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3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 116(1): 77-86, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The physical examination enables prognostic evaluation of patients with decompensated heart failure (HF), but lacks reliability and relies on the professional's clinical experience. Considering hemodynamic responses to "fight or flight" situations, such as the moment of admission to the emergency room, we proposed the calculation of the acute hemodynamic index (AHI) from values of heart rate and pulse pressure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in-hospital prognostic ability of AHI in decompensated HF. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, registry-based observational study including data from the BREATHE registry, with information from public and private hospitals in Brazil. The prognostic ability of the AHI was tested by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, C-statistics, Akaike's information criteria, and multivariate regression analyses. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 463 patients with heart failure with low ejection fraction. In-hospital mortality was 9%. The median AHI value was used as cut-off (4 mmHg⋅bpm). A low AHI (≤ 4 mmHg⋅bpm) was found in 80% of deceased patients. The risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with low AHI was 2.5 times that in patients with AHI > 4 mmHg⋅bpm. AHI independently predicted in-hospital mortality in acute decompensated HF (sensitivity: 0.786; specificity: 0.429; AUC: 0.607 [0.540-0.674]; p = 0.010) even after adjusting for comorbidities and medication use [OR: 0.061 (0.007-0.114); p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The AHI independently predicts in-hospital mortality in acute decompensated HF. This simple bed-side index could be useful in an emergency setting. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):77-86).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Brasil , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Hemodinâmica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the COVID-19 pandemic, the increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality from them has been recognized worldwide. In Brazil, the impact of COVID-19 on CVD must be evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of the current pandemic on the numbers of hospital admissions (HA), in-hospital deaths (ID), and in-hospital fatality (IF) from CVD by use of national epidemiological data from the Brazilian Unified Public Health System. METHODS: Time-series observational study using comparative analysis of the HA, ID, and IF due to CVD recorded from January to May 2020, having as reference the values registered in the same period from 2016 to 2019 and the values projected by linear regression methods for 2020. The statistical significance level applied was 0.05. RESULTS: Compared to the same period in 2019, there was a 15% decrease in the HA rate and a 9% decrease in the total ID due to CVD between March and May 2020, followed by a 9% increase in the IF rate due to CVD, especially among patients aged 20-59 years. The HA and IF rates registered in 2020 differed significantly from the projected trend for 2020 (p = 0.0005 and 0.0318, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the first months of the pandemic, there were a decline in HA and an increase in IF due to CVD in Brazil. These data might have resulted from the inadequate planning of the CVD management during the pandemic. Thus, immediate actions are required to change this scenario. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1460-1471, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595916

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to analyse the clinical presentation and prognosis of patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy and decompensated heart failure (HF), as compared with other aetiologies. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective cohort of patients admitted with decompensated HF. We included 767 patients (63.9% male), with median age of 58 years [interquartile range 48.2-66.7 years]. Main aetiologies were non-Chagas/non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies in 389 (50.7%) patients, ischaemic disease in 209 (27.2%), and Chagas disease in 169 (22%). Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 26% (interquartile range 22-35%). Patients with Chagas differed from both patients with non-Chagas/non-ischaemic and ischaemic cardiomyopathies for a higher proportion of cardiogenic shock at admission (17.8%, 11.6%, and 11%, respectively, P < 0.001) and had lower blood pressure at admission (systolic blood pressure 90 [80-102.5], 100 [85-110], and 100 [88.2-120] mmHg, P < 0.001) and lower heart rate (heart rate 71 [60-80], 87 [70-102], and 79 [64-96.5] b.p.m., P < 0.001). Further, patients with Chagas had higher serum BNP level (1544 [734-3148], 1061 [465-239], and 927 [369-1455] pg/mL, P < 0.001), higher serum bilirubin (1.4 [0.922.44], 1.2 [0.77-2.19], and 0.84 [0.49-1.45] mg/dL, P < 0.001), larger left ventricular diameter (68 [63-73], 67 [58-74], and 62 [56.8-68.3] mm, respectively, P < 0.001), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (25 [21-30]%, 26 [22-35]%, and 30 [25-38]%, P < 0.001), and a higher proportion of patients with right ventricular function (48.8%, 40.7%, and 25.9%, P < 0.001). Patients with Chagas disease were more likely to receive inotropes than patients with non-Chagas/non-ischaemic and ischaemic cardiomyopathies (77.5%, 67.5%, and 62.5%, respectively, P = 0.007) and also to receive intra-aortic balloon pumping (30.8%, 16.2%, and 10.5%, P < 0.001). Overall, the rates of death or urgent transplant were higher among patients with Chagas than in other aetiologies, a difference that was driven mostly due to increased rate of heart transplant during hospital admission (20.2%, 10.3%, and 8.1%). The prognosis of patients at 180 days after hospital admission was worse for patients with Chagas disease as compared with other aetiologies. In patients with Chagas, age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.934, confidence interval (CI)95% 0.901-0.982, P = 0.005], right ventricular dysfunction by echocardiography (OR = 2.68, CI95% 1.055-6.81, P = 0.016), and urea (OR = 1.009, CI95% 1.001-1.018, P = 0.038) were significantly associated with prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy and decompensated HF have a distinct clinical presentation and worse prognosis compared with other aetiologies.

7.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e1991, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This observational, cross-sectional study based aimed to test whether heart failure (HF)-disease management program (DMP) components are influencing care and clinical decision-making in Brazil. METHODS: The survey respondents were cardiologists recommended by experts in the field and invited to participate in the survey via printed form or email. The survey consisted of 29 questions addressing site demographics, public versus private infrastructure, HF baseline data of patients, clinical management of HF, performance indicators, and perceptions about HF treatment. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 98 centers (58% public and 42% private practice) distributed across Brazil. Public HF-DMPs compared to private HF-DMP were associated with a higher percentage of HF-DMP-dedicated services (79% vs 24%; OR: 12, 95% CI: 94-34), multidisciplinary HF (MHF)-DMP [84% vs 65%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-8), HF educational programs (49% vs 18%; OR: 4; 95% CI: 1-2), written instructions before hospital discharge (83% vs 76%; OR: 1; 95% CI: 0-5), rehabilitation (69% vs 39%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-9), monitoring (44% vs 29%; OR: 2; 95% CI: 1-5), guideline-directed medical therapy-HF use (94% vs 85%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 0-15), and less B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) dosage (73% vs 88%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-9), and key performance indicators (37% vs 60%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-7). In comparison to non- MHF-DMP, MHF-DMP was associated with more educational initiatives (42% vs 6%; OR: 12; 95% CI: 1-97), written instructions (83% vs 68%; OR: 2: 95% CI: 1-7), rehabilitation (69% vs 17%; OR: 11; 95% CI: 3-44), monitoring (47% vs 6%; OR: 14; 95% CI: 2-115), GDMT-HF (92% vs 83%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 0-15). In addition, there were less use of BNP as a biomarker (70% vs 84%; OR: 2; 95% CI: 1-8) and key performance indicators (35% vs 51%; OR: 2; 95% CI: 91,6) in the non-MHF group. Physicians considered changing or introducing new medications mostly when patients were hospitalized or when observing worsening disease and/or symptoms. Adherence to drug treatment and non-drug treatment factors were the greatest medical problems associated with HF treatment. CONCLUSION: HF-DMPs are highly heterogeneous. New strategies for HF care should consider the present study highlights and clinical decision-making processes to improve HF patient care.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 943-952, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498096

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with advanced heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have a higher risk of severe events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively studied 16 patients with advanced HFrEF who developed COVID-19 between 1 March and 29 May 2020. Follow-up lasted until 30 September. Ten patients previously hospitalized with decompensated HFrEF were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during hospitalization. Six patients undergoing ambulatory care at initiation of COVID-19 symptoms were hospitalized because of advanced HFrEF. All patients who experienced worsening of HFrEF due to COVID-19 required higher doses or introduction of additional inotropic drugs or intra-aortic balloon pump in the intensive care unit. The mean intravenous dobutamine dose before SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously hospitalized patients (n = 10) and the median (inter-quartile range) peak intravenous dobutamine dose during SARS-CoV-2 infection in all patients (n = 16) were 2 (0-7) µg/kg/min and 20 (14-20) (P < 0.001), respectively. During follow-up, 56% underwent heart transplantation (n = 2) or died (n = 7). Four patients died during hospitalization from mixed shock consequent to severe acute respiratory syndrome with inflammatory storm syndrome associated with septic and cardiogenic shock during COVID-19. After COVID-19 recovery, two patients died from mixed septic and cardiogenic shock and one from sustained ventricular tachycardia and cardiogenic shock. Five patients were discharged from hospital to ambulatory care. Four were awaiting heart transplantation. CONCLUSION: Worsening of advanced HF by COVID-19 is associated with high mortality. This report highlights the importance of preventing COVID-19 in patients with advanced HF.


Assuntos
/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , /terapia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/virologia , Transplante de Coração , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 77-86, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152986

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento O exame físico permite a avaliação prognóstica de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) descompensada, porém não é suficientemente confiável e depende da experiência clínica do profissional. Considerando as respostas hemodinâmicas a situações do tipo "luta ou fuga" tais como a admissão no serviço de emergência, foi proposto o índice hemodinâmico agudo (IHA), calculado a partir da frequência cardíaca e pressão de pulso. Objetivo avaliar a capacidade prognóstica intra-hospitalar do IHA na IC descompensada. Métodos estudo prospectivo, multicêntrico e observacional baseado no registro BREATHE, incluindo dados de hospitais públicos e privados no Brasil. Foram utilizadas análises ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic), de estatística c e de regressão multivariada, assim como o critério de informação de Akaike, para testar a capacidade prognóstica do IHA. O valor-p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Foram analisados dados de 463 pacientes com IC com fração de ejeção reduzida a partir do registro BREATHE. A mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 9%. A mediana do IHA foi considerada o valor de corte (4 mmHg⋅bpm). Um baixo IHA (≤ 4 mmHg⋅bpm) foi encontrado em 80% dos pacientes falecidos. O risco de mortalidade intra-hospitalar em pacientes com baixo IHA foi 2,5 vezes maior que aquele para pacientes com IHA > 4 mmHg⋅bpm. O IHA foi capaz de predizer independentemente a mortalidade intra-hospitalar na IC aguda descompensada [sensibilidade: 0,786; especificidade: 0,429; AUC (área sob a curva): 0,607 (0,540-0,674), p = 0,010] mesmo depois dos ajustes para comorbidades e uso de medicamentos [razão de chances (RC): 0,061 (0,007-0,114), p = 0,025]. Conclusões O IHA é capaz de predizer independentemente a mortalidade intra-hospitalar na IC aguda descompensada. Esse índice simples e realizado à beira do leito pode se mostrar útil em serviços de emergência. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):77-86)


Abstract Background The physical examination enables prognostic evaluation of patients with decompensated heart failure (HF), but lacks reliability and relies on the professional's clinical experience. Considering hemodynamic responses to "fight or flight" situations, such as the moment of admission to the emergency room, we proposed the calculation of the acute hemodynamic index (AHI) from values of heart rate and pulse pressure. Objective To evaluate the in-hospital prognostic ability of AHI in decompensated HF. Methods A prospective, multicenter, registry-based observational study including data from the BREATHE registry, with information from public and private hospitals in Brazil. The prognostic ability of the AHI was tested by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, C-statistics, Akaike's information criteria, and multivariate regression analyses. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results We analyzed data from 463 patients with heart failure with low ejection fraction. In-hospital mortality was 9%. The median AHI value was used as cut-off (4 mmHg⋅bpm). A low AHI (≤ 4 mmHg⋅bpm) was found in 80% of deceased patients. The risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with low AHI was 2.5 times that in patients with AHI > 4 mmHg⋅bpm. AHI independently predicted in-hospital mortality in acute decompensated HF (sensitivity: 0.786; specificity: 0.429; AUC: 0.607 [0.540-0.674]; p = 0.010) even after adjusting for comorbidities and medication use [OR: 0.061 (0.007-0.114); p = 0.025). Conclusions The AHI independently predicts in-hospital mortality in acute decompensated HF. This simple bed-side index could be useful in an emergency setting. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):77-86)

10.
Clinics ; 76: e1991, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This observational, cross-sectional study based aimed to test whether heart failure (HF)-disease management program (DMP) components are influencing care and clinical decision-making in Brazil. METHODS: The survey respondents were cardiologists recommended by experts in the field and invited to participate in the survey via printed form or email. The survey consisted of 29 questions addressing site demographics, public versus private infrastructure, HF baseline data of patients, clinical management of HF, performance indicators, and perceptions about HF treatment. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 98 centers (58% public and 42% private practice) distributed across Brazil. Public HF-DMPs compared to private HF-DMP were associated with a higher percentage of HF-DMP-dedicated services (79% vs 24%; OR: 12, 95% CI: 94-34), multidisciplinary HF (MHF)-DMP [84% vs 65%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-8), HF educational programs (49% vs 18%; OR: 4; 95% CI: 1-2), written instructions before hospital discharge (83% vs 76%; OR: 1; 95% CI: 0-5), rehabilitation (69% vs 39%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-9), monitoring (44% vs 29%; OR: 2; 95% CI: 1-5), guideline-directed medical therapy-HF use (94% vs 85%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 0-15), and less B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) dosage (73% vs 88%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-9), and key performance indicators (37% vs 60%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-7). In comparison to non- MHF-DMP, MHF-DMP was associated with more educational initiatives (42% vs 6%; OR: 12; 95% CI: 1-97), written instructions (83% vs 68%; OR: 2: 95% CI: 1-7), rehabilitation (69% vs 17%; OR: 11; 95% CI: 3-44), monitoring (47% vs 6%; OR: 14; 95% CI: 2-115), GDMT-HF (92% vs 83%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 0-15). In addition, there were less use of BNP as a biomarker (70% vs 84%; OR: 2; 95% CI: 1-8) and key performance indicators (35% vs 51%; OR: 2; 95% CI: 91,6) in the non-MHF group. Physicians considered changing or introducing new medications mostly when patients were hospitalized or when observing worsening disease and/or symptoms. Adherence to drug treatment and non-drug treatment factors were the greatest medical problems associated with HF treatment. CONCLUSION: HF-DMPs are highly heterogeneous. New strategies for HF care should consider the present study highlights and clinical decision-making processes to improve HF patient care.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008889, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351798

RESUMO

Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), an especially aggressive inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy caused by lifelong infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Although chronic myocarditis may play a major pathogenetic role, little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for its severity. The aim of this study is to study the genes and microRNAs expression in tissues and their connections in regards to the pathobiological processes. To do so, we integrated for the first time global microRNA and mRNA expression profiling from myocardial tissue of CCC patients employing pathways and network analyses. We observed an enrichment in biological processes and pathways associated with the immune response and metabolism. IFNγ, TNF and NFkB were the top upstream regulators. The intersections between differentially expressed microRNAs and differentially expressed target mRNAs showed an enrichment in biological processes such as Inflammation, inflammation, Th1/IFN-γ-inducible genes, fibrosis, hypertrophy, and mitochondrial/oxidative stress/antioxidant response. MicroRNAs also played a role in the regulation of gene expression involved in the key cardiomyopathy-related processes fibrosis, hypertrophy, myocarditis and arrhythmia. Significantly, a discrete number of differentially expressed microRNAs targeted a high number of differentially expressed mRNAs (>20) in multiple processes. Our results suggest that miRNAs orchestrate expression of multiple genes in the major pathophysiological processes in CCC heart tissue. This may have a bearing on pathogenesis, biomarkers and therapy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EMPEROR-Preserved is an ongoing trial evaluating the effect of empagliflozin in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This report describes the baseline characteristics of the EMPEROR-Preserved cohort and compares it with patients enrolled in prior HFpEF trials. METHODS: EMPEROR-Preserved is a phase III randomized, international, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial in which 5988 symptomatic HFpEF patients (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] >40%) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been enrolled. Patients were required to have elevated N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations (i.e. >300 pg/mL in patients without and >900 pg/mL in patients with atrial fibrillation) along with evidence of structural changes in the heart or documented history of HF hospitalization. RESULTS: Among patients enrolled from various regions (45% Europe, 11% Asia, 25% Latin America, 12% North America), the mean age was 72±9 years, 45% were women. Almost all patients had New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II or III symptoms (99.6%), and 23% had prior HF hospitalization within 12 months. Thirty-three percent of the patients had baseline LVEF of 41-50%. The mean LVEF (54±9%) was slightly lower while the median NT-proBNP (974 [499-1731] pg/mL) was higher compared with previous HFpEF trials. Presence of comorbidities such as diabetes (49%) and chronic kidney disease (50%) were common. The majority of the patients were on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers/ARNi's (80%) and beta-blockers (86%), and 37% of patients were on mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. CONCLUSION: When compared with prior trials in HFpEF, the EMPEROR-Preserved cohort has a somewhat higher burden of co-morbidities, lower LVEF, higher median NT-proBNP and greater use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists at baseline. Results of the EMPEROR-Preserved trial will be available in 2021. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 521409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193300

RESUMO

Background: Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) affects approximately six million individuals worldwide. Clinical manifestations are expected to occur due to the parasite persistence and host immune response. Herein we investigated potential associations between IL1B, IL6, IL17A, or IL18 polymorphism profiles and cardiomyopathy or T. cruzi parasitemia, as well as the impact of HIV infection on cardiopathy. Methods: Two hundred twenty-six patients and 90 control individuals were analyzed. IL1B rs1143627 T>C, IL6 rs1800795 C>G, IL17A rs2275913 G>A, IL18 rs187238 C>G, and IL18 rs1946518 C>A SNVs were analyzed by real-time PCR and T. cruzi parasitemia by PCR. Results: Our data revealed association between a cytokine gene polymorphism and parasitemia never previously reported. The IL6 rs1800795 CG genotype lowered the risk of positive parasitemia (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.86, P = 0.015). Original findings included associations between IL17A rs2275913 AA and IL18 s1946518 AA genotypes with decreased risk of developing cardiomyopathy (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.07-0.97, P = 0.044; and OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.87, P = 0.023, respectively). IL18 rs1946518 AA and IL1B rs1143627 TC were associated with reduced risk for cardiomyopathy severity, including NYHA (New York Heart Association) class ≥ 2 (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.68, P = 0.009; and OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.95, P = 0.036, respectively) and LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) <45% for IL18 rs1946518 AA (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-0.89, P = 0.034). A novel, unexpected protective effect of HIV infection against development/progression of cardiomyopathy was identified, based on a lower risk of developing cardiopathy (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.96, P = 0.039), NYHA class ≥ 2 (OR = 0.15, 95% CI 0.06-0.39, P < 0.001), and LVEF < 45% (OR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.25, P = 0.001). Digestive involvement was negatively associated with NYHA ≥ 2 and LVEF < 45% (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.09-0.47, P < 0.001; and OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.62, P = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: Our data support a protective role of IL17A AA, IL18 AA, and IL1B TC genotypes against development/progression of cardiomyopathy and a modulatory effect of the IL6 CG genotype on the risk of parasitemia in Chagas disease. Notably, HIV infection was shown to protect against development/progression of cardiopathy, potentially associated with a synergistic effect of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), attenuating a Th1-mediated response in the myocardium. This proposed hypothesis requires confirmation, however, in larger and more comprehensive future studies.

15.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175585

RESUMO

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but additional information is needed about whether glycemic status influences the magnitude of their benefits on heart failure and renal events. Methods: Patients with class II-IV heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were randomized to receive empagliflozin (10 mg daily) or placebo in addition to recommended therapy. We prespecified a comparison of the effect of empagliflozin in patients with and without diabetes. Results: Of the 3730 patients enrolled, 1856 (50%) had diabetes, 1268 (34%) had prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%), and 606 (16%) had normoglycemia (HbA1c <5.7%). The risks of the primary outcome (cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure), total hospitalizations for heart failure, and adverse renal outcomes were higher in patients with diabetes, but were similar between patients with prediabetes and normoglycemia. Empagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary outcome in patients with and without diabetes (hazard ratio 0.72 [95% CI 0.60-0.87] and 0.78 [95% CI 0.64-0.97], respectively, interaction P =0.57). Patients with and without diabetes also did not differ with respect to the effect of empagliflozin on total hospitalizations for heart failure, on the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time, and on the risk of serious adverse renal outcomes. Among these endpoints, the effects of the drug did not differ in patients with prediabetes or normoglycemia. When analyzed as a continuous variable, baseline HbA1c did not significantly modify the benefits of empagliflozin on the primary outcome (P-interaction=0.40). Empagliflozin did not lower HbA1c in patients with prediabetes or normoglycemia and was not associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Conclusions: In the EMPEROR-Reduced trial, empagliflozin significantly improved cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, independent of baseline diabetes status and across the continuum of HbA1c.

16.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185650

RESUMO

Importance: The period following heart failure hospitalization (HFH) is a vulnerable time with high rates of death or recurrent HFH. Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment response to vericiguat according to prespecified index event subgroups and time from index HFH in the Vericiguat Global Study in Subjects With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (VICTORIA) trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: Analysis of an international, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. All VICTORIA patients had recent (<6 months) worsening HF (ejection fraction <45%). Index event subgroups were less than 3 months after HFH (n = 3378), 3 to 6 months after HFH (n = 871), and those requiring outpatient intravenous diuretic therapy only for worsening HF (without HFH) in the previous 3 months (n = 801). Data were analyzed between May 2, 2020, and May 9, 2020. Intervention: Vericiguat titrated to 10 mg daily vs placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was time to a composite of HFH or cardiovascular death; secondary outcomes were time to HFH, cardiovascular death, a composite of all-cause mortality or HFH, all-cause death, and total HFH. Results: Among 5050 patients in the VICTORIA trial, mean age was 67 years, 24% were women, 64% were White, 22% were Asian, and 5% were Black. Baseline characteristics were balanced between treatment arms within each subgroup. Over a median follow-up of 10.8 months, the primary event rates were 40.9, 29.6, and 23.4 events per 100 patient-years in the HFH at less than 3 months, HFH 3 to 6 months, and outpatient worsening subgroups, respectively. Compared with the outpatient worsening subgroup, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk of the primary outcome was higher in HFH less than 3 months (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.27-1.73), with a time-dependent gradient of risk demonstrating that patients closest to their index HFH had the highest risk. Vericiguat was associated with reduced risk of the primary outcome overall and in all subgroups, without evidence of treatment heterogeneity. Similar results were evident for all-cause death and HFH. Addtionally, a continuous association between time from HFH and vericiguat treatment showed a trend toward greater benefit with longer duration since HFH. Safety events (symptomatic hypotension and syncope) were infrequent in all subgroups, with no difference between treatment arms. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with worsening chronic HF, those in closest proximity to their index HFH had the highest risk of cardiovascular death or HFH, irrespective of age or clinical risk factors. The benefit of vericiguat did not differ significantly across the spectrum of risk in worsening HF. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02861534.

17.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 4(5): 1-5, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204981

RESUMO

Background: Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are often concomitant and act in a vicious cycle. Atrial fibrillation is associated with greater functional limitations and increased morbidity and mortality in patients with HF. Moreover, AF associated with HF increases patients' physical inactivity, worsening their clinical condition, and prognosis. Exercise training is safe and has clear benefits in HF. However, these benefits have not been demonstrated when AF is associated with HF. Case summary: We present the case of a 57-year-old man with permanent AF and HF with reduced ejection fraction, who underwent 12 weeks of exercise training that included cardiopulmonary exercise testing, neuromuscular sympathetic activity (NMSA), and muscle blood flow (MBF) before and after training. Discussion: Exercise training was shown to have a potential benefit in reducing the activity of the sympathetic nerve and increasing muscle blood flow, as well as increasing VO2peak and decreasing the VE/VCO2 slope in a patient with AF associated with HF with reduced ejection fraction. These results may indicate favourable clinical implications in this group of patients.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1413-1424, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. More evidence is needed regarding the effects of these drugs in patients across the broad spectrum of heart failure, including those with a markedly reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure. RESULTS: During a median of 16 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 361 of 1863 patients (19.4%) in the empagliflozin group and in 462 of 1867 patients (24.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001). The effect of empagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.85; P<0.001). The annual rate of decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was slower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (-0.55 vs. -2.28 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area per year, P<0.001), and empagliflozin-treated patients had a lower risk of serious renal outcomes. Uncomplicated genital tract infection was reported more frequently with empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients receiving recommended therapy for heart failure, those in the empagliflozin group had a lower risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure than those in the placebo group, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Reduced ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057977.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico
20.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2431-2439, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608172

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is a genetic heart disease, with heart failure, arrhythmias, and embolic events as main clinical manifestations. The goal of this study was to analyse a large set of echocardiographic (echo) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) parameters using machine learning (ML) techniques to find imaging predictors of clinical outcomes in a long-term follow-up of LVNC patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with echo and/or CMRI criteria of LVNC, followed from January 2011 to December 2017 in the heart failure section of a tertiary referral cardiologic hospital, were enrolled in a retrospective study. Two-dimensional colour Doppler echocardiography and subsequent CMRI were carried out. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring was also performed in all patients. Death, cardiac transplantation, heart failure hospitalization, aborted sudden cardiac death, complex ventricular arrhythmias (sustained and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia), and embolisms (i.e. stroke, pulmonary thromboembolism and/or peripheral arterial embolism) were registered and were referred to as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in this study. Recruited for the study were 108 LVNC patients, aged 38.3 ± 15.5 years, 48.1% men, diagnosed by echo and CMRI criteria. They were followed for 5.8 ± 3.9 years, and MACEs were registered. CMRI and echo parameters were analysed via a supervised ML methodology. Forty-seven (43.5%) patients had at least one MACE. The best performance of imaging variables was achieved by combining four parameters: left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (by CMRI), right ventricular (RV) end-systolic volume (by CMRI), RV systolic dysfunction (by echo), and RV lower diameter (by CMRI) with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates of 75.5%, 77%, 75%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show the importance of biventricular assessment to detect the severity of this cardiomyopathy and to plan for early clinical intervention. In addition, this study shows that even patients with normal LV function and negative late gadolinium enhancement had MACE. ML is a promising tool for analysing a large set of parameters to stratify and predict prognosis in LVNC patients.

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