blind to the results of cardiac biomarker testing, ascertained vital status of each study participant at 12 months. RESULTS: The composite endpoint death and heart transplantation (HT) were observed in 35 patients (39.3%): 29 patients (32.6%) died and 6 (6.7%) were submitted to HT within 12 months after study enrollment. High levels of EBA (≥3.7µg/L, 50th percentile) were associated with a progressively worse prognosis in 12-month follow-up (log-rank = 11.06, p = 0.001). Concentrations of EBA above 3.7µg/L increased the risk of death or HT in 3.26 times (HR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.56-6.80, p = 0.002) within 12 months. In a multivariable cox regression model, the independent predictors of all-cause mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and EBA levels. CONCLUSIONS: High EBA levels could be associated to poor prognosis in HFrEF patients.


Assuntos
Acetona/metabolismo , Expiração , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 4(6): 517-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27256758
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 215: 92-7, 2016 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27107547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure could mitigate the health benefits of exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). We tested the effects of a respiratory filter on HF patients exposed to air pollution during exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ancillary analysis of the FILTER-HF trial, focused on the exercise outcomes. In a randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover design, 26 HF patients and 15 control volunteers were exposed to clean air, unfiltered dilute diesel engine exhaust (DE), or filtered DE for 6min during a submaximal cardiopulmonary testing in a controlled-exposure facility. Prospectively collected data included six-minute walking test [6mwt], VO2, VE/VCO2 Slope, O2Pulse, pulmonary ventilation [VE], tidal volume, VD/Vt, oxyhemoglobin saturation and CO2-rebreathing. Compared to clean air, DE adversely affected VO2 (11.0±3.9 vs. 8.4±2.8ml/kg/min; p<0.001); 6mwt (243.3±13.0 vs. 220.8±13.7m; p=0.030); and O2Pulse (8.9±1.0 vs. 7.8±0.7ml/beat; p<0.001) in HF patients. Compared to DE, filtration reduced the particulate concentration from 325±31 to 25±6µg/m(3), and was associated with an increase in VO2 (10.4±3.8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 vs. DE) and O2Pulse (9.7±1.1ml/beat; p<0.001 vs. DE) in patients with HF. Filtration was associated with higher VE and CO2-rebreathing in both groups. VE/VCO2 Slope was higher among patients with HF. CONCLUSION: DE adversely affects exercise capacity in patients with HF. A simple respiratory filter can reduce the adverse effects of pollution on VO2 and O2Pulse. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to traffic-related air pollution, these findings are relevant for public health especially in this highly susceptible population. The filter intervention holds great promise that needs to be tested in future studies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Exposição por Inalação , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia
12.
JACC Heart Fail ; 4(1): 55-64, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26738952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the effects of a respiratory filter intervention (filter) during controlled pollution exposure. BACKGROUND: Air pollution is considered a risk factor for heart failure (HF) decompensation and mortality. METHODS: This study was a double-blind, randomized to order, controlled, 3-way crossover, single-center clinical trial. It enrolled 26 patients with HF and 15 control volunteers. Participants were exposed in 3 separate sessions to clean air, unfiltered diesel exhaust exposure (DE), or filtered DE. Endpoints were endothelial function assessed by using the reactive hyperemia index (RHi), arterial stiffness, serum biomarkers, 6-min walking distance, and heart rate variability. RESULTS: In patients with HF, DE was associated with a worsening in RHi from 2.17 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.8 to 2.5) to 1.72 (IQR: 1.5 to 2.2; p = 0.002) and an increase in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from 47.0 pg/ml (IQR: 17.3 to 118.0 pg/ml) to 66.5 pg/ml (IQR: 26.5 to 155.5 pg/ml; p = 0.004). Filtration reduced the particulate concentration (325 ± 31 µg/m(3) vs. 25 ± 6 µg/m(3); p < 0.001); in the group with HF, filter was associated with an improvement in RHi from 1.72 (IQR: 1.5 to 2.2) to 2.06 (IQR: 1.5 to 2.6; p = 0.019) and a decrease in BNP from 66.5 pg/ml (IQR: 26.5 to 155.5 pg/ml) to 44.0 pg/ml (IQR: 20.0 to 110.0 pg/ml; p = 0.015) compared with DE. In both groups, DE decreased the 6-min walking distance and arterial stiffness, although filter did not change these responses. DE had no effect on heart rate variability or exercise testing. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this trial is the first to show that a filter can reduce both endothelial dysfunction and BNP increases in patients with HF during DE. Given these potential benefits, the widespread use of filters in patients with HF exposed to traffic-derived air pollution may have beneficial public health effects and reduce the burden of HF. (Effects of Air Pollution Exposure Reduction by Filter Mask on Heart Failure; NCT01960920).


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperemia/etiologia , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(33): e1161, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287407

RESUMO

Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is a powerful cardioprotective cellular mechanism that has been related to the "warm-up phenomenon" or "walk-through" angina, and has been documented through the use of sequential exercise tests (ETs). It is known that several drugs, for example, cromokalim, pinacidil, adenosine, and nicorandil, can interfere with the cellular pathways of IP. The purpose of this article is to report the effect of the anti-ischemic agent trimetazidine (TMZ) on IP in symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.We conducted a prospective study evaluating IP by the analysis of ischemic parameters in 2 sequential ETs. In phase I, without TMZ, patients underwent ET1 and ET2 with a 30-minute interval between them. In phase II, after 1 week of TMZ 35 mg twice daily, all patients underwent 2 consecutive ETs (ET3 and ET4). IP was considered present when the time to 1.0-mm segment ST on electrocardiogram deviation (T-1.0 mm) and rate pressure product (RPP) were greater in the second of 2 tests. The improvement in T-1.0 mm and RPP were compared in the 2 phases: without TMZ and after 1-week TMZ to assess the action of such drug in myocardial protective mechanisms. ETs were analyzed by 2 independent cardiologists.From 135 CAD patients screened, 96 met inclusion criteria and 62 completed the study protocol. Forty patients manifested IP by demonstrating an improvement in T-1.0 mm in ET2 compared with ET1, without the use of any drugs (phase I). In phase II, after 1-week TMZ, 26 patients (65%) did not show any incremental result in ischemic parameters in ET4 compared with ET3. Furthermore, of these patients, 8 (20%) had IP blockage.In this study, TMZ did not add any benefit to IP in patients with stable symptomatic CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Trimetazidina/farmacologia , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Eletrocardiografia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
14.
Blood Press Monit ; 18(6): 342-5, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24192849

RESUMO

High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and its control is a clinical challenge. Regular exercise lowers BP in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. No data are available on the effects of heated water-based exercise in hypertensive patients. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of heated water-based exercise on BP in patients with resistant hypertension. We tested the effects of 60-min heated water-based exercise training three times per week in 16 patients with resistant hypertension (age 55±6 years). The protocol included walking and callisthenic exercises. All patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) before and after a 2-week exercise program in a heated pool. Systolic office BP was reduced from 162 to 144 mmHg (P<0.004) after heated-water training. After the heated-water exercise training during 24-h ABPM, systolic BP decreased from 135 to 123 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 83 to 74 mmHg (P=0.001), daytime systolic BP decreased from 141 to 125 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 87 to 77 mmHg (P=0.009), night-time systolic BP decreased from 128 to 118 mmHg (P=0.06), and diastolic BP decreased from 77 to 69 mmHg (P=0.01). In addition, BP cardiovascular load was reduced significantly during the 24-h daytime and night-time period after the heated water-based exercise. Heated water-based exercise reduced office BP and 24-h daytime and night-time ABPM levels. These effects suggest that heated water-based exercise may have a potential as a new therapeutic approach to resistant hypertensive patients.


Assuntos
Exercício , Hipertensão/terapia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Água
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 7(4): e2176, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23638197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden death has been considered the main cause of death in patients with Chagas heart disease. Nevertheless, this information comes from a period before the introduction of drugs that changed the natural history of heart failure. We sought to study the mode of death of patients with heart failure caused by Chagas heart disease, comparing with non-Chagas cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the REMADHE trial and grouped patients according to etiology (Chagas vs non-Chagas) and mode of death. The primary end-point was all-cause, heart failure and sudden death mortality; 342 patients were analyzed and 185 (54.1%) died. Death occurred in 56.4% Chagas patients and 53.7% non-Chagas patients. The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and heart failure mortality was significantly higher in Chagas patients compared to non-Chagas. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of sudden death mortality between the two groups. In the Cox regression model, Chagas etiology (HR 2.76; CI 1.34-5.69; p = 0.006), LVEDD (left ventricular end diastolic diameter) (HR 1.07; CI 1.04-1.10; p<0.001), creatinine clearance (HR 0.98; CI 0.97-0.99; p = 0.006) and use of amiodarone (HR 3.05; CI 1.47-6.34; p = 0.003) were independently associated with heart failure mortality. LVEDD (HR 1.04; CI 1.01-1.07; p = 0.005) and use of beta-blocker (HR 0.52; CI 0.34-0.94; p = 0.014) were independently associated with sudden death mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In severe Chagas heart disease, progressive heart failure is the most important mode of death. These data challenge the current understanding of Chagas heart disease and may have implications in the selection of treatment choices, considering the mode of death. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00505050 (REMADHE).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/mortalidade , Adulto , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Heart Lung ; 42(2): 120-5, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23083537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the experience of primary caregivers of heart transplant recipients. METHODS: A phenomenological approach was used to understand the caregivers' experience of caring for a heart transplant patient. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 caregivers, in a Brazilian hospital, from December 2008 to March 2009. RESULTS: Following the transplant, caregivers' lives change drastically; their priority becomes providing care for their relative. Despite successful transplant results, the uncertainty about future remains, generating permanent distress. Anxiety is exacerbated by familial or economic problems and, consequently, many participants turn to their local communities for support. Some caregivers learn from the experience and plan return to regular activities. Others feel helpless, unable to overcome personal losses and difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses are ideally placed to lead the way by providing family-centered support and education for caregivers of heart recipients. Listening to the concerns of family caregivers seems to be an essential aspect of effective interventions.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Transplante de Coração , Estresse Psicológico , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Cuidadores/educação , Cuidadores/psicologia , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Emoções , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Transplante de Coração/psicologia , Transplante de Coração/reabilitação , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/enfermagem , Incerteza
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 167(1): 34-40, 2013 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22243938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction is associated with increased mortality in patients with decompensated heart failure. However, interventions targeted to prevention in this setting have been disappointing. We investigated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) for prevention of renal dysfunction in decompensated heart failure. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized trial, patients with decompensated heart failure were assigned to receive three-day course of 100mL HSS (NaCl 7.5%) twice daily or placebo. Primary end point was an increase in serum creatinine of 0.3mg/dL or more. Main secondary end point was change in biomarkers of renal function, including serum levels of creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-NGAL and the urinary excretion of aquaporin 2 (AQP2), urea transporter (UT-A1), and sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3). RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were assigned to HSS and 12 to placebo. Primary end point occurred in two (10%) patients in HSS group and six (50%) in placebo group (relative risk 0.3; 95% CI 0.09-0.98; P=0.01). Relative to baseline, serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were lower in HSS as compared to placebo (P=0.004 and 0.03, respectively). NGAL level was not statistically different between groups, however the urinary expression of AQP2, UT-A1 and NHE3 was significantly higher in HSS than in placebo. CONCLUSIONS: HSS administration attenuated heart failure-induced kidney dysfunction as indicated by improvement in both glomerular and tubular defects, a finding with important clinical implications. HSS modulated the expression of tubular proteins involved in regulation of water and electrolyte homeostasis.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Trop Med ; 2012: 853562, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23209479

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii primary infection/reactivation after solid organ transplantation is a serious complication, due to the high mortality rate following disseminated disease. We performed a retrospective study of all cases of T. gondii infections in 436 adult patients who had received an orthotopic cardiac transplant at our Institution from May 1968 to January 2011. Six patients (1.3%) developed T. gondii infection/reactivation in the post-operative period. All infections/reactivations occurred before 1996, when no standardized toxoplasmosis prophylactic regimen or co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was used. Starting with the 112th heart transplant, oral pyrimethamine 75 mg/day was used for seronegative transplant recipients whose donors were seropositive or unknown. Two patients (33.3%) presented with disseminated toxoplasmosis infection, and all patients (100%) had myocarditis. Five patients (83.3%) were seronegative before transplant and one patient did not have pre-transplant serology available. Median time for infection onset was 131 days following transplantation. Three patients (50%) died due to toxoplasmosis infection. After 1996, we did not observe any additional cases of T. gondii infection/reactivation. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis in heart allographs was more frequent among seronegative heart recipients, and oral pyrimethamine was highly effective for the prevention of T. gondii infection in this population.

19.
Chest ; 142(2): 457-466, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22345382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is associated with poor prognosis, and the identification of biomarkers of its severity could help in its treatment. In a pilot study, we observed high levels of acetone in the exhaled breath of patients with HF. The present study was designed to evaluate exhaled acetone as a biomarker of HF diagnosis and HF severity. METHODS: Of 235 patients with systolic dysfunction evaluated between May 2009 and September 2010, 89 patients (HF group) fulfilled inclusion criteria and were compared with sex- and age-matched healthy subjects (control group, n = 20). Patients with HF were grouped according to clinical stability (acute decompensated HF [ADHF], n = 59; chronic HF, n = 30) and submitted to exhaled breath collection. Identification of chemical species was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantification by spectrophotometry. Patients with diabetes were excluded. RESULTS: The concentration of exhaled breath acetone (EBA) was higher in the HF group (median, 3.7 µg/L; interquartile range [IQR], 1.69-10.45 µg/L) than in the control group (median, 0.39 µg/L; IQR, 0.30-0.79 µg/L; P < .001) and higher in the ADHF group (median, 7.8 µg/L; IQR, 3.6-15.2 µg/L) than in the chronic HF group (median, 1.22 µg/L; IQR, 0.68-2.19 µg/L; P < .001). The accuracy and sensitivity of this method in the diagnosis of HF and ADHF were about 85%, a value similar to that obtained with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). EBA levels differed significantly as a function of severity of HF (New York Heart Association classification, P < .001). There was a positive correlation between EBA and BNP (r = 0.772, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: EBA not only is a promising noninvasive diagnostic method of HF with an accuracy equivalent to BNP but also a new biomarker of HF severity.


Assuntos
Acetona/metabolismo , Expiração/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil ; 18(6): 824-30, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21450597

RESUMO

Exercise training is an effective intervention for treating and preventing hypertension, but its effects on heart rate (HR) response to exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of non-hypertensive offspring of hypertensive parents (FH+) has not been studied. We compared the effects of three times per week equal-volume high-intensity aerobic interval (AIT) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME) on HR response to exercise and CRF of FH+. Forty-four young FH+ women (25.0 ± 4.4 years) randomized to control (CON; n = 12), AIT (80-90% of VO(2MAX); n = 16), or CME (50-60% of VO(2MAX); n = 16) performed a graded exercise test (GXT) before and after 16 weeks of follow-up to evaluate HR response to exercise and several parameters of CRF. Resting, maximal, and reserve HR did not change after the follow-up in all groups. HR recovery (difference between HR(MAX) and HR at 1 minute of GXT recovery phase) improved only after AIT (11.8 ± 4.9 vs. 20.6 ± 5.8 bpm, p < 0.01). Both exercise programmes were effective for improving CRF parameters, but AIT was more effective than CME for improving oxygen consumption at the respiratory compensation point (VO(2RCP); 22.1% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.008) and maximal effort (VO(2MAX); 15.8% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.036), as well as tolerance time (TT) to reach anaerobic threshold (TT(AT); 62.0 vs. 37.7, p = 0.048), TT(RCP) (49.3 vs. 32.9, p = 0.032), and TT(MAX) (38.9 vs. 29.2, p = 0.042). Exercise intensity was an important factor in improving HR recovery and CRF of FH+women. These findings may have important implications for designing exercise-training programmes for the prevention of an inherited hypertensive disorder.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Aptidão Física , Respiração , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Brasil , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Linhagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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